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Windows C# Game of Life

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VIŠJA STROKOVNA ŠOLA B2

SIMULACIJA ŽIVLJENJA,
CONWAY’S GAME OF LIFE

SEMINARSKA NALOGA PRI PREDETU
PROGRAMIRANJE 1

Mitja Gracar
Mentor: Aleksandar Lazarević

Kazalo vsebine UVOD 2 CILJI IN PRIČAKOVANJA 2 POTEK PROGRAMA 3 PREGLED PROGRAMSKE KODE 4 PRI ZAGOU WIN FORM 4 ZAGON IN USTAVITEV ANIMACIJE 6 ALGORITEM SIMULACIJE 7 RESETIRANJE SIMULACIJE 8 KONTROLA HITROSTI ANIMACIJE 9 IZVOZ IN UVOZ ZAČETNEGA STANJA POLJA 9 DODAJANJE IN BRISANJE KVADRATOV Z MIŠKO 10 ZAKLJUČEK 11 VIRI 12

UVOD

Za seminarsko nalogo pri predmetu Programiranje 1 sem se odločil v programskem jeziku Visual C# na operacijskem sistemu Windows izdelati grafični program simulacije življenja, ki upošteva pravila Conway’s game of life. Conway’s game of life je Conway-ov poizkus drastične simplifikacije Jhon von Neummanovega hipotetičnega matematičnega modela stroja ki bi lahko reproduciral samega sebe. Čeprav je Neumannu uspelo narediti matematični model, je bil ta zelo dolg z veliko pravili . Zaradi svoje preprostosti, Conway-ov model sicer uporablja le 4 pravila,je game of life veliko bolj poznana in popularna različica modela. Prav zato in zaradi količine podatkov na voljo sem se odločil, da bom raje poizkusil implementirati Conway’s game of life. Mislim da je to dober preizkus programiranja in reševanja problemov z vidika programerja. Za uresničitev naloge bom moral uporabljati več različnih podatkovnih tipov, jih spreminjati med sabo, uporabljati for in while zanke, implementirati if stavke in ker bom programiral na Windows-u bom moral poiskati in pravilno uporabiti številne funkcije, ki jih ponuja Windows okolje. Ne bom pa uporabljal razredov, ker mislim da so v tem programu nepotrebni.
CILJI IN PRIČAKOVANJA
Od programa pričakujem, da bo pravilno in z zadovoljivo hitrostjo simuliral Conway’s game of life ter potek simulacije s pomočjo grafike prikazal uporabniku. Uporabniku hočem omogočiti tudi, da ustavi in nadaljuje z simulacijo, spreminja hitrost simulacije, sam dodaja in briše polja s kvadratki. Želim pa tudi omogočiti uvoz in izvoz začetnega stanja simulacije.

POTEK PROGRAMA

PREGLED PROGRAMSKE KODE

PRI ZAGOU WIN FORM

Na začetku programske kode sem indetifikeral globalne spremenljivke. Spremenljivka int[,] polje predstavlja dvo dimenzionalno ploskev na kateri živijo kvadrati v simulaciji.

Ker sem izbral, da bo moj progam deloval na operacijskem sistemu Windows, je program, ki sem ga kodiral sam, le manjši del veliko večjega programa, ki je potreben za to, da moja koda deluje na sistemu Windows. Microsoft v ta namen ponuja svoje razvijalno okolje Visual Studio, ki samo poskrbi za vso potrebno inicialicijsko kodo, programerju pa ponudi funkcijo public Form1_Load(), ki se kliče ob zagonu Windowsovega okna. V to funkcijo napišemo kodo, ki bi jo radi sprožili ob čistem začetku programa.
Jaz sem to funkcijo izkoristil, da sem dvo dimenzionalno polje bool[,] polje napolni z vrednostmi false, ki naj bi predstavljalo ploskev brez življenja. Življenje (kvadratke) kasneje doda uporabnik sam.
Ker je polje dvo dimenzionalno sem za njegovo popolno napolnitev moral uporabiti dve for zanki.

