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胡庆余堂医药文化的传承与发展
人文学院 外汉121班 罗高哲
学号:2012212558

【摘要】 胡庆余堂是南宋“红顶商人”胡雪岩创办的药局。“北有同仁堂,南有庆余堂”,传播着“江南药王”长盛不衰的故事。在中国虽然有数不清的大大小小的中药号,但最有名的被大家公认的只有"两家半"——北京的同仁堂算一家,杭州的胡庆余堂算一家,广东的陈李济算半家。经过百年发展,胡庆余堂历久弥新,在中国医药文化发展的历史上画上了浓墨重彩的一笔。
【关键词】 胡庆余堂 医药文化 传承 发展

一、胡庆余堂的创建 走进坐落于杭城历文化街区的河坊街,一座高达12米的封火墙显得出类拔萃,墙上“胡庆余堂国药号”七个特大楷体字,浑厚遒劲,撼人心魄,这就是晚清商人胡雪岩创建的江南最大药府——胡庆余堂。高墙内一群恢弘的商业古建筑,在其所处的周遭环境中显得特立独行。漫步古建筑内,一股股浓郁的中药文化气息扑面而来,置身其中,心扉洞开。 胡庆余堂的老东家胡雪岩,当年为国内首富,他的产业涉及钱庄、当铺、丝绸、茶米、船业、军火等行当,头冠二品顶戴,身穿皇上赐予的黄马褂,亦官亦商。就在他事业鼎盛之际,却出乎意料地开办了一家药店,个中缘由,乃意味悠长。 19世纪中叶,我国战乱不息,民不聊生,西征大帅左宗棠是胡雪岩之旧交,从前线派专员找胡雪岩,说是军中药物匮乏,托他设法操办。胡雪岩介绍来人去望仙桥河下的叶种德堂药店,种德堂是杭城的老字号,财大气粗,没有把胡雪岩放在眼里,叶老板叫伙计敷衍了事。胡雪岩急忙再转人采办,才将药物备齐。那人走时,力劝胡雪岩自办药店。胡沉吟许久,心意欲动。这一年,恰巧他的一位妾室患病,聘了郎中诊脉开方,又派伙计去叶种德堂抓药,不料有几味药已霉变。胡雪岩再派人去交涉,哪知药未换成,反遭一阵讥笑:“要好药?除非你胡大先生自己去开药店。”胡雪岩怒而放言:“可恶之至!怎能拿人的生命当儿戏?莫非看我胡雪岩真的开不起药店!”于是,坊间就有了胡雪岩“一怒创堂”的开店传说。 从地域方位上关照,胡庆余堂坐落于杭城东南部,整体建筑坐北朝南,东临大井巷,南依吴山北麓,自大井巷可豋阶上山,向南移步连中山中路、鼓楼一带,通达南星桥和浙江第一码头;向北紧接河坊街,沿街西行直达西湖。当时钱江渡船码头设在望江门外江边,东南各地农夫居民来杭进香,大井巷是必经之路。吴山是当时城内寺观最集中地区,每年春汛时期,大批来自下三府(杭嘉湖一带)及上八府(宁绍金地区)的香客,除到灵隐、昭庆寺等大寺庙烧香拜佛外,主要的佛事都在吴山各寺观内举办。因此,清河坊一带商铺林立,终日人流拥集。 从地缘文化上寻觅,胡庆余堂筹建之际,胡雪岩就召集江浙名医以宋代皇家药典《太平惠民和剂局方》为基础,收集整理散落在民间的古方、验方、秘方,经应验有效,分类研制成丸散膏丹、胶油酒露等共432种中成药,编印成《胡庆余堂雪记丸散全集》,分送社会各界;还将“胡氏辟瘟丹”、“诸葛行军散”等特色中成药,由穿号衣(广告衫)组成的锣鼓队,在钱塘江水码头广为施送,因此胡庆余堂名声在筹备期业以名播遐迩。胡庆余堂开张那天,胡雪岩还在经营大厅的门楣上,挂上了一块特殊的匾额——“药局”,这在全国绝无仅有。