Free Essay

Zero Limits

In: English and Literature

Submitted By mereshaw
Words 825
Pages 4
“Fiction presents more opportunities for creating uncanny sensations than are possible in real life” (Freud, 18). This quote comes from an essay written by Sigmund Freud in 1919 entitled “The ‘Uncanny.’” In this article, Freud discusses the subject of uncanniness and proposes what he thinks deems certain events or things to be labeled as uncanny. Freud states, “the ‘uncanny’ is that class of the terrifying which leads back to something long known to us, once very familiar” (1-2). Freud theorizes that one would find something uncanny if he had previous exposure to it, but was now viewing it in a horrifying manner. For example, a doll is not supposed to be terrifying. Dolls are loved by young children and seen as innocent or harmless. However, a fictional story about a doll that becomes possessed and kills people is frightening to people of all ages. This scenario would be considered uncanny because a doll, such a familiar thing, has deviated from the norm and turned horrific.
Freud’s essay continues to flourish around the idea that it is most frightening when something so familiar turns into something so terrible. This feeling of mixed emotions can be referred to as “cognitive dissonance.” In the Merriam-Webster’s dictionary, cognitive dissonance is defined as, “psychological conflict resulting from incongruous beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously.” While Freud himself never mentioned this psychological term himself in his article, it is very obvious that it has correlation and can be applied to the feeling of an uncanny situation.
With a solid understanding of the word “uncanny” in mind, the previously stated quote, “Fiction presents more opportunities for creating uncanny sensations than are possible in real life,” begins to make more sense (Freud, 18). Freud describes literature as “a much more fertile province than the uncanny in real life” (18). In non-fiction work, fear and uncanniness has limits that are set by the parameter of reality. In fiction however, the uncanny can go as far as it wants. In Freud’s opinion, he believes that the realm of imagination in fiction can be so deep that an author can create a more wild and uncanny idea than one that would actually exist in reality. In fictitious literature, there is nothing to stop the mind of the author; there are zero limits. He can create scenarios so uncanny that they cannot be real. In his article, Freud states that the author “can increase his effect and multiply it far beyond what could happen in reality, by bringing about events which never or very rarely happen in fact” (18).
Freud’s stance on this issue seems to make a lot of sense and there are several places in the article that support the argument. On pages 5-7 of his essay, Freud tells the story of the “Sand-Man,” a creepy character who throws sand into children’s eyes, causing them to fall out. Freud describes the sand in the following way, “the grains of sand that are to be thrown into the child’s eyes turn into red-hot grains of coal out of the flames; and in both cases they are meant to make his eyes jump out” (6). In reality, sand is not something that is typically feared. Sand normally has pleasant connotations because it is found on a relaxing paradise such as a beach. However, in this story, all the readers fear sand. This adds an uncanny element to the story because something so familiar as sand is used by the author to instill fear into the reader.
In the same “Sand-Man” story, a doll named Olympia also had her eyes fall out due to the Sand-Man. As previously mentioned, dolls should not be scary, but with a frightening element added to the story, the doll is exactly that. Freud says, “We must admit in regard to the doll Olympia, is quite irrelevant in connection with this other, more striking instance of un- canniness.” Though sand and a doll should not be scary, they inflict fear in this story because of the familiarity. Nothing is scarier than something so normal turning into a horror. Freud’s essay makes several good points when referring to the concept of the uncanny. He proposes that uncanny situations are so terrifying because they include familiar aspects. He believes that it is scariest when something we know so well inflicts fear. In his article, Freud also points out that fictitious literature takes uncanniness to a whole new level. In reality, there is a limit to what can happen. Boundaries are set by the truth. In fiction however, Freud points out that the imagination can go as far as it wants. It can create scenarios that are not realistic, but extremely scary. Fiction gives the chance to create sensations that are so uncanny they cannot be real. “The Uncanny” by Freud perfectly describes the word “uncanny” and reveals how fiction can create more opportunities for uncanny scenarios.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Zero Tolerance

...Zero Tolerance This essay will discuss the contemporary educational issue of Zero Tolerance Policies and how personal beliefs and values may conflict with legal and societal expectations. The first item for discussion will be the “Tweety Bird Key-chain-case.” Next, this paper will look at the action legislators that have taken in response to the threat of violence in educational institutions, which lead to the creation and implementation of Zero Tolerance policies. Lastly, the ambiguity and unfairness of these policies when administrators and districts enforce punishment will be examined. One example of how zero tolerance policies have caused nightmares for schools, parents, and students is the Tweety Bird Key-chain-case. The case involved a Cobb County, Georgia sixth-grader who was suspended for 10 days when school officials ruled that a chain on her Tweety Bird wallet violated the weapons policy. A group of lawmakers filed a bill reminding local boards they can take into account whether students intended to harm someone when deciding how to discipline them for bringing “weapons to school” (Salzer, J. 2002). In this case, there seems to have been an over reaction to what had taken place by the school officials. They failed the student by not using a combination of ethical moral judgment along with good old common sense. This sixth-grader had no intention of using the chain on her wallet to hurt another student, but school officials did not take that into account. ...

