Free Essay

Sustainable Tourism

In: Business and Management

Submitted By yogeshwar
Words 1572
Pages 7
A Paradigm for Sustainable Development

Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the historical development of Kenya’s nature based tourist industry in order to develop a better understanding of the concepts relating to sustainable tourism in the developing world. I will show how past resource management practices has affected tourism’s carrying capacity. Because of the complicatedness of this paper I will break it down into five sections. In the first section I will define sustainable development. In the second I will briefly describe the history and current state of nature based tourism in Kenya. In the third section I will give examples of elements that threaten to saturate the carrying capacity of nature based tourism in Kenya. In the fourth and final section I will give a brief historical account of ecotourism’s presence in Kenya and give ways in which it can be a possible source of sustainable development in the future.

What does sustainable development really mean?
The most common definition of sustainable development is: “development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987).” In essence, for sustainable development to occur there must be some sort of trade-off between the aspirations of the present and those of the future. Successful management of resources is the cornerstone of sustainable development. Creating sustainable development is especially important to nature based tourism because it completely relies on an ecological resource that is usually non-renewable and irreplaceable. Once the environmental resource has developed past the point where it is no longer attractive to perspective tourist the entire economy of the dependent host community will collapse.
The maximum amount of positive development that can occur is determined by the carrying capacity. The carrying capacity is the saturation point where anymore development will result in the degeneration of future resources. All nature-based tourism locations have limited ecological, aesthetic, and social carrying capacities. The ecological carrying capacity is reached when the number of visitors starts to have a negative impact on the wildlife and environment (Whelan, p. 11.). The aesthetic carrying capacity is reached when tourists encounter so many other tourists that the intrinsic value of the beauty of the environment is marred (Whelan, p. 11). The social carrying capacity is reached when the number of tourist in relation to the host population increases to the point where there is increasing unfriendliness, and hostility directed towards the tourist (Jackson, p. 90). When a tourist destination reaches the saturation point of any of the three carrying capacities a decrease in the revenue generated by tourism will result..
The most important point in devising an optimal tourism development policy is not to let tourism grow to the extent or in the form that it brings about its own demise. It is essential to determine and monitor the carrying capacity of a tourist location. Unfortunately very few areas in the developing worlds have identified the carrying capacity, or determined how to avoid exceeding the carrying capacity. This is especially true for fragile ecosystems where the carrying capacity can dramatically change from season to season and year to year (Whelan, p. 31).
Obtaining sustainable development is difficult, especially for developing countries. Widespread poverty and a general lack of financial resources make it difficult for poor countries to voluntarily curb growth. This is because often times sacrificing economic growth results in starvation and/or rampant suffering. Also, a community’s lack of financial resources can limit its ability to determine its economic direction. Also because the business in developing country’s are often owned by outside sources the locals have little or no input in business decisions. Furthermore developing countries often are plagued with political instability and governmental corruption that makes it difficult to enact ordinances controlling economic growth. Also, it is highly likely that by the time that a developing country realizes that their economic growth is unhealthy it is too late to turn back because of over-dependence on the tourism industry.
According to the Tourism Development Magic Pentagon-Pyramid, created by Hansruedi Müller, there are five variables that must be balanced to ensure sustainability. The five variables are: economic health, subjective wellbeing of the locals, unspoiled nature, protection of resources, healthy culture, and optimum satisfaction of guest. Each of the variables are equal in value. According to Muller for sustainable tourism to occur there must be absolute harmony among the variables. This would mean maximizing the positive relationships between all the factors while keeping the negative repercussions to a minimum