过去的药业一般分三类:向产地直接进货谓之药号,做批发称为药行,零售商就叫药店。而所谓的“药局”,一般是指南宋官方制药机构——太平惠民和剂局。胡雪岩凭借着“二品顶戴”的特殊地位,经过清政府默许,才在私人店铺上效仿官方制药机构挂“药局”匾额。从中不难看出,胡庆余堂除了旨在传承南宋官方制药的全部精义外,也毫不掩饰“一统中药天下”之雄心,这多少诠释了胡庆余堂与中国中药文化发展的历史渊源。

二、胡雪岩经营下的胡庆余堂 胡庆余堂开张的前三年,正是战火甫息、瘟疫流行之时,在杭州的水陆码头,活跃着一支身穿胡庆余堂号衣的队伍,他们一面高声喊着胡庆余堂的店号,一面向上岸、下车的客商、香客,奉送“痧药”、“八宝红灵丹”等太平药,使外来人一到杭州,就知道有一家胡庆余堂。据说,这三年仅施舍“太平药”一项,竟达十万两纹银。开张那一天,大井巷人山人海,都被远道而来的老百姓挤满了。当时有个传言,连杭城所在地钱塘县和仁和县的两位县太爷,都迈不进胡庆余堂的门槛,一方面人多阻塞,另一方面,店堂里坐着一些权倾一时的大官,那七品芝麻官只能落得个望“门”兴叹! 在经营胡庆余堂的十年中,恰是胡雪岩事业的巅峰期。面对着晚清社会动荡不安、草菅人命的惨景,他怀抱着一颗“救赎性命、反哺民生”的良知,将胡庆余堂历年积攒的利润,悉数资助公益事业。由于他的善举,他也在江浙一带赢得了响当当的“胡大善人”的名声。他有一句话常挂在嘴边:“要想做善事,手中先有钱。”胡雪岩的乐善好施是有口皆碑的,至今杭城还留存有不少记载着胡雪岩捐献的碑刻,流传着许多颇为动人的故事。 正在胡雪岩的事业如日中天之时,突然一夜之间,他所有的钱庄、银号尽数倒闭。其中的缘由是,胡雪岩在与洋商做蚕丝生意时,力图遏制洋人,维护江南蚕农的利益,孤军作战,因判断商情失误,发生了严重的亏损。清政府不但不予援手,反而乘人之危,落井下石。当时上海“关道”请胡雪岩作担保,向外商借得一笔款子,此时正好到期。听说胡雪岩丝业失利,竟乘机拒付本息,外商便向保人胡雪岩索债,使之陷入困境,雪上加霜。消息传出,存户争相前往胡雪岩的钱庄、银号挤兑,致使胡雪岩家资罄尽,不得不宣布破产。不久,胡雪岩抑郁而死。 虽然一代富商胡雪岩的主业一夜破产,但做善事的胡庆余堂药号,却能独善其身。胡雪岩缔造了胡庆余堂,而胡庆余堂又为胡雪岩百年圆梦。

三、胡庆余堂的文化内核和胡雪岩的儒商精神 任何一个商人,都会面对两种境界:一是“在商言商”,在其经营范围内,必定为谋取利润、获得利益,进行预测、规划和投资而竭尽心力。应该说这合乎人情,这是纯商业思考。另一种是:“人在商界中,心在商界外。”一个商人的成功,主要不在他对商业本身规律的了解,而是在于他是否具有第二种境界,也就是儒商所具备的品质——对社会的责任感。胡雪岩在其经营胡庆余堂的过程中,充分显现了这种境界。他以儒家的气度,儒家的道德准则,志存高远,赢得了民众对胡庆余堂品牌的良好口碑,他的事业的发展也有赖于这种精神的延续。 创建之初,胡雪岩派人去产地收购各种药材。如去山东濮县采购驴皮,去淮河流域采购淮山药、生地、黄芪、金银花,去川贵采购当归、党参,去江西采购贝母、银耳,去汉阳采购龟板,去关外采购人参、鹿茸等等,从源头上就优选药材之地,确保药品质量。 