Free Essay

Why Statistics Needed in Education Especially in Research

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mustafakanwal
Words 984
Pages 4
Why statistics is needed in Education, especially in Research

An Assignment for M. Phil Education (Research) Supervisor: Dr. Khalid Saleem Sb.

Muhammad Yasin Khan

Why statistics is needed in Education, especially in Research

What is statistics?

Statistics is a range of procedures for gathering, organising, analysing and presenting quantitative data. ‘Data’ is the term for facts that have been obtained and subsequently recorded, and, for statisticians, ‘data’ usually refers to quantitative data that are numbers
In very broad terms, statistics can be divided into two branches – descriptive and inferential statistics.

1. Descriptive statistics

is concerned with quantitative data and the methods for describing them. (‘Data’ (facts) is the plural of ‘datum’ (a fact), and therefore always needs a plural verb.)This branch of statistics is the one that you will already be familiar with because descriptive statistics are used in everyday life in areas such as government, healthcare, business, and sport.

2. Inferential

(analytical) statistics makes inferences about populations (entire groups of people or firms) by analysing data gathered from samples (smaller subsets of the entire group), and deals with methods that enable a conclusion to be drawn from these data. (An inference is an assumption, supposition, deduction or possibility.) Inferential statistics starts with a hypothesis (a statement of, or a conjecture about, the relationship between two or more variables that you intend to study), and investigates whether the data are consistent with that hypothesis. Because statistical processing requires mathematics, it is an area that is often approached with discomfort and anxiety, if not actual fear. Which is why this book tells you which statistics to use, why those statistics, and when to use them, and ignores the explanations (which are often expressed mathematically) of the formulae in which they tend to be articulated, though it does give advice on what you should bear in mind when planning your data collection.
One of the major problems any researcher faces is reducing complex situations or things to manageable formats in order to describe, explain or model them. This is where statistics comes in. Using appropriate statistics, you will be able to make sense of the large amount of data you have collected so that you can tell your research story coherently and with justification. Put concisely, statistics fills the crucial gap between information and knowledge.

A very brief history of statistics

The word ‘statistics’ derives from the modern Latin term statisticum collegium (council of state) and the Italian word statista (statesman or politician). ‘Statistics’ was used in 1584 for a person skilled in state affairs, having political knowledge, power or influence by Sir William
Petty, a seventeenth-century polymath and statesman, used the phrase ′political arithmetic′ for ‘statistics’.

Need of Statistics in Education

The issue of the quality of education is increasingly becoming an area of interest and concern to many nations of the developing world. There is concern because generally quality of education seems to be either stagnating or deteriorating. There can be no argument over the fact that quality assessments have frequently been made on the basis of key indicators generated through the analysis of the statistics available.

What is Quality?

The definition of quality is difficult, because it is an all encompassing concept or attribute (Murimba, 2002). There has always existed a conceptual controversy over the definition of quality. Murimba goes on to say it is a characteristic that is easily recognized when present and indeed conspicuous when it is absent. Quality is a multifaceted concept. It encompasses how learning is organized and managed, what the content of learning is, what level of learning is achieved, what it leads to in terms of outcomes, and what goes on in the learning environment. The role of statistics in the development of quality in education

Inputs Process Outcomes

Household community
• Parental attitudes
• Household income
• Community economic and labour market conditions
• Cultural/religious factors

Student characteristics
• Aptitude and ability
• Perseverance/commitment
• Nutrition and health
• School readiness
• Readiness ECEC gender

• Curriculum content
• Textbook & learning materials
• Teacher qualification, training, morale and commitment
• Adequate facilities
• Parent community support

School Climate
• High expectations
• Strong leadership
• Positive teacher attitudes
• Safe and gender sensitive environment
• Incentives for good results

Teaching and Learning
• Sufficient time
• Active teaching methods
• Integrated systems for assessment and feedback
• Appropriate class size
• Appropriate use of language

Contextual factors
• Macro economic and fiscal factors, stability, decentralization and governance
• Civil service quality
• National goals and standards for education, curricular guidelines sources of funding and allocation, teacher recruitment and deployment
• Education systems and management
• Participation, progression completion and transition
• Engagement and use of time
• Peer effects, parental support, promotion policies


Cognitive development
• literacy, generic skills
• good citizenship
• personal development
• positive attitudes towards learning
• healthy behaviour

• Formal completion
• Diploma/qualifications

• Official learning objectives (desired outcomes)

Why you need to use statistics in your research

‘Statists’ were specialists in those aspects of running a state which were particularly related to numbers. This encompassed the tax liabilities of the citizens as well as the state’s potential for raising armies. The word ‘statistics’ is possibly the descendant of the word ‘statist’.