A brief history of nature based tourism in Kenya.
Kenya, commonly known as the ‘old man of nature tourism’, is the foremost ecotourism destination in the world (France, p. 90). Since 1987 nature based tourism has become Kenya’s largest foreign currency earner (Weaver, p. 114). In 1997 750,000 foreign tourist visited Kenya creating $502 million in revenue (Honey, p. 296).The strength of Kenya’s nature tourism can be attributed to Kenya’s vast park system and extensive wildlife population. Twenty-six parks, twenty-eight reserves, and one sanctuary span 17,000 square miles, or roughly 12 percent of Kenya’s territory (Honey, p. 294). Kenya boasts the largest concentration of wildlife anywhere in Africa as well as accommodating the greatest land migration of animals in the world (Honey, p. 293).
The national parks are built upon the colonial era of big game hunting. Big game hunting was a symbol of Western superiority, not only over nature but racial and class domination. At the turn of the twentieth century Kenya was covered by healthy populations of a wide variety of wildlife. The animals were allowed to roam freely across the land, living in harmony with the native Africans. Soon after the colononization of Kenya in the late nineteenth century the “great white hunters” Made fortunes by selling ivory. The colonial powers encouraged the white setles to kill at will so that they could use the land for agricultural purposes. Hundreds of thousands of elephantst were decimated (Whelan, p. 24). The National Parks Ordinance of 1945 was teh first peace of hunting legislation which was designed to protect the wildlife from the native people.. Gradually it created what is now Kenya’s National Park System. When the national parks were created hundreds of thousands of rural people were forced to relocate outside of the parks boundaries (Honey, article). Even after Kenya’s independence in 1963 Colonialism and Western dominance could still be seen and understood in the way in which the Parks were managed.
During the 1950’s Kenya only attracted about 1000 foreign tourist a year, most of whom were white elitist (Weaver, p. 120). After independence Kenya’s government made growth in the tourism sector a top priority. In 1965, a special department of tourism was created to develop a strategy to popularize Kenya as an attractive tourist destination (France, p. 91). Fueled by government incentives to foreign investors and major airlines the tourism industry grew at the astonishing rate of more than 300 percent between 1960 and 1972 (Honey p. 295). A significant proportion of the tourism being generated was Big game hunting by Europeans and Americans. By the 1970’s over hunting was threatening the survival of the big game species such as elephants, rhinos, and leopards. In 1977 the Kenyan government responded by declaring a complete ban on hunting (Whelan, p. 25). Despite the ban on hunting poaching still continued. Park management incompetence, corruption and the worldwide demand on ivory and other game products proliferated poaching. Between 1975 and 1990, Kenya’s elephant population dropped by 85 percent, and its rhinoceros population fell by 97 percent (Honey, p. 299).
Following the ban wildlife viewing safaris replaced hunting, and within five years of the ban on hunting, nature tourism was a booming business (Whelan, p. 25). In 1987 the Hollywood film Out of Africa promoted Kenya’s natural beauty, breathtaking scenery, and wildlife which served to boost nature based tourism even more. In 1989 650,000 ecotourists, nearly twice the number as a decade before, visited Kenya (Whelan, p. 26). During the 1990’s Kenya’s tourism has been tumultuous. The Persian Gulf war caused tourism arrivals to drop and between 1990-91 Kenya’s share of the African market shrank 2% (Honey, p. 297). Between 1997 and mid-1998 election unrest, politically instigated ethnic clashes and killings along the coast, a crime wave, and unusually heavy rains caused 30 percent of the tourism sector workforce to be laid off (Honey, p. 297). In August 1998 the explosion of a terrorist bomb in the U.S. Embassy in downtown Nairobi caused the State Department to issue a travel warning, advising Americans against traveling to Kenya (Honey, p. 297). This event caused many Americans to cancel travel arrangements and Kenya’s tourist industry suffered even more. Over the past year the industry has recovered some. Hotels which were operating at 40 percent in 1998 are now operating at between 80-100 percent (Foottit, p. 32). Tourism in Kenya has had a turbulent history. There are many problems that face Kenya’s tourism industry. Decimation of wildlife populations, park overcrowding, financial ineptitude, and political instability are threatening the sustainable development of Kenya’s tourism resources. Changes in governmental attitudes and regulations are necessary for the preservation of Kenya’s natural resources…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism

...the characteristics of the tourism industry that can provide challenges for the implementation of sustainable tourism. This essay will include a description of the concept of sustainable tourism, the goal of sustainable tourism, characteristics of sustainable tourism ,the challenges of sustainable tourism and a conclusion. The entire world, including the tourism industry, is facing the economic problem of man’s unlimited needs appose to society’s limited resources( Du Toit et al.,2010) Therefore all industries has to become more sustainable, including the tourism industry. The concept of sustainable tourism can be defined as meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It includes the management of all resources in such a way that social, economic and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems( Ivanovic et al., 2009) According to Ivanovic et al (2009) the goal of sustainable tourism is to minimises the negative economic environmental and social impact of tourism, to enhance the well being of host communities, improve working conditions and to make positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage sites. The tourism industry has some very specific characteristics which can cause challenges for the implementation of sustainable tourism. According to George,......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism

...“Casino Filipino: It’s impact to the Tourism Industry as perceived by the resident of Tagaytay City” aimed to determine the acceptability of Casino Filipino and its impacts to tourism industry as perceived by the residents of Tagaytay City. They find out the cultural, economic, and social impacts of Casino Filipino to the tourism industry as perceived by the residents of Tagaytay City. They used the descriptive form of method research to gather the needed information. They asked 150 residents of Tagaytay City. Questionnaire was used as the main tool in gathering needed information. In cultural impacts, the highest mean of score they got is in the preservation and restoration of heritage site, next is the acceptance of tourist values, revival of traditional arts and crafts. In economic impacts, the highest mean of score they got is in the better employment opportunities, next is the improved community infrastructure, and improvement of small businessess. Last is the social impacts, the residents respond by giving highest score in increasing public service, benefits to the residents, improved the communication skills is also considered. All of the three impacts as we can see is respectively agreed by the respondent. Coccossis (1996) asserts that sustainable tourism can be taken in four different interpretations that include” economic sustainability of tourism”, the “ecologically Sustainable tourism”,” sustainable tourism development” with both focus of......

Words: 491 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sustainable Tourism

...Sustainable Tourism thrive destinations by Sabah, Malaysia – Did you know? Natural heritage destruction by human made is the highest rate compare to the scourge. If you ever travel, you are either wittingly or unwittingly part of a delicate and complicated morass facing today’s tourism destinations: How do we attract and service the greatest number of tourists without causing irreparable change or damage to the destination’s resources? This is followed by a question that is still begging for an answer: Is the notion of sustainable tourism one that can truly be achieved in a practical, capitalist-minded world? Most of us would agree in our travels we want to enjoy ourselves and do it in a way that causes “the least harm.” We want to maintain precious resources such as air, water, marine habitats and species, animal populations and indigenous peoples. However, in certain cases, tourism has been an actor in a tableau vivant of lost resources in various places around the world. In most development scenarios, sustainable tourism is thought of in terms of whether the tourism itself is sustainable (economically viable over a long period of time) not whether the tourism is doing the least amount of harm to resources. This is not to say development impacts are not considered through required regulations but clearly the facteur principal of development is capitalism. “Purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the environment, taking care...

Words: 2740 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism

...Sustainable tourism is an industry committed to making a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for the local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves. But sustainable tourism is not the same as ecotourism. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Commission on Sustainable Development Seventh Session 19-30 April 1999, New York TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: A LOCAL AUTHORITY PERSPECTIVE Background Paper # 3 Prepared by the International Council on Local Environmental Initiatives 2 Sustainable Tourism: A Local Authority Perspective prepared by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) A. Introduction 1. A primary challenge of local governance, both today and in decades ahead, is to steer increasingly external, global forces on local development so that development achieves the shared vision of the local population. In cities, towns and villages throughout the world, the primary responsibility for this steering process rests with the institution of local government and its diverse local authorities. 2. As providers of social services, builders of economic infrastructure, regulators of economic activity, and managers of the natural environment, local authorities have many direct instruments at their disposal to influence......