胡庆余堂店内堂堂有匾,柱柱有联,高雅脱俗,别具一格。这里面所有的牌匾、楹联几乎都是供顾客观赏的,一律朝外悬挂。然而,唯有一块匾额却与众不同,它面朝店内,不为人知。这块牌匾就是开堂之初,胡雪岩亲笔跋文,用柚木雕琢的“戒欺”一匾,它高悬厅堂,被奉为店训。具体的内容如下:“凡百贸易均着不得欺字,药业关系性命,尤为万不可欺。余存心济世,誓不以劣品弋取厚利,惟愿诸君心余之心。采办务真,修制务精,不至欺予以欺世人,是则造福冥冥,谓诸君之善为余谋也可,谓诸君之善自为谋也亦可”。全文102字,字字珠玑。 在营业店堂的正上方,悬挂着“真不二价”的金字牌匾。这又意味着什么呢?传说在古代有个叫韩康的人,精通医药,以采药卖药为生。市场上别的卖药者常常以次充好,以假乱真,买卖时讨价还价喋喋不休。而韩康卖的都是货真价实的药材,他不容还价,他说好药就值这个价,叫“真不二价”。胡雪岩打出“真不二价”的旗帜,显然受“韩康卖药”故事的启发,向顾客正言,胡庆余堂的药,货真价实,童叟无欺,只卖一个价。此匾妙在反读之恰为“价二不真”,表明大家都不愿意买价廉而物劣的药品,有异曲同工的意义。 在营业大厅照面的门楼上,镌刻着“是乃仁术”四个大字。《孟子·梁惠王上》中记载:“无伤也,是乃仁术也。”旧时称医术为仁术,在中国古代社会中,医者享有崇高的地位,“不为良相则为良医”,这是士大夫的人生境界;“医者父母心”,这是黎民百姓对医师的认知。这四个字,也许最能诠释胡雪岩开药号的初衷。他在自己事业如日中天时,花巨资创办胡庆余堂,自然不是为了经济利益,而是为了实现其“兼济天下”的理想。一百多年来,就在“是乃仁术”精神的感召下,天下第一号“药局”赢得了“江南药王”的美誉,并撑起了中国中药的半壁江山。 而旧时药店供顾客休息的厅堂上,也挂着这样一副对联:“修合无人见,存心有天知。”说的是卖药的人要靠自我约束,药店赚的是良心钱。一副中药的炮制,常常多达十几道工序,每个环节稍一疏忽,都会影响药效。生药材中含有不少对人体有毒有害的成分,必须经过规范炮制方可入药。这里的“修”是指药材的整理加工;“合”则是配方制作,它涉及药材的种类、产地、质量、数量等诸多因素,直接影响药物的疗效。丸、散、膏、丹的“修合”过程,大多沿袭古代“丹方秘制”的传统惯例,神神秘秘,不容外人窥探。如果店家存心不良,以次充好或以少赚多,是很容易得手的,只有老天能知道你的诚心,于是便有了“修合无人见,存心有天知”的古训。 同时,为了使自己的诚信能让顾客触摸和感知,胡庆余堂在每次“修合”贵重成药之前,药店门口及周围一带会张贴告示,告白天下:胡庆余堂将制作×××药了。届时,恭迎民众入内察看。 至今,杭城的老百姓还流传着一则胡庆余堂“抬鹿游街”的故事。晚清、民国期间,胡庆余堂曾在南山路(涌金门旁)自辟养鹿场,饲养了一批东北梅花鹿。当时要制作“十全大补丸”时,就叫一群伙计穿着标有“胡庆余堂”的号衣,抬着活鹿,扛着“本堂谨则×月×日黄道良辰,虔诚修合大补全鹿丸。胡庆余堂雪记主任启”的公告牌,敲锣打鼓游街一圈,然后回来当众宰杀,以示本堂货真无诈。 从文献资料来看,胡雪岩对道德的自律,在他开店初编纂的《浙杭胡庆余堂雪记丸散全集》的经典序言中更是铿锵有声:“……药之真伪视乎心之真伪而已,嗜利之徒以伪混真,其心固不可问,即使尽力采办,不惜重资,而配合时铺友或偶涉粗忽,未能调剂得宜等分适合,无论有心无心,总之一经差错主人和铺友皆无以自问其心,爰集同人悉心拣选,精益求精,慎之又慎,莫谓人不及见,须知天理昭彰,近报己身,远报儿孙,可不儆乎?可不惧乎?……”拳拳之心,谆谆告诫,振聋发聩。

