Free Essay

Whiteboys Essay

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Beauty136
Words 5363
Pages 22
The following case study by drawing upon primary and secondary material focuses on whether the eighteenth century Whiteboy protesters were an economic or political movement? To establish the category the Whiteboys come under we need to do is deifier what constitutes an economic and a political movement. An economic movement has the economy at its core; it deals with the system of production and management of material wealth and is concerned with the worldly necessities of life. A political movement is a group of people working together to attain a political goal, a movement that may be organised around a set of issues or a set of shared concerns of a social group. Moreover it can be identified with the aim in mind to convince citizens and/or government to take action on the issues and concerns around which the movement is associated. Alternatively a political movement can be associated with and/or relating to views about social relationships involving authority or power; in the sense that the poor had rights too. It is fair to say that there is evidence to support the argument that the Whiteboys were economic but there is indication to suggest the latter. The content will focus on both sides of the argument evaluating each and at the end consider which has most weight.
To set the scene it is important to note who exactly the Whiteboys were and to use their features, aims, methods and so on to determine what type of movement they were. Indeed the Whiteboys that emerged in Ireland during the eighteenth century were an agrarian organisation and Ireland witnessed two outbreaks of the Whiteboys during this time; the first 1761–63 and the second 1769-1776. The Whiteboys were first active in October 1761 in County Tipperary. The enclosure of the common land (commonage) and conacre were the primary grievances; this meant the decrease of available land for farming and increased enclosure of land for pasturage and pleasure parks built by the gentry. The regulation of tithe particularly of corn, the level of rent paid to landlords and evictions of tenants were most associated with the second outbreak of Whiteboys in 1769.
The Whiteboys were a secret, oath bound organization. These oaths were mutual bonds between the Whiteboys and helped to conceal their identities. Some of the oaths such as this one from Darby Browne and his associates at Ballyin, revealed just how committed the Whiteboys were to their cause; ‘To do all in our power to hinder anyone from taking the little concerns we held’ Moreover those involved in the movement were Irish peasants who were often portrayed as ‘jacks-of-all-trades’. It was cottiers and the smallest farmers, those at the bottom of the social hierarch who were the principal activists in the Whiteboy movement. James Donnelly argues that small Catholic farmers and laborers led the movement and there was no sign of gentry involvement, whereas other historians have claimed that ‘captains’ were of a higher social status than the base in which the movement drew its support; the peasant society. Donnelly later adopts this approach to the second outbreak and agrees that the leaders were of a higher social status. Moreover, the Whiteboys had ubiquitous forms of making their point, some of which are similar to an earlier movement, the Houghers. They used violence against people and property and are said to have “gone about the country in large bodies, throwing down fences, rooting up orchards, cutting down trees (that enclosed the common land), destroying bullocks and doing various injuries to property”. All of these methods used in order to pursue their aims and objectives.
It is important to mention that ‘Whiteboyism’ was the term later used to apply to all types of protest. In addition to the Whiteboys there was the emergence of the Rightboys, Steelboys and Ribbonmen to name a few and it is possible to draw similarities and differences between the movements. According to Michael Beames and George Cornewall Lewis Whiteboyism was both southern and agrarian. Indeed the introduction of the terminology Whiteboyism provides evidence of the step change in the amount of protest that took place during the century.
When arguing the case that the Whiteboys were an economic movement it is important to start with the context and what was happening in the back drop. First and foremost was the modernization of the rural economy. Rural uprisings have been explained to some extent as a consequence of the deprivation suffered by peasants in such economic circumstances and perhaps also as a result of their determination to restore an earlier economic system. Indeed as Donnelly argues modernization has steadily drawn peasants into a new economic system that poses threats to which they were not accustomed to in previous, traditional societies.
Modernization meant that peasants were subject to exploitation from landlords as well as price fluctuations that were more violent and less predictable than was traditionally the case. Moreover peasants lost their traditional rights to common land and lost security of tenure; a custom on which they depended. The fact that that commonage was a custom, the Whiteboys used this as a means of legitimizing their cause. Indeed it was during the downward spiral that followed the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars that landlords became more demanding of the loose practises commonly permitted on estates in the eighteenth century and during war time prosperity. Evidence that reveals how opposed the peasants were to modernization of the rural economy and their determination to defend their tradition is shown through resistance to the breakup of joint tenancies, to the conversion of tillage land to pasture and to the consolidation of holdings.
One of the major points to build the case that the Whiteboys were an economic movement as mentioned above, is their grievance over the regulation of tithes, wages and rents. The Whiteboys demand however was not for the abolition of rents or tithes but for these and other forms of exploitation to remain within customary levels. To explain the situation it has to be noted that the growing market demand for pastoral products led to an expansion of dairy farming and grazing which ultimately meant the enclosure of common land. As agriculture and farming became more and more profitable, the land value rose and therefore so too did the price of conacre. This brought about hardship and distress for the rural poor, as they depended on these small plots of land. Tithe; a tax that had to be paid by everyone, fluctuated during this period and was an economic grievance most associated with the second outbreak of Whiteboys. One English writer described the tithe mongers as “harpies who squeezed at the very vitals of the people and by process, citation and sequestration, dragged from them the little which the landlord had left them”.