Words: 4990 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism in Tagaytay

...Filipino: It’s impact to the Tourism Industry as perceived by the resident of Tagaytay City” aimed to determine the acceptability of Casino Filipino and its impacts to tourism industry as perceived by the residents of Tagaytay City. They find out the cultural, economic, and social impacts of Casino Filipino to the tourism industry as perceived by the residents of Tagaytay City. They used the descriptive form of method research to gather the needed information. They asked 150 residents of Tagaytay City. Questionnaire was used as the main tool in gathering needed information. In cultural impacts, the highest mean of score they got is in the preservation and restoration of heritage site, next is the acceptance of tourist values, revival of traditional arts and crafts. In economic impacts, the highest mean of score they got is in the better employment opportunities, next is the improved community infrastructure, and improvement of small businessess. Last is the social impacts, the residents respond by giving highest score in increasing public service, benefits to the residents, improved the communication skills is also considered. All of the three impacts as we can see is respectively agreed by the respondent. Coccossis (1996) asserts that sustainable tourism can be taken in four different interpretations that include” economic sustainability of tourism”, the “ecologically Sustainable tourism”,” sustainable tourism development”......

Words: 292 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria

...The Partnership for Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria (GSTC Partnership) is a coalition of 27 organizations working together to foster increased understanding of sustainable tourism practices and the adoption of universal sustainable tourism principles. The Partnership was initiated by the Rainforest Alliance, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Foundation, and the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).  Objectives Sustainable tourism is on the rise: consumer demand is growing, travel industry suppliers are developing new green programs, and governments are creating new policies to encourage sustainable practices in tourism. But what does sustainable tourism really mean and how can it be measured and credibly demonstrated to build consumer confidence, promote efficiency, and fight greenwashing? In an effort to come to a common understanding of sustainable tourism, the GSTC Partnership is developing a set of baseline criteria organized around the four pillars of sustainable tourism: effective sustainability planning; maximizing social and economic benefits to the local community; reduction of negative impacts to cultural heritage; and reduction of negative impacts to environmental heritage.  To develop these criteria, the partnership consulted with sustainability experts and the tourism industry and reviewed more than 60 existing certification and voluntary sets of criteria already being implemented around the globe. In all,......

Words: 1778 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism

...Sustainable tourism is one of the pre-requisites of achieving sustainable development. the concept of tourism with sustainability and development gets its historical inclusion from mass tourism that got flourished in 1960s due to advent of jet aircraft and the passions for tourism got tremendous following and it also reached Third World countries (Dann, 2002). It was also argued that this boost pushed organizations like World Bank and UN to examine the cost benefit analysis of tourism and it was acknowledged that potential costs of tourism are far lower than financial benefits in shape of balance pf payment surpluses, infrastructure development, and employment and foreign exchange gains. So that gave rise to the concept of sustainable tourism as one of the source of bringing sustainable development. According to the World’s Summit on Sustainable Development (2002), it is claimed that Tourism is the world’s largest industry where in 2000, 698 million people travelled internationally which 7.3 % more than 1999. Similarly the economic worth of international tourism was US$477.9 billion in 2000 (Papers4you.com, 2006). In terms of one concrete definition, literature suggests that it is not fixed and is ever evolving. However Coccossis (1996) asserts that sustainable tourism can be taken in four different interpretations that include” economic sustainability of tourism”, the “ecologically sustainable tourism”,” sustainable tourism development” with both focus of environment......

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism - Myth or Reality?

...Sustainable Tourism should have a minimal impact on the environment with building the cultural and environmental awareness, providing positive experiences, and giving both financial benefits for the local people and for conservation in that area. In South-east Peru located in the Amazon Rainforest is The Posada Amazonas eco-lodge. It’s situated in a national reserve called Tambopata that conserves 275,000 hectares of land. It’s a sustainable eco-lodge in that only small-scale development is allowed here, so all activities helping development for tourism is not going to exploit the natural resources. The land and the lodge are owned by the local indigenous community of Infierno, who are in partnership with Rainforest Expeditions who are a Peruvian company. The 30-roomed lodge allows tourists to view the nature around them, and with doing so this boosts the local economy, yet still protecting the environment as there are only 40-50 visitors arriving by small boats at a time. The construction of the lodge allowed people to have jobs in building and designing the area, furthermore, the lodge was constructed with local natural materials, avoiding the use of non-renewable material and instead using recyclable material where possible. This has created new forms of income to the surrounding communities, but also takes care of the environment. Education is an aspect of sustainable tourism, The Posada Amazonas offers education, conservation and research faculties, and the forest,......