四、胡庆余堂旧药的新发展——膏剂 胡庆余堂生产的膏剂是声名远播的。膏剂是将多味药料用水煎煮,所得液汁,经浓缩加糖而成的一种黏稠的液体。膏剂起源于汤剂,在孙思邈的《千金翼方》中就有膏方的记载。旧社会,只是有钱人家才用得起膏方,因为膏剂制作工艺繁复,往往是中医郎中挑摊子上门,经过望闻问切,开出一人一方,立马制作。有时候,医师要在客家蹲上几天才能收工回家。这种上门配方制膏的服务,老百姓可望不可即。如今,随着人们生活水平的改善,膏方才进入寻常百姓家。 近几年来,每逢冬令进补,胡庆余堂国药号年年推出“养生膏方节”,胡庆余堂的老牌膏方,有自己的专业配伍,有自己的独特工艺,一百多年来一直被披上一次神秘的色彩。胡庆余堂将12款古膏方一齐展示在“膏方节”上,引得杭州市民一片热议和热销。比如,同样是一只“胡氏延寿膏”,就有寒体和热体之分。寒体用熟地、锁阳、杜仲,功效是补益精阳;热体用茯苓、丹皮、鳖甲,功效是补虚调气血。杭州何氏妇科传人何嘉言医生感慨地说:“我在胡庆余堂坐堂,同样的处方,同样的病人,服用了胡庆余堂的膏方就特别灵,为啥呢?想来想去,原因就在配方的饮片上,药材好效果就好,怀孕率特别高。”每逢胡庆余堂制膏时,国家级老药工及质管员深入一线,现场监督工艺的每一个步骤。一只膏方,从药方开始煎汁到最后凝膏,前后至少要10个小时。药材不地道,炮制不到位,收膏太薄易变质,收膏太厚要结焦等等环节,一旦出偏差就直接殃及膏质。为此,胡庆余堂再出高招:整个制膏流程,允许买家亲临察看。胡庆余堂一百多年的工艺秘籍,在当今的膏剂制作上,也落下了一个历史的韵脚。

五、胡庆余堂中药文化的传承新生——传承人冯根生 冯根生与胡庆余堂维系着一段百年不解的情缘。他出生于1934年,并于1949年进入胡庆余堂当学徒,从此开始他至今60多年的中药生涯。 学徒期满后,冯根生连续站了两年柜台,配方,撮药,卖丸散膏丹,花露药酒,使他三年学徒时所学知识开始大显身手。1954年,冯根生开始调到制胶车间,生产制胶用的驴皮,这活又脏又累又臭,他最终累倒在车间里。 1958年,行行业业“大跃进”,公私合营后的胡庆余堂规模扩大。冯根生调到当时任务最重的整炮车间,一干就是三年。60年代初,冯根生调到供销科,独自一人跑广东、广西、云南、贵州、四川采购药材,后来又当上了车间副主任。1968年后,他来到远离市区、远离厂部的桃花岭车间,当了车间主任。 1972年,杭州中药厂一分为二,桃花岭下的车间升格为杭州第二中药厂。37岁的冯根生被任命为厂长,从此开始了艰苦创业的历程。 面对厂房破旧、资金紧缺、没有主打产品的状况,冯根生下定“大干三年改变面貌”的决心,并在全厂大会上提出“有条件要上,没有条件创造条件也要上。”他带领职工自己动手整修厂房、道路。他招贤纳士,引进人才,一大批有真才实学的人才到了厂里。