Words: 1453 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Zero Tolerance

...Running head: ZERO TOLERANCE Zero Tolerance Tara Harrigan, Udawna Neal, Shamada Platt, Shareese Williams Grand Canyon University Legal Issues in Education EDA 555 Dr. Denise Geier February 06, 2013 Zero Tolerance Zero tolerance began as a government plan to keep our schools safe and is now believed to be a major contributing factor to the downfall of the public education system. This policy stems from the Gun-free School Act (GFSA) of 1994. The act mandated that any student found to have brought a firearm to school would be automatically expelled from school for at least a year. The act was later initiated to encompass nonviolent offenses such as possession of drugs, persistent profanity, rebelliousness toward authority, vandalizing school property, and activities associated with gangs on school property. (Fries & DeMitchell, 2007) However, what was meant to be accomplished by this act, and what actually happened were very contrasting events. The GFSA was the first law which took control of disciplining students out of the hands of administrators and left it up to the written “rule” provided by state legislation (Martinez, 2009). The discretion of the discipline process was placed at the hands of the classroom teachers and administrators interpretation of that rule. The most notable complaint is the complete ridiculousness of some of the harsh responses to petty offenses that fall under the guidelines of what defines a punishable offense or weapon possession...

Words: 1588 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Limits

...Find the limit 2) Lim┬(x→2)⁡〖(x^3-8)/(x^2-4)〗 First you use synthetic division to find the two factors of the equation. You will divide by the number 2 because that’s the number x approaches. You have to get the coefficients of each term including x^2 and x even though they aren’t part of the equation. Once you write it out it should look like 2 1 0 0 -8. You bring down the first term and multiply it by 2, the result you will then add to 0. After that you multiply the result of 0+2 to the 2 you rare dividing by. The result you add it to the other 0. The result of 0+4 you once again multiply by the 2 you are dividing by and you end up with 8. The last terms cancel because you add a negative and positive 8. By the end you are left with 1 2 4 0. That is one of the factors but you have to start the factor with one degree less than the original equation. It will be (x^2+2x+4). The other factor will be like your limit except the number will be the opposite (x-2). Once you factor out the denominator from the original equation, you get (x+2) and (x-2) because x^2-4 is a difference of squares. Both (x-2) from the numerator and denominator cancel each other out. After you just plug in the 2 for your x’s and at the end you simplify and get an answer of 3....

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Paparazzi Limits

... (Edwin, 1999) According to the article “ Who shares the Blame?” on TIME magazine in the issue September 15th, the paparazzi followed Princess Diana and her rich boy friend, Dodi al Fayed, after they left a restaurant where they had a dinner together. A group of paparazzi chased up Diana’s car, Mercedes Benz, into the darkness of night, so the driver, Paul, lost control the car and crashed into the side of the tunnel. The car hit the other side of the tunnel and the wall. There are four persons in the car; three of them, Diana, Dodi and Paul died in the crash. The fourth person is a bodyguard who was still alive. Lacayo writes, “The speedometer was frozen on impact at 120 mph.” Dodi’s family denied that statement and they said it was on zero. The French police refuse to confirm officially either claim…and police speculate that the Mercedes arrived at the tunnel entrance…. at about 80 to 100 m.p.h.(Richard, 1997 )The CBS News reported paparazzi were at the scene of the accident ,but they did not help her and the others in the car. They snatched for taking a photo of the dying princess instead. It is believed the driver was speeding to avoid the paparazzi, who were chasing them on motorcycle. If the paparazzi had not chased Diana that night for special one shot, she would be alive today. This is the reason the paparazzi are being blamed for the death of Diana. Another speculation is that when the paparazzi flashed their cameras in the dark night, it may have blinded the......

