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Theories of Learning

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Edward Lee Thorndike
Assuming Thorndike's revised a law of effect to be valid, do you feel classroom practice in the United States is accordance with it? Child rearing practices? Explain.
Thorndike's revised lot of the facts stated that reinforcement increases the strength of a connection, where as punishment does nothing to the strength of a connection (text). What this tells me is that when someone is stating their opinion and is encouraged or agreed-upon by others this exit him on to continue and gives them confidence in what they’re saying but if they do not get a positive response. When it comes to teachers in the class room, when the student gets an answer correct they tell them good job, when they get the answer wring they say good try but do not praise them like they would if they give them the correct answer. Some teach this way and some are very bunt to say not that is wrong. The same with parenting the parents are trying to always make their child feel good and at time they do not want to tell them that they are wrong in fear of hurting their feelings so they do not react at all.
Discuss Thorndike's principle of belongingness and polarity.
Thorndike's principles of belongingness and polarity basically states that when elements belong together it is easier to learn and retain them than elements that do not belong together (Pritchard,2009). For example, when a child or adult is reciting the alphabet they start with a and A with Z. If a child or adult was asked to recite the alphabet backwards this would become difficult for them. It would become difficult for them because that is not the way they learned it. Another example would be the lyrics to a song we tend to remember once the song has started once the words have started you recall what comes next. If were asked to recall the word in the second or third verse you may find yourself singing the beginning of the song to recall the next verse. Basically how the material fits together are what Thorndike’s main principle was.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner Are there some forms of adult human behavior for which you feel Skinners theory is not applicable? Explain In the text it states that according to Skinners theory is correct humans cannot be held responsible for their actions (Pritchard,2009). What I get from this is that the blame is put on their environment therefore No one should be held accountable for their actions but their environment should be blamed. If this was true no one would ever go to jail because it wouldn’t technically be there fault it would be the drugs, the weapons, poverty, the list could go on. I understand where he was coming from and how we might think we are making the decision but in actuality our surroundings are influencing us to make the decisions that we do make therefore it’s the environment around humans that make the decisions. Why all of this makes sense humans are supposed to be intelligent enough to see right from wrong so that is why they are held accountable for their actions because they were taught right from wrong. Propose an explanation for the partial reinforcement effect. The partial reinforcement effect is basically like any behavior when you can get away with it sometimes you will continue to do it to try your luck. One example of this in my life would be with my dogs if every single time they jumped on the couch I made them get off eventually they would not even try to get on the couch but if every other day I asked him to get off the couch it would be a constant battle. The same with children every single time they do one particular thing you tell them know or correct them they will just stop doing but if Mom or dad does not correct them every time this will make the process very difficult when training them to follow a certain rule. The logical explanation for this would be The more confident a person feels in what they are saying or doing the harder it’s going to be to change their minds. Just like a child or a dog if the parents is constantly saying one thing is wrong every single time the child will begin to believe that it’s wrong. But if every other time they do it there told it’s wrong they become confused and do what they feel is right.

Clark Leonard Hull
What is habit family heiarchy? Habit family heiarchy is simply explained by stating if a person has multiple choices of which way to go they are going to pick the easiest route. For example, living in a suburban style neighborhood a person has the option to walk, ride a bike, or drive a car. As an adult most of us do you have a driver’s license and are not seen walking to many places unless it’s for exercise. This is just like the mice or rats that are put in a maze looking for food once they learn the fastest route that is the way they’re going to go they are not going to go out of their way so that it takes longer for them to get to the food. At one of my first office jobs my boss always told me work smarter not harder and this has stuck with me throughout my whole professional career. One of my first office jobs my boss always told us to work smarter not harder and this has stuck with me throughout my whole professional career.
Explain chaining from Hull’s point-of-view Chaining from holes’ preview basically states that there are triggers to everything we do. For example, when a person always eats lunch at 12:00 pm this can be the start of a trigger. Once the person looks at the clock sees the time is 12 o’clock this starts the process in which the brain triggers the thought of food which triggers the person to stop working which triggers the person to then continuously feel hungry until they satisfied. Another example would be when a person craves a specific food. Something triggered their mind to think of that specific food. For example, you’re out walking along a strip of stores you smell cookies being baked. This starts the process and your body is sucked into and does everything to get what is craving. These acts are referred to as the Drive stimuli and the fractional antedating goal response (Pritchard,2009).