The importance of statistics

It is obvious that society can’t be run effectively on the basis of hunches or trial and error, and that in business and economics much depends on the correct analysis of numerical information. Decisions based on data will provide better results than those based on intuition or gut feelings.
What applies to this wider world applies to undertaking research into the wider world. And learning to use statistics in your studies will have a wider benefit than helping you towards a qualification. Once you have mastered the language and some of the techniques in order to make sense of your investigation, you will have supplied yourself with a knowledge and understanding that will enable you to cope with the information you will encounter in your everyday life. Statistical thinking permeates all social interaction.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Research Statistics and Psychology

...Research, Statistics, and Psychology To understand thoroughly something a person must understand its background and conduct research. According to Bing Dictionary (2012), research is an organized way to study something; that can include an investigation to uncover facts, to create a theory or correct a previous one, or to make a plan based upon the discovered facts. A person cannot conduct or make connections in research without the use of statistics. Statistics can be just about any compilation of information on any subject in use with performance, time management, effectiveness, budgeting, and many more. Both research and statistics are important components in psychology. This paper will discuss the role of research and statistics within psychology. Examining what research and the scientific method are, comparing and contrasting the characteristics of primary and secondary data, and explaining the role of statistics within research. Role of Research and Statistics Research is a vital component in just about any field for advancement of a product or idea, especially in psychology. As stated above research is an organized way to study something. Because psychology is a field that tries to understand human thinking and behavior it is necessary that research be a vital component. Research is important to psychology because it provides pertinent information about the way a person may think or behave and forming an idea or opinion as a response from the conducted research.......

Words: 1053 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Why Incresed Investments in Education

...Why College Education Should Be Accessible and Affordable Kyei Baffour Comm 215: Essentials of College Writing April 23, 2012 Sharon Grunst There was a time when parents who could not afford to pay for college for their children just worked their way through it by paying in bits and pieces from their monthly paychecks, relied on gifts from other family members or simply took another job to make those dreams a reality. The current recessionary economic situation the country finds itself in has put added strain on college financing options for most people and the sooner steps are taken to fix these problems the better. I come to this conclusion because of my personal situation concerning this topic. My family currently has three college students; I, my wife and our son, and we are all relying on loans and some grants to fund our education. I think the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, which includes heavy investments in education, passed by Congress and signed into law by the President is a very good step in the right direction. This Act provides over $30 billion in funds to help improve access to college and help lay the foundation for positive long-term achievements of the country’s educational goals. Now is the time for increased investments in education because the economy, reeling from the current recession, benefits as a whole. The availability of adequate and inexpensive funding......

Words: 1874 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Research and Statistics

...Research, Statistics, and Psychology Mickey Leitch PSY/315 November 11, 2012 Heather Joppich Research, Statistics, and Psychology When we are trying to figure out how many people are suffering from a different type of disorder then research and statistics can be very helpful. In the field of Psychology it is important to do your research and record your statistics. We can do this in the way of scientific method. Scientific method is a systematic, step by step procedure psychologists use when conducting research (Haig, 2011). That sounds much like research. Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Looking at these two you can see how they are different but you have to have both in order to complete the research that you need to make your decision. In the rest of this paper you are also going to learn about primary and secondary research and then the discussion of the role of statistics in research. After this the understanding of how important research in psychology really is. When trying to figure out what type of research to use to get the best results you have to look at the primary and secondary research of psychology. When collecting data you have primary and secondary data. Primary is directly from the source, such as a person who witnessed the event or say a person did huge humanitarian efforts, you could ask them for facts. Secondary is anything that is a second......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Research and Upload Content Needed