Words: 685 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism in Island Destinations

...Sustainable Tourism in Island Destinations Graci, Sonya and Dodds, Rachel Earthscan, 2010 By Jessica Sam Published in 2010, Sustainable Tourism in Island Destinations by Sonya Graci and Rachel Dodds is the fourth title in the Earthscan series following Slow Travel and Tourism, Tourism and Poverty Reduction and Tourism Development and the Environment: Beyond Sustainability? This book extensively overviews and critically explores the relationship between tourism, development and the environment of islands reflecting contemporary economic, socio-cultural and political contexts. S. Graci is an Assistant Professor at Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada while R. Dodds is an Associate Professor at the same institution. The authors’ use several of their very own island project works that provide innovative discussion and practical management structures to explore the development role of tourism in relation to the impacts of the environment and their potential overexploitation threats. The authors’ provide eight well-chosen illustrative case studies to focus on innovative discussions regarding issues of sustainability on island tourism destinations, they include sub-jurisdiction islands such as Moose Factory, Canada; Cayos Cochinos, Honduras; St. Kitts; Calvia, Mallorca, Spain; Chumbe, Tanzania; Koh Phi Phi, Thailand; Gili Trawangan, Indonesia; and Sanya, China. The hard-covered book looks very bright appealing,......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism

...attention has been paid to the effects of tourism and related developments upon the environment of ‘destination areas’. The increasing popularity of the concept of sustainable development has resulted in tourism being viewed as an activity which could easily be developed along those appropriate lines. It is argued, however, that such a viewpoint is often simplistic and naïve, because of a lack of understanding of the complex nature of tourism. While tourism is dependent upon the environment for much of its well-being, the prevailing lack of knowledge, responsibility, and long-term planning, has often resulted in development which is neither environmentally nor culturally sympathetic to the host area and community. A broad definition of environment is necessary in this context, encompassing both the physical and human realms and also Nature's, as is an equally wide view of human leisure activities, which needs to include far more than tourism. It is necessary to take a critical view of some alternative approaches to mass-tourism, which have been suggested as appropriate for environmentally significant areas; for at least some of the problems resulting from tourism-related developments are more profound, and less easily solved, than has often been suggested. Solutions are inevitably a combination of compromise and positive planning and management, and successful examples are difficult to find. Improved understanding of the complex nature of tourism, and of its linkages to the......

Words: 358 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism Short Essay

...Running Head: TOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Ethical implications of tourism in developing countries Emily McIntyre 3378148 September 26, 2006 TREN 3P12 Sonya Graci Introduction: Tourism is instituted in ad hoc fashion, with little regard to appropriate socio-ecological planning. This paper outlines the ethical implications of tourism in terms of the social and political, environmental and economical issues in developing countries. All resolutions for these implications, follow the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) which is a set of principles whose purpose is to guide stakeholders in tourism development: central and local governments, local communities, the tourism industry and its professionals, as well as visitors both international and local (UNWTO, n.d.). Background on the industry: In general, tourism occurs in developing countries, because businesses have adopted a development-oriented perspective. The emphasis is on development (use) in order to reach optimal economic gain by extractive use of resources rather than protection and preservation (Fennell, 2002). There has been a trend in humans, to take on the role of being bad rules, by trying to exploit and dominate for short-term personal gain at any expense (Peterson, 1996). It is a harsh reality that there are a significant lack of resources for effective management of visitors and the environment (Fennell, 2002). Therefore, resource management is a critical issue......

Words: 1900 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism; Myth or Reality?

