Premium Essay

Travelling in Britain

In: Historical Events

Submitted By EAGunn
Words 1049
Pages 5
To grow, Britain needed good reliable, extensive, cheap transport systems. Heavy raw materials such as coal, cotton and iron had to be brought to factories. Then the finished product had to be delivered all over Britain and abroad. As well as the goods businessmen and woman had to be able to travel to sell their goods.



Between 1750 and 1900 many types of transport were used on the roads: packhorse trains, wide wheeled wagons and mail coaches. Soon many problems grew: road traffic grew rapidly. there were pot holes to fall into. there was no spring in the wheels of the carriages so it made it an uncomfortable ride. the roads weren’t smooth and wheels got caught on rocks. when the soil got wet it went into mud and it was very hard to get the wheels through. the roads were getting damaged. footmen sometimes had to walk in front with an axe to clear the way of bushes and trees. journeys in wagons took twice as long in the winter than in the summer. the fastest coach took six and a half days from London to Newcastle.
There was danger of Highway men (people who mugged carriages for goods). Soon the roads were improved when business people and local people joined together to form turnpike trusts and parliament gave them control over a section of road. The people set up gates and toll houses and charged people to use the roads. The money that they raised was used to improve the roads or even build new ones. The number of turnpike trusts grew quickly and soon they controlled 22,000 miles out of 105,000 miles of important roads. Some trusts employed surveyors who developed ways of building stronger roads that stood up better to heavy traffic. One of these surveyors was John McAdam, who worked for many turnpike trusts. He realised that roads needed strong foundations and good drainage. He provided this by adding a ditch on each side of the road and…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Travelling & School

...Nanyang Technological University (NTU) is a major tertiary institution located in the far west of Singapore with approximately 33500 students[1] and 6165 staff[2]. Most people travelling to NTU will travel by the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) train to Pioneer or Boon Lay MRT station before taking a bus into NTU. There are currently 4 MRT lines and 90 MRT stations with an average daily ridership of 2.406 million in 2011[3]. Recently, there have been some developments in the MRT system. The Circle Line was officially opened in 2011 while the Downtown Line and the Thomson line will open in 2013[4] and 2018[5] respectively. These lines supplement the current 3 train lines in Singapore, namely the North-South Line, the East-West Line and the North-East Line. Moreover, there was also the construction of new infrastructure such as the additional platform at Jurong East MRT station. With the opening of the Circle Line, people can now choose among multiple train routes to travel between NTU and other areas in Singapore. In the near future, the rail network will become even more comprehensive with new extensions to present infrastructure, increased combinations of MRT lines, new trains and higher train frequencies. This will create even more varied train routes for travelling to and fro NTU. Although most parts of Singapore are accessible by road, the Parliament came to the conclusion in 1982 that an all-bus system would be inadequate and that the transport investment to build the MRT......

Words: 554 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Britain

...Country First Rev. Second Rev. Third Rev. Britain • 1760’s – 1830’s • Agriculture improve: • Open field inefficient • Animal raising and new crops • Transportation: canals, turnpikes • Financial: • Bank of England created • Adam Smith’s invisible hand • Provincial banks created - Technological: • Spinning Jenny, steam engine • 1840’s – 1940’s • Transportation: - railway -shipping changes from wood to steel construct. -automobiles • Mining: • Steel, iron, coal • Financial: • Limited liability • Larger firms • Technological: • Textile and electrical engineering • Depression after WWI: • Cotton market down and exports down • Bankrupt due to WWI • Response via tariffs, limited unemployment insurance, devaluation of currency and abandonment of gold • 1940’s - PRESENT • Beveridge → nationalize industries services • Lagged behind other countries but major player in petro, auto, and pharmaceuticals USA • 1790’s – 1850’s • Agriculture and National Economy: • Cotton gin spurred slavery in West • Transportation: • Railway, canal, roads • Technology: • Textiles, vulcanizing rubber, wheat reaper, telegraph • Immigration: • Chinese, Irish, Germans (up) • 1860’s - 1940 • Transportation: • Railways increase • Technology: • Telephone, patents, Bell & Edison • Entrepreneurs: • JP Morgan, Carnegie, Rockefeller • Roaring 20s: • Exports increase • Ford and the car • Tariff law (Fordney’s) - 1929 depression: - unemployment increase -......