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
Briefly describe the following: acquisition of a conditioned response, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, and higher-order conditioning.
Acquisition of a conditioned response occurs when there is a pairing or similarity to two unrelated stimuli which causes one to naturally elicit a response. This process is complete when the conditioned stimulus alone will yield the response (Olson,2009).
Extinction is when a conditioned stimulus is shown a reinforcement but is not followed by one (Olson,2009). When the happen the magnitude of what is response become smaller. When there is no longer a conditioned response this is when it becomes extinguished. Spontaneous recovery is when the condition is no longer drawn out by the conditioned stimuli this is when extinction takes place(Olson,2009). Generalization is the likelihood of an organism to respond to specific stimulus and unrelated stimuli(Olson,2009). Discrimination is learning to respond to certain stimuli but not to others (Olson,2009). High-order Conditioning is when different conditioned stimulus is paired together with each other.
What is the Garcia Effect? The Garcia effect is basically triggers that lead up to a cause. For example, when a person eats a certain food we will say a hamburger that possibly was cooked wrong. After they eat this food they get food poisoning. If the food poisoning causes them to have a upset stomach and vomit. Now in this person’s mind could possibly be conditioned to not crave or wants a hamburger for a long time because this is associated with food poisoning another. Another example would be A child falls down the stairs and now is scared to go near the stairs because the associate it with the pain they felt when they fell.

Ewin Ray Guthrie
How did Guthrie explain forgetting? Guthrie explain forgetting as the brain replacing old knowledge with new knowledge. For example, when a child graduates high school but does not go on to college their last years of college. Another example of this could be in your work environment say that you worked with a certain program for two years the company decided to change the type of program they used once you learn the new steps of the new program and used it for two or three years the old way of doing your job on a day to day basis will be replaced with the new way that you do your job and over time maybe then be forgotten. You almost forget the old way of doing things and it is replaced with the new way.
How would Guthrie have explained the development of a drug addiction? Guthrie would explain the development of a drug addiction by calling it a learning process. The person takes the drug and has a positive experience with the drug because it makes them feel good. The person takes the drug and has a positive experience with the drug because it makes it down feel good. When person feels food when or after they do something this will cause them to want to do it again. So when someone does jugs for the first time their body feels so good during the high bay causes their body to want to feel that way again. This starts this vicious cycle of addiction or being drug dependent. This activity circulates in your brain which causes this behavior to be repeated. However, this is not the only reason a person is addicted it is a very big part. Another way that this can be explained to when I person likes doing something they are more likely to act a certain way or do a certain thing to get what they want but you do not really want something a person will be less likely to have to urge to go through with the task.

William Kaye Estes
Describe Estes scanning model of decision making.
Estes scanning model of decision-making involves cognitive psychology to the fullest. It would involve memory, learning and understanding. When a person was making decisions they are using their memory to understand the question and or statement and make a decision. For example, something that is very simple would be when a person is is driving home. They make all the right choices on their path home because that is where they want to go. The brain tells it where to go to get to the destination that is desired. The texts states that “an organism will utilize whatever information it has stored in memory concerning response-out some relationships and will respond in such a way as to produce the most beneficial outcome” (Olson,2009). List some advantages and disadvantages of statistical learning theory. Some advantages of statistical learning theory could be to progress in the future and improve future tasks or the way we do things. Learning from the way things are done now in improving these things has gotten us to where we are now. Another advantage is giving the technical world the possibility of robots and using a computer for everyday tasks. A disadvantage of statistical learning theory could be the fact that people are allowing computers to do so much for them that they are losing certain tools that they use in the past. For example, spellcheck has crippled some people from actually learning how to spell. All they have to do is get the word clothes and spellcheck will fix their grammar mistakes for them. This does not help people learn from their mistakes because it makes it too easy. Also with cell phones no one can remember anyone's number and in the event of an emergency and the cell phone is not available a person would not be able to call a family member or friend to come and help because they would not remember their phone numbers. I can remember everyone's number that I knew before I got a cell phone.
Gestalt Theory
Discuss the term isomorphism as it was used in Gestalt Theory. The term isomorph system was used by Gastalt is basically the relationship between the brains activity and the consciousness of a person. This means that a person will take and events when they are meaningful or have purpose. For example, if a person experiences a very exciting moment they are going to remember this moment before they would remember something that was insignificant. So let’s say a person goes to the hospital to visit a friend and then a year later they go to the hospital because they’re having a baby. This person is going to remember the hospital parallel to remembering the birth of their baby rather than remembering the hospital and visiting a friend. This is because having a baby is more of a significant moment in their life and that triggers a meaning memory.
What is meant by the statement “For the Gestalt psychologist, learning is basically a perceptual phenomenon? Learn in Gesalt was a cognitive phenomenon because the procedure of problem solving is a strategic arrangement. When a person is trying to solve a problem they collect many facts and then day peace them together until they come to a conclusion. For example, if you’re trying to unclog a drain. The first step to solving this problem would be preparing yourself with the correct tools. Then using the tools in their proper way to Remove the items in the drain that are stopping the water from flowing through like it should. So when someone finishes this task they have either a) unclogged the drain using all this of the tools they have or B) was unable to unclog the drain. Another example would be solving a riddle, you think about all of the words and meaning until bam, they all come together and you have solved the riddle.