Words: 2705 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Speed Limit

...Do you think the current highway speed limit in Canada is appropriate? How would decide whether or not it should be increased or decreased? Considering Canada has nearly 900,000 kilometers of road, I am a little surprised the topic of speed limit optimization hasn’t been more of a hot topic for government agencies. Canada has a maximum speed limit of 100km/hour on multi-lane highways. For two lane highways, the speed limit remains the same at 100km/hour. In urban areas the speed limit drops to 60km/hour on major roads, and down a further 10 km/hour for a speed limit of 50km/hour in residential areas. As is typical in any country around the world, the speed limit in school and playground areas is reduced further (AngloInfoCanada.Com). If the speed limit were raised, the marginal benefits would be: 1. Reduced travel times 2. Congestion relief 3. Higher productivity of transportation of goods The marginal costs associated with a speed limit increase would be: 1. The cost of more patrol vehicles and police presence 2. Lost revenue from assigned speeding tickets 3. The cost of increased fuel consumption When looking at the marginal benefits, there can be assumptions made on increased productivity, reduced travel times and congestion relief, however there are no real numbers or evidence to support these statements as they are natural assumptions. The current infrastructure in Canada accommodates the number of vehicles on the road, yet there is frustration with congestion...

Words: 781 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Size Zero Fad

...What's the common and sexy link between Posh Spice and Kareena Kapoor? Their size zero figures! It's been the talk of the international fashion scene lately and especially back home after Kareena dropped oodles of weight for her new look in the much maligned film Tashan. However, as BT discovered, there exists no such thing as a size zero, really. So what are Posh and Bebo talking about? Designer Manish Malhotra said size zero is so not in, not even in Bollywood, that factory of dreams. "You've got to have a bustline and a good butt to complement your waistline. But in getting a slim waist, most women's bodies go flat, and that's a turn off for most men," said Manish "I have never designed any clothes for size zero. Abroad, many women flaunt a slim waist and get a boob and butt job done to get that accentuated look. But in India, a woman tries to get that look naturally and ends up going all flat. Size zero's so not done, girls. Get back to your curves." Designer Nikasha Tawade, on the other hand, said size zero does exist, but it's American sizing. "To me, this size means the girl has either disappeared into thin air or is just pre-pubescent. And am glad, I've never had the privilege to meet anyone of that size." Meanwhile, are Posh and Bebo really looked upon for their waif-thin looks? Posh is nicknamed 'Skeletal Spice' abroad because of her twig-like frame. In fact, she has turned down women like herself from modelling her denim range. Her belief is that......

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Limits to Arbitrage

...Limits to Arbitrage: Saint Leo University- Chesapeake, Virginia Corporate Finance: MBA 570 Professor Smith April 23, 2014 Abstract Arbitrage is the idea of buying asset which involves no negative cash flow and making a profit with little or no risk. Understanding arbitrage opportunities is not the only ingredient needed to make sharp predictions. The level of irrationality need to be specified by behavior finance researchers. This is related to how they deviate from the Subjective Expected Utility theory. In order to specify the type of irrationality, researchers have turned to experimental evidence complied by cognitive psychologists on the biases that arise when people form beliefs, and on the people’s preferences, given their beliefs or on how they make decisions, Thaler and Barberis (2002). In this paper, we will concentrate on the extensive literature on the Limits to Arbitrage and explain how the theory was conceived, how it evolved over time and apply a scenario to better explain the research. Limits to Arbitrage Understanding arbitrage opportunities is not the only ingredient needed to make sharp predictions. The level of irrationality need to be specified by behavior finance researchers.This is related to how they deviate from the Subjective Expected Utility theory. In order to specify the type of irrationality, researchers have turned to experimental evidence complied by cognitive psychologists on the biases that arise when people form beliefs, and...

Words: 1573 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Zero Beta

...Why would I hold a zero beta stock in my portfolio? Some Background In class we wondered why you would hold a zero beta stock, that is a stock that has the same expected return as the risk free rate yet has its return is uncertain, but the risk free return is certain. The only way you would in fact hold such a stock is if it gave you something the risk free return did not give you. I said this was because this stock provided diversification, and this example illustrates this point. Before I work the example, there is something you should think about. If the CAPM is true, the only stocks that are held are those in the market portfolio, so by holding a zero beta stock I am also saying it is part of the market portfolio. The Example Assume the CAPM holds with a riskless asset and the market porfolio contains a zero beta stock. Since everybody holds the market, this means that everybody willing chooses to hold a zero beta stock. What I want to know is why people just don’t drop this stock out of their portfolios and replace it with the risk free security. What would happen to the expected return of my portfolio if I took the 5% of my wealth out of the zero beta stock and put it in the risk free asset instead? Nothing, since the from the CAPM equation we know that the expected return of the zero beta stock must be the same as the expected return of the riskless asset. What would happen to the standard deviation of my portfolio if I replace the zero beta asset with the...