Za prostor na katerem bo prikazana animacija simulacije življenja sem rezerviral velik kvadrat, ki zavzame večino prostora na oknu (700 x 700 px). V ta prostor bom grafiko risal sam, v programski kodi.
Na okno sem dodal 6 gumbov za uporabnikovo kontrolo poteka programa, funkcije gumbov bom opisal kasneje.
Ob zagonu (ali povečavi, premaknitvi, kliku miške..) okna Windows kliče tudi funkcijo onPaint(), ki je virtualne narave, zato sem jo lahko override-al in tako prvič na okno narisal virtualni svet kvadratov. Odločil sem se da bojo kvadrati črne barve zato sem naredil nov objekt razreda SoildBrush(ki je del okolja System.Drawing) in mu določil vrednost Color.Black. Za dejansko risanje na okno sem uporabil funkcijo razreda System.Drawing.Graphic FillRectangle(Soild Brush, Rectangle), ki kot parameter vzame objekt SoildBrush) in objekt Rectangle, kateremu je treba podati pozicijo zgornjega levega kota štirikotnika in velikost obeh stranic. Funkcijo FillRectangle sem klical za vsak element v polju polje mu podal myBrush in naredil nov objekt Rectangle. Parametri konstruktorja Rectangle bi lahko bili bolj preprosti Rectangle(I*7,j*7,7,7). Vendar sem spremenljivko polje namenoma naredil 10elementov(ali 70px) večje(v obe smeri) kot je dejanski prostor v katerega bom risal(700x700 px) pri velikosti 7x7 px za en kvadrat. To sem naredil zato, da robovi prostora v katerega rišem niso enaki robovom polja, saj pravila Conway’s game of life predpostavijo neskončni prostor, ki pa je v računalniku nemogoč in zato pri robovih pride do nepravilnosti izvajanja simulacije. S tem ko sem celotno polje zamaknil za 5 elementov(35px) levo in gor, so te nepravilnosti skrite pred uporabnikom (rešitev ni popolna vsaj se lahko zgodi, da se nekateri kvadrati, ki bi morali nadaljevati naprej, vrnejo nazaj v okno, kar pa se zgodi zelo redko).

ZAGON IN USTAVITEV ANIMACIJE
Prvi gumb na grafičnem oknu uporabniku omogoča zagon ali ustavitev animacije simulacije življenja.
Prva stvar ki jo preverim po pritisku gumba je; ali je trenutno stanje polja začetno stanje polja. To naredim ker želim v polje shraniPolje shraniti le začetno stanje polja, ki ga je narisal uporabnik in ga, če mu je bila simulacija všeč, kasneje lahko shrani v datoteko. Pri kodiranju tega dela kode sem sprva naredil napako(shrani Polje = polje;) pri tem nisem upošteval da so polja referenčnega tipa zato se je program obnašal kakor da nebi naredil if stavka. Preverim tudi ali animacija trenutno poteka, in če potem jo ustavim, ali obratno. To sem naredil zato da lahko animacijo začnem in ustavim z istim gumbom.
Z naslednjo kodo pa poženem simulacijo. Sprva moram narediti nov Thread, saj bi drugače konstantna while zanka na istem Treadu zamrznila aplikacijo. To naredim z klicem Task.Run(() => , vse znotraj tega klica poteka na novem Threadu. Potem še enkrat ustvarim objekte SolidBrush in Graphics. Ker ta dva objekta v isti obliki v programu uporabim večkrat bi bilo bolje da bi jih naredil kot globalni spremenljivki. Potem pa znotraj while zanke, ki je pod pogojem running(ki ga uporabnik spreminja z klikom na gumb) sprva kličem lastno funkcijo updatePolje(), ki naredi naslednji korak v simulaciji(funkcijo razložim pod naslednjim naslovom). Nato pa na popolnoma enak način kot v funkciji onPaint() na okno narišem trenutno stanje polja. Tudi tukaj bi lahko programsko kodo naredil bolj modularno, tako da bi naredil funkcijo ki na ekran nariše trenutno stanje polja. Vendar se v času programiranja nisem zavedal da bom potreboval funkcijo onPaint() tako da posebne funkcije nisem potreboval. Znotraj while zanke pa tudi ustavim Thread za 50 milisekund, zato da animacija ne poteka prehitro. Tukaj bi bilo bolje da bi izmeril čaš poteka simulacije in dal v pogoj while zanke pretekli čas, vendar nisem našel ustrezne funkcije, ki bi mi podala pretekel čas v milisekundah in ker lahko uporabnik hitrost animacije kontrolira sam to ni bilo nujnega pomena.