他组织力量,开拓新品,“生脉饮”、“双宝素”口服液、“半夏露”糖浆、“肝乐宁”糖浆、“复方五味子”糖浆、“脉通”胶丸、“艾油”气雾剂等一批新药研制出来,迅速走向了市场。 冯根生看问题总是一针见血,他认为,中药的问题在制剂。他指挥的中药生产技术的改造,包括原液提取的自动化,分封包装的机械化,药液输送的管道化,现场管理的科学化,中药生产由此步入了划时代的大工业生产之列。可以说,冯根生既是中国传统中药业的最后传人,也是中国现代中药的奠基人。作家黄宗英说:“中医药是我国科学与经济走向世界的种子选手,冯根生则是郎平。” 在中药的禁区——静脉注射液方面,冯根生持之以恒地组织攻关,经过上千次试验,终获成功。1976年10月,中药针剂车间竣工投产,不久,中国第一支用于静脉注射的中药制剂——参麦针,在杭州中药二厂批量生产,开启了中药新剂型发展的方向。以人参和蜂王浆为主料的“双宝素”口服液,一经推出,即深受市场欢迎,并成为“文化大革命”后首个在国际上打开销路的中国中药保健品。同时,参麦针、丹参针、养胃冲剂等几十个治疗药纷纷投产,杭州中药二厂的生产逐步走上现代化轨道。厂房也以建设国内一流厂房为目标,进行了大规模的建设和改造,并实现了工厂园林化。1982年6月,美联社记者威廉·赛克斯顿撰文在美国报纸上介绍杭州中药二厂,他写道:“除了一个特点(传统中药)之外,这家药厂的情景同纽约或者波士顿的先进化学生物研究所没有两样。” 当针剂、胶囊、药水、药片源源不断地被开发出来,古老的中药从“苦、大、丑、慢”变为“甜、小、美、快”之际冯根生把关注点从中药剂型转移到药品种类上来。本着“人无我有,人有我好,人好我变”的思路,他另辟蹊径,开拓保健药品。 冯根生组织科研人员,深入民间,披阅古籍,从中挖掘瑰宝。经过八方搜寻,先后有120多个方子入选,又经过几轮严格的筛选留下三个。冯根生坚持要选“好中之好,优中之优,极品中极品,精粹中之精粹,状元中之状元”。通过试验对比,遴选出了“益寿永贞”这方中药,这一方子来自一位老者指点的古代帝王宫闱——长陵,它是明成祖朱棣的滋补药。“益寿永贞”,意为增益寿命,长久不变。 实验的结果,使冯根生对古代医家、医术钦佩有加。“滋而不腻、温而不燥、刚柔并济、阴阳并求。”冯根生毫不犹豫地给“益寿永贞”下了16字评语。他要把“益寿永贞”,推向社会,让500年前的御用药品为现代人造福。他用“青春”这个充满魅力和希望的词汇,来给这只新药命名。 1982年6月18日,由中国国家医药总局组织的“青春宝抗衰老片”学术交流团到香港,进行为时10天的访问交流。整个香港为之轰动,各媒体争相报道。“青春宝”这个亮丽的名字,开始驻扎在海内外众多渴望健康、渴望青春的人们的心间。 在改革东风的鼓舞下,为摸索开创企业独立自主经营体制,使企业做大做强,在与外商合资的过程中,冯根生在集思广益的基础上,想出一个高招:“儿子生娘”——“儿子”即杭州第二中药厂,“娘”就在杭州第二中药厂之上,再组建一个中国青春宝集团公司。经过多轮谈判,与1991年9月,中国青春宝集团与泰国正大集团暨正大健康产品有限公司在北京正式签约,合资经营杭州第二中药厂。至此,经营了20年的杭卓第二中药厂,改称为正大青春宝药业有限公司(中外合资),它的中方“母体”——中国(杭州)青春宝集团有限公司正式挂牌成立。 