Words: 1090 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Battle of Britain

...The Battle of Britain I. DEFINE THE SUBJECT The Battle of Britain began shortly after the fall of France was emanate and would eventually sign an armistice with Germany. This would allow Germany to focus squarely on Great Britain. In late May, 1941 Prime Minister Winston Churchill disregarded calls for peace talks with Hitler and said that Britain “would fight on” (“Churchill decides toll,” 2012). The Battle of Britain was during the time period of June, 1940 to May, 1941 with the heaviest fighting occurring from June to October, 1940. The Battle of Britain was a fierce air battle between the Germans and the British over Great Britain’s airspace which was important as Germany wished to invade by land. As a precursor to the invasion of England, the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) would attack the British coastal defenses, radar stations and shipping ports. This caused almost all of Britain’s Expeditionary Force to become penned in a tiny pocket around the French Channel port of Dunkirk along with a large number of the French Army as well. This caused the British to attempt to rescue over 330,000 men from the Dunkirk coastal line in attempt to fight another day. Of that 330,000+ number approximately 224,000 of them were Britain’s Expeditionary Force which represented about 85 percent Britain’s Army (Macdonal, 1997). After the fall of France, Germany was very confident and planned very little for this battle. They believed they would first take over airspace......

Words: 2511 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Battle of Britain

...Battle of Britain Marie A Spicer HIS331 Professor Golding May 18, 2013 The Battle of Britain was the longest and bloodiest battle to date lasting five years. The Battle of Britain was not fought by the army or sailors or marines but by the Air force it is also the largest aerial bombing to this day. Portsmouth, was one of the main targets; a few weeks later Luftwaffe started on RAF airfields and infrastructure. As the weeks went on there were other targets as well. Luftwaffe started zoning in on other places of interest using terror bombing strategy Germany failed its plans to destroy inflight defenses, or get them to surrender. This ended the threat of Operation Sea Lion from coming into play. May 1940, German had gained control of Belgium, and northern France and the Neverlands Hitler started to eye the British, using their bombers and fighters, first against shipping, airfields, and on the villages, Luftwaffe was not doing well at all, and it was noticeable to say the least. The Luftwaffe’s turning point was that it did not have the equipment or training it so needed This created a lose lose situation from the start. The fighting experience on the two sides was incomparable to one another. The RAF’s had better planes than the Germans and that was that. The RAF during the fight was happy to have the advantage of defending against attacks. This was because of the Radar system. British luck came as Luftwaffe didn’t use strategic bombing. On September,15......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Differences in Travelling Preferences

...The differences in travelling preferences between postgraduate students in Poland and United Kingdom Module name: Research Methods Word count: 4978 January 2014 1. Abstract The purpose of this report is to determine the differences between travelling preferences among British and Polish postgraduate students. Moreover, the report aims to establish the patterns in which a cultural background influence travelling and to detect similarities between British and Polish attitudes. Therefore, the research is a comparative, cross-cultural study. In order to achieve the purpose, 5 structured interviews were carried out that helped to construct a questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative data shows that the cultural background has an effect on postgraduate students' travelling preferences and that there are certain differences between British and Polish travelling tendencies. The particular aspects that affect those preferences are: language, socioeconomic status, geographic area and customs. However, owing to the global phenomena, the cultural backgrounds are disappearing and students' travelling preferences become more and more convergent. The author believes this research will form a valuable asset for tourism industry and it will be a base for future research. 2 2. Table of contents 1. Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................

Words: 8325 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Travelling

...Travelling through air is the most convenient way and becoming increasingly common to move from one place to another. It is titles as the biggest of all the transportation industries benefiting passengers to shrink the world and move to the destined place in few hours. Air travelling is speedy as compared to other transportation means which enhanced long journey for people to comfortable, secure and contended flight. It’s rapidly becoming clear where air travel is so popular. It’s fast, it’s efficient and it’s surprisingly safe as well as taking some of the strain out of traveling, as one relax in the cabin and watch the wall go by beneath. The foremost advantage of air travelling due to which it is preferred over other ways is that one reaches his destination in the fastest time possible. The places that took days to reach are now approachable in few hours. Travelling within the country as well as internationally is greatly enhanced due to air travelling. In air travelling security is guaranteed as special and organized systems are operated to reduce the risk of any sort of mishap. The inclusion of cheap flights in this industry has persuaded every class of people becoming affordable for almost everyone to choose it for travelling. Comforts offered in airplanes make it a nice way to travel. The rules are so firm in air travelling that a passenger is charged high on demand of changing the flight. Though it is highly preferred for journey but for short distances air......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Positive Impacts of Travelling

...world, we expand our knowledge and widen our perspective. While visiting places, our vision becomes enlarged just as by sitting at a small place makes one’s vision narrow. Secondly, travelling provides us the opportunity to disconnect from our routine. We relax and enjoy during the travel without have to worry our problems or issues for some period. We are all burdened with crazy schedules of work or schooling. Travelling away alone or with friends may help us to relax ourselves. The distance of travelling may also help one figures things out that they would not have understood. In the view of the environment, travelling helps promote conservation of wildlife and natural resources such as rainforests, as these are regarded as tourism assets. The entrance charges or guide fees we paid helps generate funding for maintaining animal preserves and marine parks. Tourism can be such a great way to preserve the environment. The tourism industry plays an important role in many countries in term of social economy. It provides a wide range of jobs and business opportunities for the local people. When tourists spends in the country, it gains benefit in terms of currency exchange rate. Due to the large income of tourism industry, the local government are promoting their country as travelling destination. At my point of view, the advantages of traveling greatly outweigh the disadvantages. It does not only bring fresh and exciting discoveries to tourist, but also......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Britain and the Eu.