... Vol. 42, No. 1, 25-40. THE PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF PAY DISPERSION ON INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS MATT BLOOM University of Notre Dame Pay distribution research is relatively scarce in the compensation literature, yet pay distributions are viewed as critically important by organizational decision makers. This study is a direct test of the relationship between one form of pay distribution—pay dispersion—and performance conducted in a field setting where individual and organizational performance could be reliably observed and measured. Findings suggest more compressed pay dispersions are positively related to multiple measures of individual and organizational performance. Among those who design and administer compensation systems, pay distributions have been an important issue for a long time, yet they have been studied relatively infrequently in the compensation research literature (Gomez-Mejia & Balkin, 1992; Meyer, 1975; O'Reilly, Main, & Crystal, 1988). The term pay distributions refers to the "array of compensation levels paid for differences in work responsibilities, human capital, or individual performance within a single organization" (Milkovich & Newman, 1996: 45). Although there seems to he agreement that pay distributions influence individual and organizational performance, there is little agreement over how or why they matter (Gerhart & Milkovich, 1992). In fact, there has been disagreement in the theoretical literature about the proper distribution of pay for some...

Words: 10951 - Pages: 44

Free Essay

Research and Statistics

...Research, Statistics, and Psychology Paper PSY 315 Week 1 Your Name University Name Course Name Instructor Name Date Psychology uses statistics and research to validate or invalidate theories. Research is used to find answers to questions. The scientific method is important because it provides researchers with the steps they must take to find the answer they are looking for in a study. Statistics are used to prove or disprove theories or questions by using the collection of data and mathematics. Many types of research could be used to make the world a better or even healthier place and this is why statistics and research is important in all fields of study. Research is an important part in the field of psychology. It is used to establish facts rather than opinions. Research is defined as an organized and systematic way to find answers to questions (Henrichsen, Smith, & Baker, 1997). There are four main goals of research in psychology, these goals are describe, predict, explain, and apply. Researchers use the scientific method to meet these goals. The scientific method is described as a process involving fives steps to conduct research. The first step is to determine a problem or make an observation. The second step is the development of the hypothesis. Testing the hypothesis is the third step. Recording the observations is the fourth step. The final step is to draw a conclusion(s) (Cowens, 2006). The scientific method is used in all fields of research....

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Why It Is Needed to Train Interviewer

...patterns of questions should be learnt by training. A telecommunication company can go down through hiring of wrong persons. So hiring decision is one of the important decisions for a company. One or two bad hires can be the end of many companies. A large amount of money is spent during the recruitment process. If a company can not select a right person for the company then it will be the wastage of money. As training helps interviewer to select a right candidate for his company, it helps to save money of a company through right selection of an interviewee. Training provided for the interviewer in a telecommunication company not only improves hiring decision of the interviewer but also consumes sufficient time and resources. A long time is needed to select a person as an employee for the company. If the interview process is inefficient then wrong persons will be hired for the company that is wastage of time. So bad hiring may be a disaster for the company. So training is very much beneficial for the interviewer to select a right person from many interviewees. Training helps interviewer to select efficient, high performing, knowledgeable employee for the company. An efficient employee is an asset for the company. He/she can make more profit for the company through his dedication, hard working, efficiency and outstanding performance. So a company can get benefit by providing training for interviewers. ...

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Research Statistics

...Statistics is a mathematical concept, its job to organize, analyze, and interpret numbers. Who knew that this concept is a large chunk of a newfound science that is called psychology? Research, Statistics, and Psychology Statistics is a concept that is either loved or dreaded. It is also something that is used in psychology, advertising, and in everyday life. Statistics is used in our everyday thinking process. Observation, guess, observation again in detail, making changes to the situation or process to test that guess is something that every human uses when meeting new people, driving a car, deciding what to buy at the store, etc. Some believe that statistics is a method of finding truth. Psychologists use statistical methods to help find a pattern (if there is one to be found) in the information that they collect doing their research. There are two branches of statistical methods, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics are used to sum up and describe a collection of numbers from one’s research. Inferential statistics are used draw conclusions and make suggestions based numbers from a study. Research is the main ingredient in statistics. Research is occurs when a person goes above and beyond and investigates the material concerning the topic further than one has to. The scientific method is also another part of statistics. The scientific method by definition is “principles and procedures for the......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Why College Education Is Important to Me