当中国青春宝集团公司不断发展壮大之际,而胡庆余堂因经营不善每况愈下,外债和内债加在一起,濒临破产。1996年,由杭州市政府决定,胡庆余堂加入中国青春宝集团公司。加盟后的胡庆余堂作为中国青春宝公司的全资子企业,由青春宝集团公司实行统一管理,保留“胡庆余堂”的牌子,将“青春宝”强大的经济实力和成功经验与“胡庆余堂”的知名度聚合在一起,以更好地发挥“名牌、名厂、名人”效应,使之真正成为中国中药支柱企业。 改革时代的崇高使命,嫡传艺徒的感情渊源,让冯根生重返胡庆余堂,成为这个百年老店的新掌门人。经过一番调查研究后,冯根生有了使这个百年老店重新崛起的“妙方”:擦亮牌子,转换机制,理清摊子。兼并后的胡庆余堂借鉴“青春宝”的治理经验,经过一番整顿,三年前的亏损大户一跃而成为了纳税大户,企业职工福利大为改善,人人脸上挂上了“青春”的笑容,百年老字号开启了“返老还童”的崭新历程。 冯根生使江南药王重振雄风,冯根生使国药走向世界,他无愧为国宝级的现代企业家。

后记 此篇文章主要是在本人亲自去河坊街考察后,采访询问胡庆余堂中医药文化馆中相应人员,并结合孙群尔先生《胡庆余堂中医药文化》这本著作而完成的。在这里,要向所有帮助过我的胡庆余堂中医药文化馆的工作人员和讲解员表示感谢!

附录:胡庆余堂历史沿革及品牌纪年
1874年——创建胡庆余堂雪记国药号
1876年——南山路涌金门建立胡庆余堂胶厂
1914年——胡庆余堂雪记国药号上海分号成立
1929年——首届西湖博览会上,胡庆余堂饮片获特等奖
1955年——成立公私合营胡庆余堂国药号
1957年——在城西郊桃源岭新凉亭筹建制胶车间
1958年——叶种德堂并入胡庆余堂,更名为公私合营胡庆余堂制剂厂
1961年——胡庆余堂附设中药制剂学校成立
1966年——“文化大革命”起改名为杭州中药厂
1968年——杭州中药厂遂昌分厂成立
1972年——胶剂车间升为杭州第二中药厂
1979年——恢复杭州胡庆余堂制药厂
1980年——胡庆余堂国药号门市部恢复营业
1986年——胡庆余堂列为市级重点文物保护单位
1988年——胡庆余堂列为全国重点文物保护单位
1991年——胡庆余堂中药博物馆开馆
1992年——杭州第二中药厂成立母体企业中国青春宝集团公司
1995年——胡庆余堂被列入首批浙江省爱国主义教育基地
1996年——胡庆余堂被国内贸易部认证为“中华老字号”
1996年——胡庆余堂加入中国青春宝集团
1999年——胡庆余堂改制为杭州胡庆余堂药业有限公司
2001年——保和堂恢复,并归入胡庆余堂国药号
2001年——叶种德堂恢复营业
2002年——胡庆余堂上榜“中国驰名商标”
2003年——胡庆余堂被认定为浙江省首届知名商号
2003年——胡庆余堂投资有限公司成立
2006年——胡庆余堂中药文化入选首届国家非物质文化遗产名录
2007年——杭州胡庆余堂集团有限公司成立
2008年——胡庆余堂中药博物馆被列为青少年“第二课堂”教育基地

参考文献:孙群尔《胡庆余堂中医药文化》;浙江摄影出版社;2009年5月版;…...

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