...Sustainable Tourism; Myth or Reality? Sustainable Tourism is a term derived from the 1978 Rio Summit United Nations Report on the Environment which can be defined as; “Tourism development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability for future generations to meet their own needs.” In the following agenda 21 process, travel and tourism was one of the industries identified as having the potential to make a positive contribution to a healthier planet. The diagrams above shows that if tourist destination is to be sustainable, it must aim to be a balance between social, environmental and economic factors to ensure that no damage is done which has the potential to be detrimental in the future. Ecotourism is a sub-component of the field of sustainable tourism. Eco-tourism's perceived potential as an effective tool for sustainable development is the main reason why developing countries are now embracing it and including it in their economic development and conservation strategies. Eco-tourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study, or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is; a tourism based on the nature experience, which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Eco-tourism destinations such as the Palau Conservation Society encourages sustainable development to......

Words: 1173 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism: Myth or Reality:

...Sustainable tourism is when tourists leave no lasting impact on the local environment, economy and society. This includes responsible tourism, which can involve respecting local culture and religion – for example dressing appropriately near and in places of worship. Sustainable tourism should also make positive contributions to the economy and sustain conservation. Sustainable tourism has been achieved in a number of places. Santa Lucía is a community owned cloud forest reserve, located on the edge of the Andean Mountains about 80 km Norh West of Quito. The reserve protects 730 hectares of predominantly virgin cloud forest at an elevation of 1900m. The Santa Lucía ecotourism project was the community's first of many sustainable development projects established with the help of Rainforest Concern. The natural beauty and diversity of Santa Lucía's cloud forest makes ecotourism a logical choice to provide a sustainable source of income for the community. This income enables the community to continue to conserve the cloud forest under their care, while at the same time sharing its diverse treasures with others. It is clear from these examples that sustainable tourism can exist and have a positive impact on the local area. Furthermore, there are additional benefits in that it can help make people more aware of their carbon footprint and inspire them to replicate projects back in their home country. However there are several criticisms of this type of tourism; firstly......

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sustainable Tourism

...developing and promoting Cuatro Islas as a world class eco-tourism destination in Leyte. Introduction Tourism has often been seen a key element in the development of places and destinations, which are adopting branding strategies that is meant to gain a competitive position and assert their identity - in their communication with potential tourists” Tourists are always interested in knowing how their economies fare as compared with their competitors. A specific SWOT analysis can be a useful tool to analyze the state of an economy and help tourist destinations to improve their fundamentals. With global international tourist arrivals reaching one billion each year, and growth only expected to increase, opportunities in the tourism industry are endless. Yet many destinations and tourism businesses fail to achieve success. Why are so many destinations struggling in a climate that is ripe for tourism? Marketing and destination branding is a major part of the problem, but it is also an integral part of the solution. Today’s traveler can virtually tour destinations at the touch of a finger, communicate with distant islands on their way to the office and plan customized adventures through simple online platforms. By failing to connect with and captivate this virtual audience, many tourism enterprises are fighting an uphill battle. Therefore, stop marketing. Start marketing with a purpose. Without the correct combination of tourism marketing strategies, tools, and technology,......

Words: 2803 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Is Tourism Sustainable

...The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/1755-4217.htm WHATT 1,3 Is tourism with a low impact on climate possible? Jonathan Chenoweth Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a range of different travel and tourism options, and quantifies the carbon-dioxide emissions resulting from international vacations, breaking down emissions categories into those resulting from transport, accommodation and recreation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses summary data to review a range of possible vacation scenarios and examines their relative carbon-dioxide emissions in order to compare the relative climatic impact of different forms of tourism and vacation options. Findings – The paper concludes that intercontinental flights and cruise ship travel are particularly carbon-intensive, which suggests that these two forms of tourism will be particularly vulnerable to any policy initiative to curb or price carbon emissions. Ends by considering whether climatically responsible international tourism is possible, and outlines some low-carbon options. Originality/value – The paper relates data on carbon emissions to the implications for tourism arising from climate change. Keywords Climatology, Tourism, Global warming Paper type General review 274 The nature of the challenge While much of the discussion about the climate......

Words: 6208 - Pages: 25