...for one is a place for holidaying, not for politics. Most British politicians have been unfamiliar with, and have felt distaste for continental politics. The Labour party for example wanted to get Britain taken out of the EU. Britain has also been an Empire for a long time, and then it’s hard to join an organization demanding a handover of national sovereignty. The EU standards and regulations are something that triggers irritation in Britain when they for example have to change the way they make bicycle brakes to meet EU standards, when they think their way of making bicycle brakes is perfectly fine. One issue which has caused big discussions is the Agricultural policy and the British contributions to the community budget. Britain expected to gain new alliances, new markets and to strengthen their European identity by joining the EU. But she had little satisfaction from the experience, one reason for this could be that EU membership seemed to have brought Britain neither the expected losses nor the expected gains. Even though Britain isn’t too pleased being a member of the EU she cant leave the community because an increasing amount of her trade is done with the EU. When the EU was formed it was 30% as compared to the 45% today. It would also be unthinkable for Britain to be shut out of talks on world issues with such countries as France and Germany, something she probably would be if she quit being a member of the EU....

Words: 265 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Battle of Britain

...Battle of Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic The Battle of Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic were both imperative for the Allies during World War II. The victories from these battles gave the allied forces hope and more momentum during the war. Germany was a strong military force and had already captured Poland and was spreading throughout Europe. The Battles decisive victories put a halt to German operations and pushed pack the Germans from their original invasion plans. The Battle of Britain was definitely a turning point for the Second World War since it prevented Hitler from controlling Western Europe. Germany had already invaded France, Britain partner in the declaration of war, and if the British Isles had fallen, Germany might have won the war. However, as I will show in this article, Operation Sea lion, The Nazi plan for invasion of Britain, was not planned well, and would probably not have succeeded even if the RAF had not taken down the Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain. .A.F.'s victory in the Battle of Britain was the first nail the evil Nazi empire's coffin and ensured it's final defeat, it bought valuable time for Britain and the world. A free Britain slowly but surely built it's forces, worked hand in glove with the U.S.A., supplied the U.S.S.R. and brought the resources of it's vast Empire to bear on Herr Hitler and his Nazi hordes The Battle Of The Atlantic was the LONGEST battle of the entire war, and it ebbed and flowed for......

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Why Travelling

...Why travelling is my favorite doing… I hate to consider “my favorite things” and such as. But, if I should name a favorite activity or hobby, call it what you want, I would say travelling. I love travelling, travelling is living and living is travelling! You have to expiry meeting other cultures, if you ask me. I think it’s healthy and very educating, especially if you’re not travelling as a tourist, the charter way. I think you need to not just be around the inhabitants, but also talk with them, and maybe be on your own, live with or just visit a family. Also of course practice their cultural traditions, whether it's dancing, singing, elephant riding or… I will also claim that it will make your trip a lot better and give you the best experience, if you "have read a little lesson" from home, about the planned destination. Last school semester I went on an efterskole called Ranum efterskole, where I travelled a lot. The school was very international and connected with schools around the world. The school was filled with opportunities; so many, that it was hard to even choose between them! The school semester was split into three periods/phases, with three different majors and therefore also three different travels. For an example; in the first period I chose diving as major and therefore my travel was to Turkey, where we could take the diving certification. Besides Turkey, I went on some longer distance travels with the school. The others was to, Ghana and New......

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Multicultural Britain

...Multicultural Britain Daniela Maria Amorim, 2.y ‘My Son the Fanatic’ I will in the following essay analyse and interpret ‘My Son the Fanatic’ and also focus on the two main characters’, Ali and Parvez’ attitude to life in Britain and western values in general. In Hanif Kureshi’s short story ‘My Son the Fanatic’ from 1994, we meet Parvez, a Pakistani immigrant in Britain. He has been working as a taxi-driver for twenty years. As a child in a Pakistani school Parvez was taught the Koran and how to live as a good Muslim. That his relationship with the religion is bad is said throughout the novel. He remembers how the teachers would attach a string to ceiling and tie it to his hair to provide him to fall asleep while studying the Koran. When Parvez escaped Pakistan he stopped practicing Islam and started to integrate in the British society. He stopped listening to the harsh rules in the Koran and really liked how religion didn’t have an influence on peoples life’s in Britain. Bettina is a very good friend of Parvez. She is a prostituted and Parvez often picks her up in his taxi where they have very long conversations. They are very close and Parvez feels even more comfortable talking to her than his wife. Ali, Parvez’ son has always been a nice boy who never got involved in trouble. But suddenly Parvez noticed that his son has changed in some way. He has thrown of his possessions out, emptied his room, and parted from his English girlfriend. Parvez gets concerned......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Benefits of Travelling