...Writer: J.T. Assignment: "Why college education is important to me" October 2, 2013 In today’s society it is a prerequisite for survival to obtain a college degree. It’s a goal one must have in order to make a new beginning and to be able to combat life’s challenging issues, to hope and strive for a better future. The college opportunities compared to the past 20 years have increased tremendously since online distance learning has become an important gateway for education, especially for those who don’t have the time and convenience to attend a traditional college. According to Collegeboard, “The typical bachelor’s degree recipient can expect to earn about 73 percent more over a 40-year working life than the typical high school graduate earns over the same time period “. It’s almost impossible to get job in an economy that is in recession without a college education. I have attempted multiple times to apply for a new job without success. Employers are demanding more of job candidates than ever before. The college degree is becoming the new high school diploma, the new minimum requirement. In fact it shows that, “data from the government proves that higher education degree completion is important for job seekers; according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009 the unemployment rate was more than twice as high for persons without a high school diploma than for persons with an Associate’s degree. That gap widens to three times in comparison to persons who......

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Contributing Inquiry and Research in Education

...Contributing Inquiry and Research in Education Danielle A. Hayes Capella University Abstract [The abstract is a summary of every main point in your paper. For this assignment, include a brief description of background information, action research purpose, inquiry design, and reflection.] Table of Contents Introduction ## Background Information ## Purpose ## Inquiry Design ## Reflection ## Conclusion ## Contributing Inquiry and Research in Education Introduction The subject of my wondering would be literacy with an emphasis on reading comprehension. Reading comprehension is the overall goal when it comes to the multiple facets of reading. Students must be able to decode the words on the page as well as comprehend them. Reading comprehension becomes a huge issue for children who are labeled as “struggling readers.” The label of the struggling reader means the student may be having trouble decoding the semantics of any given sentence. The negative label of being a struggling reader highly affects a student’s attitude towards the subject of reading. Once a child has been labeled as such, it becomes difficult for the child to motivate himself or herself to read, especially if there is very little assistance given. The problem I have identified in my classroom/school is that the negative labels that are placed on struggling readers at the elementary school level are highly affecting a students’ attitude towards the subject of reading. Therefore...

Words: 1054 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Why College Education Is Important

...opening a law firm where I can help others especially victims of crimes, but to achieve these goals I must be educated. College education is important to me because it is the foundation of having a successful career in life; it gives a better understanding and knowledge of this world. College education not only helps me intellectually it also shapes me personally and socially. Furthering ones education prepares you for a better future, opening doors of opportunities for a better quality of life. Growing up as a child I was always reminded by my caregivers and teachers that education is the key to success. According to Malcolm X, a civil right activist “Without education you are not going anywhere in this world.” I used to think that doing well in school and getting good grades was for the benefits of my teachers and to escape the punishment that comes with failing grades. It was when I was getting prepared to leave the secure comforting gates of high school that I started to comprehend the importance of being educated and furthering my education; not for others but for myself, I can reminisce on my professors, school subjects, the late nights studying and the anxiety of upcoming exams and the stress which helped me to be a more responsible individual and a better scholar. During my high school years I often wondered why it would be important for me to further my education. Did I need to acquire a degree in order to be successful? Statistics proof that nowadays, young......

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research, Statistics, & Psychology Paper

...Research, Statistics, & Psychology Psy/315 January 9, 2012 Research, Statistics & Psychology The scientific, objective, and the methodic gathering of information for a theory is research. Statistics is collection of data, interpretation, the analysis, and presentation of the data. Statistical data is the important part to any good research. Psychology, statistics is the method of pursuing the truth (Aron, Aron, & Coup, 2009). The statistics methods is to make sense out of the large amount of data collected during research by psychologists. This paper will explore the role of research and statistics in psychology field. The paper will give the definition of the research and the scientific method, and the characteristics of the primary and secondary data that researcher use to help form an hypothesis. The paper will also explore the role of statistics in research. Research and Scientific Method Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines research has the, “studious inquiry or examination, especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or......