Jean Piaget
Explain why Piaget’s view of intelligence is called genetic epistemology.
When you break down the term we can first look at genetic. Most people think that genetic means something that we inherit from our parents through jeans. But actually Piaget looks at it as more of a developmental trait rather than inherited trait. Then we look at the word epistemology and that means the study of knowledge. So when you put the two together it’s the knowledge that a person develops. Knowledge is developed through experience when someone experience is something they retain that experience and ultimately use that in the future to make decisions.
Give and explain an example of an experience that involves both assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is when a person when a person responds to a physical stimulus that in their environment that they know about or had previous knowledge of. It basically matches a cognitive structure to the physical environment in a person’s mind. This cannot happen without previous knowledge of the situation or object. An example of this would be if a person sees a car and can say exactly what type of car is this is using a simulation because they already previously knew what the car was and was able to identify it through their previous knowledge. Accommodation is is the modification of cognitive structures that come as a result of someone’s experience but could not be recalled or a simulated into an existing cognitive structure or something they already knew existed (Pritchard,2009). An example of this would be you see an object maybe it’s a new bug you know it’s a bug but you research and find out it’s called a ladybug.

Edward Chance Tolman
Why can Tolman's theory be considered a combination of Gestalt Theory and behaviorism?
There is a great deal of similarity between what Tolman believed and what Guthrie’s theory is. The concept that is used by behaviors is referred to as reinforcements when Tolman uses the word confirmation. Tolman believed that you come up with a ending and then you do they experiment in your life. This is also called a hypothesis. Once this experiment or life task is completed a person will know if they have succeeded of failed just like an experiment. A person believed that when they act a certain way this is going to happen and when they do a certain thing this will happen. This is also an example of reinforcement.
For Tolman, is reinforcement a learning or performance variable? Explain. For Tolman reinforcements is a performance variable. I say this because in the texts it states that learning is not taking place constantly and does not depend on any motivational state of an organism (Olson,2008). This means that not every experience is something is has to be learned. A person is to always learning from every experience that they have and in return all task of experiences are not always being learned from. Tolman also stated that reinforcement was not always necessary for learning to occur. You could say that Tolman thought that people's behavior was not a response to a stimulus but a cognitive map that included patterns of stimuli.

Alberta Bandura Define the terms vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment, and explain their importance to Bandura’s theory.
. Vicarious reinforcement is basically when someone sees someone being rewarded for a behavior the person will most likely copy the behavior so they will be rewarded as well. So if a child sees one of their classmates getting candy for being quiet there’s a good chance that they will be quiet so they will also receive a piece of candy from the teacher. It’s the same concept goes for vicarious punishment. If a child sees their sibling get in trouble for throwing a ball the likelihood of them throwing the ball is less because they saw the consequences of the action therefore they did not have to throw the ball to understand that they could get in trouble. You hear people saying that they live vicariously through other people. A person could watch a show and use the experiences from the show in their own personal life choices.
List and explain several mechanisms that allow a person to act immaturely without experiencing self-contempt. Everyone knows right from wrong but there are some situations where people can make themselves believe or give themselves an exception to the rules. Moral justification is exactly what this is called. A major example would be the relationship between a father and a daughter. If something ever happens to the daughter the father would go above and beyond to make sure that whomever hurt his daughter paid for what they did. A lot of times you see dads or even husbands standing up for their women or little girls with violent behavior. They take it into their own hands and do not think that it was wrong because they were protecting the ones they love. There also instances where people do something wrong but convince themselves that it was for a good reason to be able to cope with the decision they made for example if a mother abort her baby while the world might not agree she might have logical reasons for why she did it that in her eyes are justifiable.

References:

Pritchard, A. (2009). Ways of Learning. London, GBR: David Fulton Publishers.
Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com
Olson, M.H. & Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An introduction to theories of learning (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson/Prentice Hall…...

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...------------------------------------------------- Constructivism Main article: Constructivism (learning theory) Constructivism is a revolution in educational psychology. Built on the work of Piaget and Bruner, constructivism emphasizes the importance of active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves...Constructivism emphasizes top-down processing: begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems [13]. Constructivism explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook. Learning sciences research is revealing the deeper underlying basis of how knowledge construction works. To design effective environments, one needs a very good understanding of what children know when they come to the classroom. This requires sophisticated research into children's cognitive development, and the learning sciences draws heavily on psychological studies of cognitive development (e.g., Siegler, 1998). The learning theories of John Dewey, Marie Montessori, and David Kolb serve as the foundation of constructivist learning theory.[14]Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge or experience. In other words, "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences." Constructivist learning, therefore, is a very personal endeavor, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and......

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