When considering the wider historical debate concerning the Whiteboys, Dr Morley offers an interpretation that categorizes the Whiteboys as an economic movement. He offers evidence from contemporary Gaelic sources to suggest that the movement represented ‘a chronically alienated population goaded into action by economic distress.’ These disturbances were ‘the deeds of desperate men, who had been made desperate by cruel oppression’. Yet the first outbreak of Whiteboyism was brought about by prosperity. However not all benefited; the strong farmers and landlords primarily benefited and this further increased the chasm between rich and poor. The agricultural prosperity produced extensive economic changes in the South of Ireland that helped to trigger and sustain the outbreak of agrarian unrest. The depression of the early 1770s however is not a plausible explanation to attribute the revival of Whiteboyism; ‘It does not explain why Whiteboy activity was most intense in 1775, when oatmeal and potatoes were cheap and when the prices of nearly all agricultural commodities were good to excellent.’ The second outbreak beginning in the summer of 1769 was before the economic disruptions caused by harvest failure began to be felt.
It can be argued that there are signs of a moral economy evident and Beames believes this to be the case. E.P Thompson has maintained that it was ‘possible to detect in almost every eighteenth century crowd action some form of legitimizing notion, borne out of a desire to defined traditional rights or custom’. Thompson goes on to say that ‘upon a consistent traditional view of social norms, of the proper economic functions of several parties within the community, which taken together can be said to constitute the moral economy of the poor.’ It can be argued that the Whiteboys aim of preventing the enclosure of common land fits perfectly into Thompson’s concept of a moral economy. Moreover the Whiteboys took action over what was legitimate and based on the notion of what was fair, they did not set out to abolish tithe, all they wanted was a fair, just price. Yet not all historians agree with this interpretation, including Donnelly. Political sentiments that may have been under the surface raised questions as to whether or not they fit a moral economy.
To bring this side of the discussion to a close, it is evident that the Whiteboys had an economic context; modernization of the rural economy which was detrimental to those involved in the movement. Economic hardships and grievances brought about by the enclosure of common land and the rate of tithe to be paid alongside wages and rents, spurred the Irish peasant farmers to take action. Change was disrupting their traditional way of life and they wanted to see a return to what was custom; they wanted back what they saw as a necessity of life. This is what constitutes them as an economic movement. On the other hand the Whiteboys it has to be noted were not economic in the sense that they were profiteering, trying to exploit others or concerned with material wealth. The common land to grow crops and graze animals was in order to support their family and for their own survival, nothing else.
In considering the other side of the debate and that the eighteenth century Whiteboys were a political movement, it can be argued that the Whiteboys and indeed the later terminology Whiteboyism was closely linked to political disaffection. In other words the Whiteboys were more than just an agrarian protest group. Although they were hoping to see a return to the traditional, accustomed way of life and to prevent further exploitation of the peasants, the authorities saw this as a mask for popular unrest, turbulence and an attack upon the system. Whiteboyism was not an inevitable reaction to popular grievances, but a reaction molded by a particular culture, one with a strong tradition of lawlessness which was by no means the exclusive preserve of the poor as Clark and Donnelly argue.
The first outbreak of Whiteboys has been viewed as a popish plot to overturn the government which was then involved in a war with continental Catholic powers. The authorities prompted swift military and judicial in retaliation. The punishment of the Whiteboys for their crimes according to Arthur Young was with a ‘severity which seemed calculated for the meridian of Barbary, while others remain yet the law of the land…if executed tend more to raise than to quell an insurrection’. Authorities felt the threat was so powerful and the escalation in violence so serious as to implement new legislation to deal with the problem. However in 1962 ‘Whiteboyism became less formidable, its geographical range sharply contracted, its active adherents grew fewer and its operations were confined to parts of Tipperary and Kilkenny’. Ironically this return towards older patterns of rural protest did nothing to cure Protestant paranoia about a popish insurrection. The second outbreak of the Whiteboys it has been argued was more violent and militaristic in its methods and this would no doubt have evoked an even greater fear of potential threat. By this time it was all too apparent ‘that agrarian rebellion was firmly rooted in Irish soil that it needed no water from France to nourish its growth’.
Moreover during the 1750s and the period following, protestants continued to believe that an invasion by one of Britain’s continental enemies would have a popular support base. This is where Connolly’s idea of Irish Jacobinism, the persistence of Jacobite sentiment and the realism of Jacobite hopes comes into play. William Blacker subscribed to this widespread belief among Irish Protestants that the initial Whiteboy outbreak was purposely timed to coincide with the attempted French invasion of 1759. Striking evidence for this comes from the fact that the Whiteboy outbreaks began only after the defeat of the French fleet. Furthermore before the 1770s the foundation for solidarity among Catholics was presumed to be their allegiance to the alternative dynasty sponsored by France and their interest in recovering forfeited estates. Drs O Ciardha and Morley claim that ‘the majority of Irish Catholics denied the political legitimacy of the Hanoverian monarchy and looked forward to the violent overthrow’.