Words: 945 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Education Is Needed for Women

...Education is Needed for Women Education is one of the basic needs of human life. As a human being education is needed for women as well as men. Education is the only way for women to uphold their position in this male dominated society. Women’s education is needed in every society because without the contribution of women it is not possible for men and the whole society to cope up with dynamic world. Women have also the potential to do anything perfectly and it is seen that in some cases than women are more effective than men. At past, women were exploited by men. They couldn’t go outside also and kept inside the four walls. Because they were deprived from the light of education. Education was the only thing that made them aware of their rights. After getting proper education wpm en protest against all of exploitation, came outside and started contributing for the family, society. So it is seen that the freedom of women was only possible for education. Women should be educated because according to Nepolion, “give me an educated mother, I will give u an educated nation. That means, women do not need education only for their job, it also enriches individuality. An educated women bring up their child more effectively than an uneducated women. Because they have a knowledge of health, sanitation, birth control, education and many other things. An educated women can create awareness among the society about any danger and always chose the best things for her......

Words: 528 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research, Statistics, and Psychology

...Research, Statistics, and Psychology Psychology is the scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior (Kowalski & Westen, 2007, p. 3). During the late 19th century, psychology became an actual science because of the fascination of human behavior. Psychologists use observation to measure human behavior better to understand mental and biological processes, motives, and personality traits. Human behavior may be understood through applied and academic science (Psychology Majors, 2011). Based on this, research using the scientific method is necessary for statistical psychology. Early research and use of scientific method in psychology included the works of Edward Titchener. Titchener used structuralism to explore aspects of the mind. Research through this method focused on introspection, or individual conscious experience. Titchener used a table method similar to a chemistry periodic table to study human behavior. Titchener believed experimentation was the only scientific method to use for the study psychology (Northern Illinois University, 2003). A paradigm in psychology is a set of theoretical assertions that provide a model, abstract picture, or object of study (Kowalski & Westen, 2007, p. 11). A paradigm is a set of shared metaphors that compare any object of study through investigation. Many modern psychologists use innovative approaches to study human behavior to support traditional methods of psychology through use of research using the scientific......

Words: 977 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Statistic Research

...Research Questionnaire RES 341 Research and Evaluation I University of Phoenix Statistics Questionnaire Workplace flexibility covers a variety of approaches—the scheduling of hours worked, such as nontraditional start and end times and compressed workweeks; the amount of hours worked, such as job sharing, phased retirement and part-time work; and the place of work, such as a satellite location or home, according to the report. Please complete the following questionnaire to assist us in gaining a better understanding of you and your scheduling needs. Ordinal Questions 1. How much would an alternative schedule make you happier? a. Very Much b. Not too Much c. Only a little d. I like my schedule the way it is 2. How long have you been an employee of UOPX? e. <2 years f. 2-5 Years g. 6-10 years h. >10 years 3. When considering a job offer, please rank the importance of the following (Please fill in your rank order using numbers 1 through 5 with 1 being the most important): i. Positive working environment ___ j. Salary ___ k. Benefits ____ l. Vacation time ____ m. Challenging workload ___ Nominal Questions 4. What is your education level? 1 - High School or lower 2 - Some College 3 - College Graduate 4 - Some Graduate School 5 - Master's Degree 6 – Doctorate 5. How many Children of you have? 1. None 2. One 3. Two 4. Three 5....

Words: 457 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Is Financial Education Needed?

...Each and every one of us has to make financial decisions concerning recreation, health, education and more. The question is whether to start with financial education as part of school program or postpone it for a later stage in life. To being with, being able to understand the value of money, the way the economic system works and interpret financial news and its implications is a virtue. Without this virtue, an individual, and even a young one, might suffer, to some extent. For an example, a child who doesn’t understand the concept of money might find it more difficult to except choosing only one present out of more possible ones. In addition, many adults are lacking financial analysis capabilities. Quite often, the reason can be a shaky basis or insecurity when it comes to financial terms and concepts. Starting from an early age, building a strong background, can very likely prevent such a situation. However, financial education necessarily involves quantifying and setting prices and value for services and goods. It can be easily turn young people into cynical and cold-hearted human beings. Furthermore, a tendency to self-concentration and egoism might rise when one start measuring everything from a profit making perspective. In conclusion, financial education has both pros and cons. In my opinion, the advantages are stronger than the disadvantages, making financial education an advisable component of school program. The disadvantages should be thought of as a......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2