...Benefits of Travelling 1.  Travel Sharpens the Mind You've done your old routine for so many years that you could run through it on autopilot. Being placed into a new environment engages a dormant part of your mind. Suddenly, you'll be required to navigate unfamiliar places, read foreign languages, try new things, make quick decisions, and choose your new eating and sleeping schedule. Unlike at home, all the new sights, sounds, and places will require mental processing and filing. Your brain will welcome the workout! 2.  A Shift in Perspective "Nobody comes back from a journey the way they started it." -- Unknown Being exposed to new cultures and people will greatly shift your paradigm and create a healthier perspective once you return back home. Seeing different social classes creates compassion and really makes you feel more blessed and content. Large portions of the world's population have to deal with daily threats such as hunger, disease, and land mines. A hard day at work suddenly doesn't seem so bad when you see people in developing countries toiling in sun-scorched fields from morning to dark. 3.  A Chance to Try New Things "Do not follow where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail." -- Ralph Waldo Emerson While you may branch out at home with new restaurants from time to time, traveling kicks you out of the comfort zone and forces you, for better or worse, to try new things! Even if you don't enjoy your first attempt......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Great Britain

...Essay - Great Britain Between the late 16th and early 18th centuries Great Britain was the world's biggest empire to date, and controlled almost a fourth of the known world. This massive empire was achieved through bloody conquest and suppression of the native population in every country, which Great Britain got into contact with. In the time of the empire, artists created paintings of this great nation, they painted its great fights and conquests of the new worlds that were discovered. Britain was portrayed as a fair and just ruler of the savages, but this was far from the truth, because Britain just exploited the countries and brought along with its rule enslavement of entire populations, which was maintained by ruling with an iron fist. Many in Britain today still believe that imperial times were a glorious period that the inhabitants of the Britain should be admiring and looking up to. But imperial Britain wrought so much pain to the populations that was suppressed and forced into slave like conditions for the good of the empire, even though the British Empire helped create infrastructure in their occupied land and laid the foundation for new democracies. In the two following articles and the documentary “Seven Ages of Britain -Episode 6 Age of Empire” will the topic of whether or not Britons should be apologetic for their time as an empire be analysed and discussed. The article: “British Empire: Students should be taught colonialism ‘not all good’, say......

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Travelling

...WHY TRAVEL? I have been a tourist in many years, and only few people have visited as many countries as I have. But I have never really thought about why travelling is so important to me. Have you ever thought about why so many people those to go on a vacation? And what makes people those to go on a vacation in one country out of another? That is for sure some of the questions that I am asking myself about travelers. Travelling has always been a big part of my life. One of the things that make travelling so exciting for me is the different cultures you meet when you are in another country. But what is important, when you visit another nation, is to have some sort of knowledge about the culture; because it can be very different from what you are used to. Normally when I go on a vacation to a country I don’t know anything about, I by a book about culture and important information about the nation. And having knowledge about the country you are planning to visit is very important: If you decide to visit for an example Paris and if you are a woman, you may never walk alone at night, because of the high crime and rapes. That is very important to know as a woman because otherwise you might be exposed to some unpleasant or undesirable experiences. It is also important to know that some nations ‘refuse’ to speak English and therefore it can be very difficult to communicate. A country that prefers to speak only their language is France. It could also be information about young......

Words: 643 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Britain

...of power theory is the idea that national security is enhanced when military capabilities are distributed so that no state is strong enough to dominate all others (Waltz, 1979). Balancing is defined as allying with others against the prevailing threats against one another. This paper will focus on the Britain Empire and will include the following: Britain empire and the alliances to which the empire belonged, the concerns for security, strength and wealth that led the empire to enter the alliances, how other empires' expansionism fuelled a race for empire, major imperialist activities of Britain empire during the 19th century, concerns for security, strength and wealth led Britain empire to seek to expand colonial holdings and how Britain empire's alliances and imperial ambitions led to its involvement in World War I. The Major imperialist activities in Britain during the 19th century The new imperial movement came into play when Britain sought to take over nonindustrial regions and territories to increase their presence and control that countries resource. Though Britain was small, the British were known for their ability to grow and colonize all over the world enabling Britain to become a world power. The latter half of the 19th century technology played an important role in shaping the British Empire. When factories switched over from manpower to steam power, production was increased exponentially. Products were made faster. Technology even changed the way wars were......

Words: 1258 - Pages: 6