One primary source in particular that deserves attention, is a letter which first appeared in the Cork Evening Post whereby the author argues that the Whiteboys were ‘a fifth column raised by French agents in preparation for an imminent invasion’. This most definitely ties into the Protestant fears at the time. Meetings ‘are headed and directed by people dressed far above the ability of the poor’, they were taught ‘military exercise’, the ‘oath is quite agreeable to the design of raising a rebellion’ and ‘many of them have known to desire both by their words and letters that they would soon have a change of government’. However like most it cannot be taken at face value.
Another primary source that fits into this idea that the Whiteboys were involved in a popish plot and connects there involvement with continental powers is a ballad from 1762. It makes clear that their true intention was ‘co-operation with Spain and if possible to restore the Pretender.’ The lyrics ‘to freedom we call you- a Stuart shall reign- Usurpation shall vanish – accept aid from Spain…Right royal is our prince…we’ll fight till we die, or restore him again’ convey this particularly well. Likewise, contemporary pamphlets such as the following ‘The Insurrection or a Faithful Narrative of the Disturbances under the Denomination of White or Right Boys’ reveals the revolutionary nature of those involved in the movement. This one in particular contends that ‘such a spirit of hostility should have suddenly broken forth, as setting at defiance all the restraints of legal authority and crafting off all reverence for religion, bids fair for bringing about a revolution’.
Furthermore the method of intimidation and the notices in which the Whiteboys used can be said to have given them a political edge, to get them noticed and to be taken seriously. Notices such as the following were used, ‘if you do not do what I want… and you despise these warnings you may look out, as you will be assassinated when you least expect it’. Indeed their style which mimicked official legal letters, warned that death would be the result of an infringement of their code of laws, ‘remark the consequence Thomas Wardren dant pay the tithe for if you do you may prepare your coffin’. The Whiteboys were striving to enforce their own legal codes.
In addition to the above the political context of the Whiteboys must be addressed. The Penal Laws directed against Catholic land ownership, political participation and religious organisation have been seen as the context to bring about this popular protest, unrest and discontent, which gives the movement a political edge. In addition it was Catholics that benefited from the common land more than anyone else and they felt the enclosure of it was aimed specifically at exploiting them. This is where the religious division comes into play. Nevertheless Connolly sees flaws with this argument and contends that the penal laws were not a cloak for land grabbing or the defence of elite privilege, but a response to the real threat posed by a hostile majority. The fact that the enclosure of common land was in Britain as well as Ireland feeds into Connolly’s claim.
Donnelly sees the first outbreak of the Whiteboys as a regional agrarian rebellion; this feeds into the idea that local protest was just a mask. Donnelly uses the spread of the movement, the oaths of loyalty sworn and the militaristic and organisational elements, as evidence to support his claim. Indeed themes of delivery of from tyranny by foreign invasion and the return of the rightful King remained in poetry, songs, lamentations and oaths. Likewise Donnelly sees the second outbreak of Whiteboys as more than just protest and makes a clear distinction between the first and second outbreak. His argument is based on the geographical spread of the second outbreak into the South and South East, as well as the wider range of grievances that emerged. For him the second outbreak put most of its energy into reducing the tithe of corn and indeed this heavy concern on tithe along with the issues of rents and evictions revealed a shift in the social composition of Whiteboyism towards farmer and their sons.
It is important to take into consideration some of the sources that the Whiteboys left behind to see if we can establish the grounds for Donnelly’s above argument. Is there any significant symbolic importance in these oaths that fuses local activity into the wider network of a regional movement? For Donnelly some of the oaths conveyed the explicit aims of the insurgents whereas others dealt with matters of organisation and discipline. One example of a Whiteboy oath that Donnelly uses which shows evidence of organisation, discipline, loyalty and militarisation is that apprehended at Tallow in 1762; ‘I do hereby solemnly and sincerely swear…I will be ready at an hours’ warning…we will be loyal one to another as in our power lies.’ The military terms ‘officers’, ‘serjeants’ and ‘corporals’ mentioned add power to the movement and the phrase ‘I will not drink of any liquor whatsoever whilst on duty’ shows the disciplined nature of the Whiteboys. The oath itself has a sense of power, solidarity and there is a feeling of belonging. Nevertheless this source cannot be taken at face value; the rhetoric that is implied is used to secure allegiance and to frighten those who are not already a member.
A lamentation of the Newmarket Whiteboys, another primary source we can analyise links up with the viewpoint that there was more to the Whiteboys than local protest and the language used suggests Catholic-Jacobite connection, ‘I have hope in Mary and in those who went beyond seas that we will be some day in high repute’. However on the other hand it can be argued that this Jacobite rhetoric was only used to add strength; there was no underlying message or hidden agenda implied with this use of language.