ALGORITEM SIMULACIJE
Algoritem animacije služi kot posodobitev dvodimenzionalnega sveta kvadratov za en časovni korak, zato sem funkcijo poimenoval updatePolje() funkcijo bom zaradi svoje dolžine predstavil v dveh delih.
Prvi del funkcije za vsak kvadratek v polju preveri stanja vseh njegovih sosedov. Ker so kvadrati eni zraven drugega na dvodimenzionalni ploskvi, ima vsak kvadrat natanko 8 sosedov in vsak izmed njih ima lahko stanje true ali false, ki ponazarjata ali je kvadrat na tej poziciji živ ali mrtev. To preverim tako da grem z dvojno for zanko skozi vse elemente in za vsak element preverim 8 drugih elementov ki ležijo na pozicijah levo, desno(indeks j + ali -1), gor dol(indeks I + ali - 1)ali pa levo zgoraj, desno zgoraj, levo spodaj, desno spodaj(vse kombinacije indeksov i in j + ali - 1).(v pisanju seminarske naloge se zavedam da sem narobe poimenoval spremenljivke vendar to ne igra vloge pri poteku samega programa). V naslednjem delu kode pa dobljene vrednosti sosedov spremenim v Integer vrednosti 1 ali 0, to naredim zaradi pogojev opisanih v drugem delu funkcije. Ta del kode bi bil lahko opuščen če bi polje polje namesto bool[] naredil int[]. Tega nisem naredil, ker sem sprva mislil da operacije med podatkovnimi tipi bool računalnik izvaja hitreje kot operacije tipa Integer . Vendar po nadaljnjem branju v to nisem več prepričan in mislim da je razlika hitrosti odvisna predvsem od arhitekture procesorja.

Na začetku funkcije sem identifikiral tudi spremenljivki toChangeT (elemente polja ki jih je treba spremeniti v true) in toChangeF (elemente polja ki jih je treba spremeniti v false) tip List, ki deluje na podoben način kot polja, vendar mu ni treba določiti velikosti.
V drugem delu funkcije pa izpolnim pogoje oz. pravila ki jih določa Conway’s game of life. Pravila se glasijo: 1. Vsako živo polje ki ima manj kot 2 živa soseda umre zaradi premajhne populacije 2. Vsako živo polje ki ima natanko 2 ali 3 žive sosede preživi v naslednji časovni korak 3. Vsako živo polje ki ima več kot 3 žive sosede umre zaradi prevelike populacije 4. Vsako neživo polje ki ima 3 žive sosede oživi zaradi reprodukcije
Pravila igre sem v svoj program uvedel s pomočjo if stavkov.
Najprej sem v spremenljivko pogoj seštel število vseh sosedov in jo potem uporabil kot eden od pogojev if stavkov .
Vsak if stavek po vrsti ponazarja eno od pravil igre po vrsti. Znotraj if stavka pa glede na rezultat pogojev v toChangeF ali toChangeT dodam indeks trenutnega elementa polja. Skozi oba lista pa, zunaj glavne for zanke algoritma, z for zanko dobim indekse vseh elementov ki so se glede na prejšnje stanje polja spremenili in jih spremenim. To moram narediti zunaj glavne for zanke zato, ker bi drugače direktne spremembe kvadratkov imele takojšne posledice na naslednje kvadratke v polju. Kar pa ne deluje v skladu z pravilom simulacije, da so vsi kvadratki spremenjeni istočasno.

