Submitted By davidlad
Victor Vroom's "Expectancy Theory" is based on the thoughts of everyday workers According to Vroom to motivate someoe mere offering a person something to satisfy his important needs will nt be sufficient. In order for the person to be motivated, he must also be reasonably sure that he has the ability to obtain the reward. An employee's motivation increases when he values a particular outcome highly and when he feels a reasonably good chance of achieving the desired goal.
The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe that: • There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance, • Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward, • The rewardwill satisfy an important need, • The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. • Valence • Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion, time-off, benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards). Management must discover what employees value. • Expectancy • Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision employees need. • Instrumentality • The perception of employees as to whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that. • Vroom suggests that an employee's beliefs about Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid…...