In considering the primary sources that remain and give us an insight into the Whiteboy movement, it is interesting that Cullen claims Gaelic poetry is a reliable source for the political attitudes of the common people. Morley agrees with this and claims that you need to study the poetry and how people spoke. Nevertheless the evidence in which Cullen’s argument is based has been challenged, particularly by Connelly. It can be said that the antagonism of political and social order expressed throughout poetry should be read as representing the grievances of a fortunate group whose objection was the loss of a farmer privileged status. In other words this poetry was elite and did not represent the common people’s point of view. This makes us ponder as to who exactly was participant in the movement? Was there elite involvement? If so was the movement based on something more than just economic grievances and hardship of the Irish peasants? Was there a wider context? Political, more regional perhaps?
Although the above argument that the Whiteboys were a political movement has a great deal of weight assigned to it, other historians disagree and have used available Whiteboy primary sources to confirm the contrary. In other words there was no sign of any revolutionary elements, the disturbances were neither insurrectionary nor proto nationalist and National identity was not part of Whiteboyism. The view from above was as in Ireland that the disturbances did not have a political character. The following will analyise these available sources as well as look at the wider historiography that surrounds this viewpoint that the Whiteboys were in no way politically minded.
The first point that deserves attention is the historiography of modernization. It assumes that the agrarian Whiteboys could see no further than their plot of land, would not generate political impulses independently of elite leadership and would not draw general political conclusions about the world and their place in it. Parliamentary enquiries reduced the disloyal or insurrectionary elements of the Irish peasants to ‘racial stereotypes of a quasi-mystical attachment to land’.
As mentioned above the rural poor left behind a great deal of vernacular literature that historians have used to support their conclusions but it is important to address the relationship between literacy convention and serious political aspiration. Although the Irish peasants amused themselves with song and story of the potential threat from foreign invasion, this form of escapism as Cullen puts, bore no real relation to the highly pragmatic or law abiding manner in which those involved negotiated their day to day relationship with social and political superiors. Furthermore much of the literature left behind contains Jacobite rhetoric which Professor O Buachailla suggests, offered ‘a political lexicon which was based on concepts of legitimacy of right as opposed to might of freedom’. In other words the magistrates had little to fear because there was no hard evidence to suggest the threat of a Catholic uprising, nor a Jacobite invasion that would have widespread Catholic support. The Whiteboys however used Jacobite rhetoric in songs and poetry to play upon these fears and indeed to get themselves noticed.
Furthermore some contemporaries have used the colour white to connect the Whiteboys with Jacobitism and to reveal the Whiteboys as more than an agrarian movement. This argument however has no real weight assigned to it. Many of the Whiteboys wore white cockades, they often carried a white flag and their pipers played ‘The lad with the white cockade’. The tune may have been Jacobite in inspiration as was the white flag standard of Catholic France, however this doesn’t prove enough to base an argument upon. Firstly the tune in which the pipers played was a capital air for marching and the flag could be explained in a similar manner. As for the white linen worn over their clothes, this could be put down to distinguishing friend from foe in the dark as it was at night time that the Whiteboys went about their business.
From a major analysis of the sources left behind by the Whiteboys, it is apparent that there is ambiguity when interpreting the use of language. Historians must use their own judgement to overcome this and decide for themselves what is rhetoric and pretentious and on the other hand what is contentious and antagonistic. On top of this there are contradictions between ‘talk and action’ so to speak. A fine example can be taken from the following. Some Whiteboys expecting a foreign invasion ‘talked and boasted they would change or put down government’ but the cry commonly heard from many ‘Long live King George III and Queen Sive’ somewhat opposed and conflicted reflected their political sentiments.
Patrick J Corish describes the slogan ‘Long live King George III and Queen Sive’ as a ‘common rallying cry of the Whiteboys’ and claims it was ‘not surprising that they should have no special grudge against the King, for it was not he who was opposing them.’ Roy Foster uses the same slogan to support his view that the objective of the Whiteboys was ‘redress and restoration rather than revolution’. Connolly argues that ‘those involved were concerned only to fend off unwelcome change rather than to challenge the social or political order. Even in the dying declaration of five Whiteboys who were executed in 1762 at Waterford there is evidence to suggest that the Whiteboys were not a threat to the King’s life and that they had no intention to plot/plan against him or any of the sort. They took God to witness “that in all these tumults it never did enter into their thoughts to do anything against the King or God”.
The fact that the Whiteboys swore to King George, ‘King reign thro’ me’ should well and truly reveal that they never intended to go against ‘King and Country’. An exhortation read from the Altars of different Romish Chapels in the city in February 1762 shows the religious appeal ‘to be faithful, dutiful and obedient to the powers and governors…bless his Majesty’. The line ‘forget not that the several penal laws in force against you in this Kingdom were enacted in reigns under anterior to the accession of his Royal House’ expresses that King George was not the oppressor that initiated the Penal Laws restricting Catholic rights. The exhortation goes on to say that the country should stand together against continental enemies in the context of the Seven Years War. Finally it appeals to the two morals God and King, and goes on to say that any activity against his Majesty, would be disobeying the ‘law of God, and your Religion’.