RESETIRANJE SIMULACIJE
Drugi gumb na oknu uporabniku omogoča resetiranje stanja simulacije na stanje brez življenja.
Najprej ustavim simulacijo s tem da spremenljivki running določim vrednost false; Spremenljivki reset pa true , da program ve da je trenutno stanje polja spet začetno stanje.
Tako kot v funkciji From1_Load() vsem elementom v polju dodelim vrednost false, ki ponazarja stanje brez življenja. Spremenim tudi tekst prvega gumba, da uporabnik ve da lahko simulacijo zažene na novo. this.Refresh() pa ponovno nariše okno(da nariše prazno stanje).
KONTROLA HITROSTI ANIMACIJE
Gumba + in – pa uporabniku omogočita da kontrolira hitrost animacije. To dosežem tako da preprosto dodam ali odvzamem 5 globalni spremenljivki hitrost , ki jo uporablja koda v funkciji za gumb1, ki se izvaja na svojem Threadu.

IZVOZ IN UVOZ ZAČETNEGA STANJA POLJA
Gumba za uvoz ali izvoz uporabniku omogočata, da shrani ali uvozi začetno stanje simulacije. Večina kode v teh dveh funkcijah je del kode Windowsa in je zato nebom natančneje opisoval. Pri obeh primerih odprem dialog da lahko uporabnih poišče ali nastavi mesto in ime datoteke. Seveda more biti datoteka pravilno napisana da jo program lahko pravilno uporabi.
V primeru uvoza z razredom StreamReader preberem vsako vrstico v izbrani text datoteki in njeno vrednost, true ali false, po vrsti shrani v vsak element polja.

V primeru izvoza pa v podano datoteko v vsako vrstico izpišem vrednosti vseh elementov v polju.

DODAJANJE IN BRISANJE KVADRATOV Z MIŠKO
Program uporabniku z klikom miške omogoča risanje in brisanje kvadratkov v polje. Omogoča pa tudi držanje miškinega gumba in risanje.
S pomočjo Windowsove funkcije OnMouseClik() zaznavam kdaj je uporabnik kliknil znotraj polja simulacije in glede na koordinate klika izračunam pozicijo elementa v polju polje. Indeks elementa dobim tako da pozicijo delim z velikostjo kvadratka in prištejem 5(zaradi zamika polja). Če je polje mrtvo(false) ga naredim true, ali obratno.
Podobno kot v prejšnji funkciji tudi tukaj zaznavam pozicijo in klik, vendar moram klik zaznati s posebnima funkcijama OnMouseDown() in OnMouseUp(). Na razliko od prejšnje funkcije ta funkcija ne more brisati kvadratkov.

ZAKLJUČEK

Z zaključenim izdelkom sem zadovoljen, mislim da sem dosegel vse cilje, ki sem si jih zastavil pred začetkom seminarske naloge. Med samim programiranjem in kasneje pisanjem seminarske naloge, pa sem opazil, da je programu mogoče dodati veliko izboljšav. Izboljšav nisem dodal pred pisanjem seminarske naloge, ker sem si zadal določen čas za izdelavo programa in v tem času izboljšav še nisem opazil. Izboljšave so predvsem modulacijske narave. Programu bi moral imeti posebno funkcijo za risanje kvadratkov na ekran, vsaj sem isto kodo moral pisati dvakrat. Prav tako sem dvakrat pisal enako kodo, ki polje polje spremeni v stanje brez življenja. Če bi program delal še enkrat bi polje polje raje naredil tipa int[,] in bi se tako rešil delčka kode, ki je sedaj potreben za pretvarjanje bool v int. Zavedam se tudi da način risanja grafike ni najbolj optimalen za igre, vendar so bili drugi boljši načini kot so openGl trenutno prezahtevni.

VIRI

Kot vire sem uporabljal Gradivo pri predmetu PRO1 višja strokovna šola B2.
Ter pa stackoverflow.com in msdn.microsoft.com vendar sem na teh dveh straneh pregledal veliko različnih primerov in si jih na žalost nisem zapisoval.…...

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