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Zero

...Rachel Ruggeri ENG 474 Dr. Ernest Smith 9/7/14 The Zero “It’s a satirical novel whose rules are its own.” (HarperCollins(2007, July 17).Q&A With THE ZERO’s Jess Walter, http://www.booktheives.blogspot.com) As a satire based on the tragic events of September 11, 2001, The Zero “broke” many literary rules, but Jess Walter decided he would present that time in our history as he saw fit. I gained quite a bit of insight into Jess Walter’s inspiration for The Zero through the interviews. The unusual protagonist we see as our “hero” in the book is based largely on Walter’s viewpoints to the way we, as a culture, reacted to the attacks. Using a key theme in postmodern works, fragmentation. Walter states that “Transitions suck. Transitions are almost always forced or if they’re not, then they take you-they transition-to a place you don’t want to go.” “Fragmentation kept it so fresh for me, because I was never sure how much I was going to reveal (Ehrnwald,Ligan,Lynaugh,Vesta(2010, February 20 & March 16). A Conversation with Jess Walter, http://willowsprings.ewu.edu/interviews/walter.pdf) Walter creates time gaps in Remy’s memory. Remy, alongside the reader, is bounced from situation to situation, never quite sure of what he had done to lead him there. All of his negative memories have seemed to vanish, including the majority of that tragic day. In the HarperCollins article (http://www.booktheives.blogspot.com), Walter discusses how these gaps in memory relate to......

Words: 1018 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sky the Limit

... | |1. Changes in business environment |3. Organisational responses |4. Management accounting responses | |a).Increased global competitiveness |Flatter Organisation Structure (The flow of |Activity Based Costing (ABC) (Sky’s the Limit | |(Cameron Balloon has been high quality supplier|ideas up and down the Sky’s the Limited will be|can use ABC to measure both the cost of | |in New Zealand market) |quicker and assist management to respond |balloons and it’s performance) | | |quickly to market opportunities) | | |b).Deregulation of the service sector – banks, |Employee Empowerment & Attractive incentive |Measures of Shareholder Value (ABC provides | |communications, utilities. |scheme (Employee at Sky’s the Limit will |more accurate estimates of product costs and | | |experience greater motivation through increased|therefore Sky’s the Limit will make improved | | |authority and responsibility. Thus this will |decision, more effective planning, greater | | |result in improved performance and meeting |efficiency of operations at lower cost, better......

Words: 3835 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Zero Tolerance

...Zero Tolerance By Purple Team Grand Canyon University: EDA 555 Instructor: Norman Hale February 25, 2015 Zero tolerance policies began in 1994 following the passage of the Gun-Free Schools Act (GFSA). It was generated in response to numerous school shootings that had taken place across the United States (US). The Gun-Free Schools Act entail policy that forces schools to expel students who possess or carry a gun(s) while they are on school campuses and/or property. Zero tolerance policies are in schools all across the United States and are coined “Zero-Tolerance Schools”. Zero-tolerance policies are found in schools ranging from elementary through universities/colleges. The court rulings, laws and policies of zero-tolerance are designed to create a safe learning environment by keeping drugs and weapons off of school property. Punishment relinquished in zero tolerance schools range from detention to expulsion from the school. Some individuals believe that zero tolerance policies go too far, as the punishment is swift and unyielding for various types of inappropriate behaviors enacted by students (Lawyer.com, 2015). This paper examines the effects of zero tolerance policies as it relate to David Silverstein, 13, was inspired to build a model rocket after seeing the movie October Sky, a biography of NASA rocket scientist, Homer Hickam. The boy took his rocket, made out of a potato chip canister and fueled with......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Zero

...To many people zero is just a number with no value, a common placeholder for other values, and something we know as nothing. Just how true can this be - could zero actually mean something in our number system? When children are taught to count, they are taught to start from one to infinity which is thus ironic seeing that the number zero belongs to the set whole numbers which is also known as counting numbers. They are taught that yes, it is a number but unlike other numbers it has no value. I was taught this too. A moment in the article which left me in awe was reading that the symbol for zero was not completely accepted until the 1800’s- in the development of our number system this was a significant achievement. Zero was and always will just be there but this makes one realise just how important this ‘dot’ number really was. I now know how difficult understanding the concept of 0 is. A child is more likely to understand when you say they have nothing than to tell them they have zero. Rules that are supplied to children without any practical activities lead to confusion and affect ones thinking of zero. I therefore agree fully when in the article it is stated that “Children should tackle the complexities of zero gradually” and I as a teacher will have to teach this with patience. In the article is it evident that children many a times misunderstand the role of zero as an identity element. When the question of whether there was a number that you could add to or......