In addition to the above, Lecky rejects any allegation that the Whiteboys were a political movement. For him the Whiteboys were apolitical (politically neutral) and non-sectarian. The Whiteboys had support from lower class Catholics and the majority of the Whiteboys themselves were Roman Catholics. Most of the landlords who were victims of Whiteboy activity were however were Protestant. Looking back in hindsight, it was inevitable that allegations of sectarianism would emerge. Nevertheless as Lecky argues these charges made in the context of the Seven Years’ War with France, betrayed fears of French invasion. Protestant paranoia ensured that the agitation of social and economic questions was quickly sucked into the political arena. Historians that agree with Lecky’s argument that the Whiteboys were apolitical give evidence from the early slogan of the 1760s used by the Whiteboys ‘long live King George III and Queen Sive’. Protests that involved the invocation of Queen Sive were in no way disloyal to the Crown and that they were taking up arms only against unworthy royal servants or tyrannical local lords remained one of the great commonplaces of early modern rebellion in Europe and Ireland was no exemption.
As Lecky mentions above, the fact that most of the labouring poor were Catholic and the majority of the landed rich were Protestant should not be misinterpreted as evidence of a Catholic insurgency or an anti-government demonstration. Moreover the targets and victims of the Whiteboys were not members of government or parliament and this should be noted to stress that the Whiteboys were not anti-government.
Catholic commentators have argued that the Whiteboys did not device a popish plot and had no intention of harming Protestants or the system of government. They pointed to the cases of William Fant who led a crowd in destroying fences around Silver Oliver’s common and John Baynard who had taken a principle role in the Kilfinnane disturbances. Although their involvement was not of real significance, it still shows Protestant participation. It is fair to say that many Protestant gentlemen loathed the tithe system as it affected them as well. This should help to rule of any sectarian elements that may have existed in the Whiteboys.
Moreover, an alternative interpretation that has emerged suggests the Whiteboys were not a movement of social or political revolution and contends that protest was most commonly initiated in a reaction to actual or threatened change; in the case of the first outbreak of Whiteboys the enclosure of common land and the extension of pasture. Kevin Whelan, like Hobsbawn and Rude see Whiteboyism as a reactionary phenomenon, he uses Thompson’s concept of a moral economy in a modernization framework. It is evident that modernization and change to traditional ways brought about the need to defend customary practises. There is much evidence to suggest that this concept ran through much of the popular protest in Ireland during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
It is fair to claim that there was overlap of economic and political elements evident in the eighteenth century Whiteboy movement. The earliest grievance for the Whiteboys in the 1760s was the enclosure of common land. For the local farmers this had been a tradition to which they were accustomed, they depended on this plot of land to graze animals and grow produce. This fits into the definition of an economic movement, as it were concerned with the worldly necessities of life. At the same time this enclosure of the common land by landlords can be used to identify the Whiteboys as a political movement. The Whiteboys were a group of people who were organised around a set of issues or around a set of shared concerns of a social group and in their case it was the Irish peasants. In many respects the Whiteboys may be seen as ‘a vast trades union for the protection of the Irish peasantry.
A further argument that relates to the above claims that it was neither an economic nor a political movement through and through, but they integrated elements of both as grievances changed. The initial grievance associated with the Whiteboys of the early 1760s was the enclosure of common land whereas the second outbreak of Whiteboys is most associated with the regulation of tithe. In other words it is unclear to deifier the category the Whiteboys come under but from the evidence we have to work with we can see clearly that they swayed easily between the two.
Finally, we must ask ourselves was the Whiteboy movement politicized; in other words an economic, social or theological issue that has become a political issue. For this we must look at the broader picture, especially with regards to what was happening at the time. It is evident from Donnelly’s work that the second outbreak of Whiteboys spread South and Southeast and that the social profile was different. Does this imply politicization- were the Whiteboys concerned about something more than economic grievances and did this local protest at the beginning mask something bigger or a larger scale? Did the Whiteboys have an ulterior motif and did economics feed into politics? Or on the other hand did the Whiteboys spread genuinely because their economic grievances did? These are all questions that are open to debate.
In conclusion there is convincing evidence to suggest that the Whiteboys contained elements that represent an economic and a political movement and as mentioned above, at times there is overlap between the two. On the other hand there is evidence to suggest that the Whiteboys were not in any way politically minded with regards to a potential foreign invasion or overturn of the system and in relation to an economic movement, they were not economic in the sense that they were out to gain or profiteer. The debate is very open and so many different interpretations come into play and the historiography surrounding the issue remains divided particularly between contemporary and recent historians. Even the primary sources we have to work with offer evidence to suggest the key arguments addressed above, although how reliable these primary sources are to an historians is open for discussion. Vincent Morley’s argument is a good end point as he makes a clear cut and coherent judgement which has its strengths. He argues that the Irish language sources that remain represents the Whiteboys as neither a loyal response to short term economic grievances, nor a French inspired conspiracy to overthrow the political establishment. Rather they represent an alienated population which was goaded into action by economic distress. In other words they stand alone and cannot be easily defined as economic or political.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Essay

...1 Overview of How to Write an Essay Writing essays is a major element of your education at the university level. Effective writing gives you the ability to express your ideas, theories, arguments, and projects clearly. The skills you acquire at the university level through writing essays will be aimed at practical business applications that you will be able to use in the workplace. The following information provides a succinct overview of the elements you need to know to begin writing an essay. It will help you on your writing journey. Types of Essays Narrative A narrative essay is a story told by a narrator. Generally, a narrative discusses the personal experience of the author (the first person point of view), but it can also be written about things that happen to others (third person point of view). A narrative typically involves characters, a setting, specific and vivid details, and a series of events that can include current incidents, flashbacks, or dialogue. Cause and Effect A cause and effect essay explores why events, actions, or conditions occur (cause) and examines the results of those events, actions, or conditions (effect). For example, a cause could be purchasing a new expensive home. The effect might be fewer family vacations, more time spent on upkeep, or less time with family because of extra work hours to pay for the home. Comparison and Contrast A comparison and contrast essay shows the relationship between two or more elements. The items can be compared...

Words: 6215 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Essays

...HOW TO READ ESSAYS YOU MUST ANALYZE 1. Take a pencil in your hand. 2. Read the essay over once, quickly, looking for the main idea, for what the essay is about in general, and for what the author seems to be saying. Don't get bogged down in details. (If you come to an unfamiliar word, circle it but go on reading). 3. Check the meaning of unfamiliar words. If they seem to be key words, i.e., if the author uses them more than once, scribble a brief definition at the bottom of the page or at the end of the essay. 4. Now re-read more slowly and carefully, this time making a conscious attempt to begin to isolate the single most important generalization the author makes: his thesis. Follow his line of thought; try to get some sense of structure. The thesis determines the structure, so the structure, once you begin to sense it, can lead you to the thesis. What is the main point the author is making: Where is it? Remember, examples or "for instances" are not main points. The thesis is the generalization the author is attempting to prove valid. Your job, then is to ask yourself, "What is the author trying to prove"? Another way of identifying the thesis is to ask yourself, "What is the unifying principle of this essay"? or "What idea does everything in this essay talk about"? or "Under what single main statement could all the subdivisions fit"? If the author has stated his thesis fully and clearly and all in one place, your job is easier. The thesis is apt to be......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Essay

...POL1EEH International Relations and the Global Economy Take Home Examination 2 November 2012 INSTRUCTIONS: The examination is worth 35% of the final mark for this unit. Students are to answer ONE question from SECTION A and ONE question from SECTION B, each in essay format, independently. Each essay should be approximately 750 words and should be referenced appropriately. Each essay will constitute 50% of the mark for this piece of assessment. Completed exams should be submitted to the Essay Box in the Politics and International Relations Program Office no later than 5pm on Monday 5 November and also lodged electronically via the Turnitin link on LMS. As this is an examination there will be no extensions. Any exams submitted after the due date will receive 0% for this piece of work. If circumstances befall a student during the examination that prevent timely completion, students should contact Dr Jon Symons (J.Symons@latrobe.edu.au) with written evidence of the problem and an alternative time to complete the examination will be arranged. QUESTIONS: SECTION A 1. To what extent have the main features of the global economic order established after World War II been transformed by globalization? 2. ‘The failure of so many multilateral institutions reflects not just the problems of those institutions but the shortcomings of multilateralism more generally.’ Critically evaluate this claim in relation to ONE multilateral institution. 3. To what extent do liberal ideas retain their......

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...There are some teachers who are going to require you to write a 250 word essay. Actually, it is a very short essay for that matter but for some students, it may also be a burden to have a word limit in writing. Let us take a look at the scenarios that you need to understand to compose a well developed essay. For some students, it may be limiting to have a word factor quota in writing an article. There are some individuals who can tell more out of a topic and that having 250 words will not suffice to tell everything in their minds. That is why you need to have the skills in budgeting the words that you have to write without sacrificing the ideas that you have to deliver. There are different essay types that you also need to consider so having a word limit cannot simply be an easy task. Still for some students, a 250 word essay may mean too much because there are also some people who do not want to waste their time writing. No matter what the essay structure may be, these types of people are not really eager to translate their thoughts to written form so they think 250 words simply equates to too much work. Anyway, you need to understand that having this kind of limit will eventually benefit the students as they improve their discipline, being responsible and being resourceful individuals. We can offer you to buy essays from us so you do not have to worry about the number of words in writing. Let our writers make your life easier today...