Words: 493 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Air Asia: the Sky's Is the Limit

...AirAsia : Indeed the Sky's the Limit! ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT CASES, 7(1), 2010: 7–31 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LOS ANGELES/LONDON/NEW DELHI/SINGAPORE/WASHINGTON DC DOI: 10.1177/097282011000700103 Lead Article AIRASIA: INDEED THE SKY’S THE LIMIT! Rizal Ahmad This article details the development of AirAsia Malaysia from 2005 to 2008 and builds on a prior case, ‘AirAsia: The Sky’s the Limit’. Within only four years, AirAsia managed to expand its operations into another ten countries. In addition, through its associate company AsiaX, it launched long-haul low-cost air services from Malaysia to Australia and the United Kingdom. The article documents AirAsia’s marketing strategy and discusses its approach towards ‘market development’ and ‘product development’. The Blue Ocean Strategy concept is used as a tool to examine AirAsia’s strategic moves. Keywords: Low-cost airlines, budget airlines, marketing strategy, Asian entrepreneurship In the case study ‘AirAsia: The Sky’s the Limit’, the authors Ahmad and Neal (2006) discussed AirAsia’s comeback from a debt-laden scheduled airline (US$ 10.5 million in December 2001. The airline was bought by Tune Air for a token sum of one ringgit1 or 0.26 US cents) to a profitable low-cost or budget airline that managed to attract US$ 200 million in additional capital through its initial public offering in October 2004. AirAsia Berhad or Malaysia AirAsia (hereafter referred to as AirAsia) was credited for its efforts in enabling......

Words: 11122 - Pages: 45

Free Essay

Patterns Ground Zero

...Tala Hughes Mrs. Martin DC English Comp. 111 20 November 2015 “Ground Zero” Paragraph Summaries 1. Berne is visiting Manhattan’s financial district for the first time to give respect to the tragedy that took place there at the World Trade Center. 2. There were people from all over the world and of all ages there to visit the site. 3. Although it may seem like you are looking at nothing, you are really looking at the absence of what used to be. 4. To a tourist, the site simply looks like a construction site. 5. Looking at the site even gives off the vibe that construction gives, of hope and curiosity. 6. Then your eyes adjust to the most striking part about the scene: the light. 7. Berne compares ground zero to a bowl of light, empty yet vast. What is missing becomes clearer as a watery glow from the light reflecting off the Hudson River covers everything. 8. Suddenly, she starts to see the tragedy, including the firefighters and the boarded windows. 9. Suddenly, the cemetery is visible, along with all of the personal belongings and headstones. 10. It takes time to see the tragedy and make sense of it all. 11. An old man near her is trying to explain to her son how he saw the site before the towers were even built. 12. It is clear many people are dissatisfied with being able to express only vague expressions. 13. Most of the people were picturing what they saw in the media, with the towers with black smoke around......

Words: 3018 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Zero Hour Contract

...evaluate the benefits of zero-hours contracts to both employers and employees Tutor Name: Dan Spencer Student ID Number: 2229804 Date of Submission: Monday, October 19, 2015 Heather Stewart, an Observer's economics editor in the guardian stated,“Now we have at least 697,000 workers in the economy who don’t know how many hours they’re going to be working.” reference Zero hour contracts are flexible agreements between the employers and employees that do not include the employee’s number of working hours (OGL, 2015). This is considered a way to make fast and easy money. The employee only comes to work when called by the employer (Downie, 2013). Some zero hour contracts include holiday pay; however, they do not include sick leaves (CIPD, 2013). In the United Kingdom, about 697,000 people work on zero-hour contracts, which is 2.3% of the UK’s employment rate (BBC News, 2015). Many people from different careers are on zero hour contracts including low-paid jobs such as McDonalds’ employees as well as high-paid careers (Blanchard, 2015). Considering the advantages and disadvantages of zero hour contract on both the employer and employees, this essay argues that zero hour contracts should be banned. Some experts argue that zero hour contracts are advantageous to the employees. First of all, these contracts’ flexible hours provide employees the choice as to when to work. Another major benefit that employees gain from zero-hour......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6