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...An essay is usually a short piece of writing. It is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can be literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population provide counterexamples. It is very difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject: Like the novel, the essay is a literary Abstract This article will examine the reasons why it is important both linguistically and psychologically to build a vocabulary quickly when learning a foreign language. The article asserts that very little can be achieved or learned in a foreign language with a small vocabulary and that by building a sizable vocabulary quite quickly one can soon be able to function adequately. You may also wish to look at http://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/files/95/feb/meara.html   Introduction   It is obvious that in order to learn a foreign language one needs to learn many many words. But how many?......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...to write A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present AEB syllabus, there are three main skills being assessed in your essays. 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is that for writing an essay is that the content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of social situations and interpreted, and expressed in a critical fashion. You must be aware of the skills being highlighted in the question in order to use the appropriate skills in your essays. You should also practice writing essays regularly and develop a technique which addresses the skills required so that you can actually answer the question set. I hope that this handout should allow you to achieve this. Stage One Many students are too quick into diving into an answer. They have focused on certain key terms and ‘assumed’ what the essay requires from a quick look at the question. Instead, the question should be read a number of times. Task One With the title provided. Analyze the question by underlining the key features in the essay title Double underline the skills being assessed, e.g., describe and explain Identify any terms or concepts contained in the question. These terms will need to be defined, i.e. concepts such as interactionists. Essay questions will also......

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Essay

...I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay...

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Essay

...Studieportalen.dk? Klik her for at oprette en bruger. Kommentarer til Save as many as you ruin - Essay * Kommentar #1 12. oktober 2012 Af IsabellaFF Wow, hvordan er du blevet så god til engelsk? :) Hvis jeg må spørge - du må have et eller andet trick. :D ------------------------------------------------- Øverst på formularen Nederst på formularen * Kommentar #2 24. november 2011 Af benjaminpetersen Fantastisk essay. Fortjent 12-tal. Grunden til at forrige kommentar, tror at du kobler det med Helligtrekongersdag, kunne være fordi at ordet "epiphany" både kan oversættes til førnævnte, men også betyde en slags åbenbaring. (Sudden realization) Men igen, super essay :) ------------------------------------------------- Øverst på formularen Nederst på formularen vis/skjul svar * 01. januar 1 Af Longarm Tak Benjamin, - og skarpt observeret! Nu giver det mere mening. :) God weekend! * Kommentar #3 28. august 2011 Af Fiierne Virkelig flot essay. Noget jeg ikke helt fanger er hvordan du kobler det sammen med Helligtrekongersdag? ------------------------------------------------- Øverst på formularen Nederst på formularen vis/skjul svar * 01. januar 1 Af Longarm Hvorfor skulle jeg det? :) Det må være en ekstra opgave i er blevet stillet :) * Kommentar #4 17. juni 2011 Af backus Et virkeligt velskrevet og rammende essay. ------------------------------------------------- Øverst på formularen Nederst......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Essay

...------------------------------------------------- Red River College ECE Program ECED-2009 Research Essay Assignment Value: 30% Select a topic related to Early Childhood Education for this assignment. The list on the following page may be helpful for some ideas, although you are not restricted to these topics. Approve your topic with your instructor by: _______ . Duplication of topics will not be allowed, and topic choice is on a first-come, first-served basis. Search for resources related to this topic. Check the Learning Centre, as well as the Library. Conduct an Internet search. For your paper, you need a minimum of 4 current (less than 8 years old) references. Include a minimum of one of each of the following: - book - scholarly journal article (from EBSCOHOST or other scholarly database) - reliable internet source. Use the APA style of documentation (see text) to write a 3 - 4 page paper. Include an introduction, thesis statement, body (that includes background information and at least 3 points of discussion), a conclusion, and a reference page. The reference page is not included in the length. You will also complete a 5 minute presentation to the class based on your research. Refer to Considerations for Effective Presentations. Use peer editing as part of your writing process. That is, when you have a draft completed, ask at least one peer to provide feedback using the peer editing rubric. Be mindful of the peer’s......

Words: 895 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Essay

...paragraph. The idea is to allow the author to develop an argument and support it with ideas. • Stated first and last The topic sentence appears both at the beginning and at the end. It is a technique that is used by authors in cases where the content of the paragraph is complex. The topic sentence that appears at the end aims to remind the readers about the content in the paragraph so that they do not loose focus. • Stated implied This is a situation where an author states an obvious topic sentence to avoid being direct. In this case, the topic sentence is not conspicuous. The readers have to read in between the lines to identify the hidden topic sentence. 13. Paragraphs are the building blocks of coherent, authoritative and well-developed essays. An adequately developed paragraph should contain the following four details; Topic sentence This is a sentence that traditionally appears as the first sentence. However, the topic sentence could also appear at the end, in the middle, at the beginning and at the end or implied. It informs the reader the subject matter of the paragraph. The reader is in a position to internalize what to expect in the paragraph. In addition, the topic sentence substantiates the thesis statement. Conclusion This is a summarizing sentence that comes at the end of the paragraph. The sentence wraps up the argument developed in the paragraph and gives a summary. The conclusion helps the reader to connect the argument that is being developed and......

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Essay

...Lindsay Apedaile Ms. Brown English 1020 2 November 2015 4.1 Ravisankar begins his essay by describing consumers and their want for low prices then describes sweatshops and their conditions. The problem he identifies is consumers demand lower prices to do this, corporations cut the cost on their employees either decreasing their wages or worsening their working conditions. Ravisankar assumes his readers are poor college students looking for lower prices and have a basic understanding of what a sweatshop is but does not fully know the appalling conditions of sweatshops. His purpose in this essay is to raise awareness of the degrading environment of sweatshops. In order to accomplish this purpose, he appeals mainly to pathos an appeal to emotions by mentioning how bad sweatshop working conditions are and its consumer’s. He also appeals to logos when he writes that people should have equal rights as others like pay. In this essay, Ravisankar addresses the main argument against his thesis the idea that the big companies like Nike, Reebox, and Gap are to blame for decreasing conditions in sweatshops. He refutes this argument by saying these companies are taking apart of “the race to the bottom” the pressure for low costs. Finally, he concludes by making the point that universities purchase around $3 billion in clothing with the universities name on it. This puts pressure on the companies to provide living wages and reasonable working. Overall, the argument Ravisankar makes...

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Essay

...How to Write a Religious Studies Essay The first thing to understand when approaching an essay in religious studies is the unique nature of the discipline. Apart from its distinctive subject matter, the interdisciplinary nature of the field makes the study of religion both fascinating and highly challenging. The academic study of religion requires more than knowledge of individual texts, beliefs and practices, and may draw upon fields as diverse as history, sociology, anthropology, hermeneutics, and linguistics. For this reason, your instructors will expect you to familiarise yourself with and be able to employ a variety of different theories and methods. The interdisciplinary nature of the subject is also reflected in the various kinds of essays you will be asked to write, which may include a mixture of comparative, textual, ethnographic, hermeneutical, sociological and historical approaches. The academic study of religion takes place in a secular rather than a faith-based context. Since it aims to understand religion from a perspective that can be shared by all, and limits itself to evidence that is available to all, you will not be required to try to prove or refute particular religious beliefs. As an interdisciplinary academic subject, religious studies employs historical, textual, cultural, sociological and anthropological methods to contextualise, interpret and understand religious beliefs, practices, traditions and communities. As such, it is important......

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Premium Essay

Essay

...steps in the scientific method? Type your response here: 4. Why did most Medieval philosophers and scientists feel that experimentation was unnecessary? Type your response here: 5. Why did the Enlightenment writer Voltaire get into so much trouble in France and elsewhere? Type your response here: Part 2 Write a well-developed essay of two to three paragraphs on one of the topics below. Make sure you use specific information from this lesson and, if need be, from previous lessons. Proofread your essay to eliminate errors in grammar and spelling. (Each question is worth 15 points) 1. Choice #1: Compare and contrast the careers of Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. What discoveries did each make? How were their methods similar or different? How were both received by the religious and political authorities of the day? A complete answer will include an assessment of the political and cultural climate in which each thinker lived.  Choice#2: Write an essay explaining how the Scientific Revolution influenced Enlightenment thinkers in other disciplines. Your essay should mention at least two of the following thinkers and topics: divine right of kings, empiricism, Vesalius, Descartes, Hobbes, or Voltaire. Type your response here: ----------------------- Submission ----------------------- © 2013 EDMENTUM, INC....

Words: 295 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...How to determine custom essay editing company that is legitimate This is the company you will find great editors to provide you with custom essay editing service. Students whose first language is not English may find speaking and writing in English as a difficult task for them. Most of these students are international students who have enrolled in various universities in America and in the UK. The main teaching language is English, American and Standard English respectively. It is essential for students to master well the language of instruction because it is a medium through which they are required to write their assignments and speak in classroom. Competence and fluency in English language will help students to read and understand the teaching material provided to them. It is important therefore for students to ask for support from custom essay editing services which deal with the tips of writing good essays among other academic papers and also to write for them assignment essays. Our writing and editing services is created both for students and professionals. We deal with both the non academic and academic editing and writing services to fulfill your needs. At our custom essay editing, you will find editors who are qualified in linguistics and English language. We are ready to provide you the custom essay editing service at any time of the day or night because we operate as a 24/7 service. Our custom essay editing service comprises of creative thinkers, skillful......

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay

...Process and Procedure Essay Samples are Helpful Guides in Writing Saturday, June 20th, 2009 Process and Procedure Essay Samples will Assist You in Understanding this Essay Format First of all let’s find out what essay is called process and procedure essay. It is an essay which sometimes called “how to” essay for it guides in certain activities or gives instructions as how to do some job (procedure) or complete a certain task. When you feel difficulty with this essay type, you can find process and procedure essay samples which can give you useful tips into creating an essay which will be have high rating. Process and procedure essay outlining certain procedures or directions to perform certain activity is an important task if one needs to learn how to compile clear instructions to serve the needs of professionals in different fields. These can be helpful for engineers, teachers, doctors and even housewives when it concerns cook books which are also some kind of instructive writing. Procedure essay writing is a useful skills for managerial personnel as they need to organize people and direct them toward certain activities. Process and procedure essay samples can be found online in abundance. Through these essay examples one can get some notion about procedure writing and take some notes how to complete a good piece of process essay. One may note that procedure can include descriptions, warnings and recommendations to the procedures described. To provide guidelines......

Words: 539 - Pages: 3