Free Essay

Social Media Impact on Marketing

In: Business and Management

Submitted By frigoglass
Words 6133
Pages 25
University of World and National Economy

Department: Economics in English


Topic: Old Spice
(Social Media Impact on Marketing)

Year 2012

1 What is Social Media 2
2 Classification of social media 3
3 How does social media work 4
4 Why is social media so popular 5
5 Social media and marketing 6
6 Old Spice – the Company 7
7 Marketing Strategy 8
8 The beginning of “Smell like a man, man!” campaign 9 8.1 It’s not about Social 10 8.2 Define the right strategy before defining the digital agenda 11 8.3 Leave room for experimentation, even failure 11
9 The Post-Old-Spice principles of social media marketing 11 9.1 Create a persona that is strong and on point 11 9.2 Seed social networks with invitations to interact 12 9.3 Engage the engaged, the famous and the influencers 12 9.4 Personalize the response and people will compete for inclusion 13 9.5 Make it episodic and easy to share 13 9.6 Keep the videos simple and short 13 9.7 Promote it with tie-ins offline 14
10 Conclusion 14
11 Sources 15

What is Social Media It is a revolutionary way of communicating with the audience. It includes web based and mobile technologies, making communities, organizations and individuals interact. Social media is defined by Michael Haenlein and Andreas Caplan as: "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content." What about Web 2.0? It is a new generation of internet information and entertainment where the user is not just receiving content but he or she is a part of the web experience. Today, social media is something established in our lives. It is also a very powerful tool that can influence different groups of people, especially the young.
Social media is best understood as a group of new kinds of online media, which share most or all of the following characteristics:
Participation- social media encourages contributions and feedback from everyone who is interested. It blurs the line between media and audience.
Openness- most social media services are open to feedback and participation. They encourage voting, comments and the sharing of information. There are rarely any barriers to accessing and making use of content – password-protected content is frowned on.
Conversation- whereas traditional media is about “broadcast” (content transmitted or distributed to an audience) social media is better seen as a two-way conversation.
Community- social media allows communities to form quickly and communicate effectively.
Communities share common interests, such as a love of photography, a political issue or a favorite TV show.
Connectedness- most kinds of social media thrive on their connectedness, making use of links to other sites, resources and people. As we can see from the above characteristics, social media comes very close to the human personality. There is some resemblance with the basic needs which we all have and namely self-actualization, belonging and esteem.
Classification of social media While Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn might be the first sites that come to mind when thinking of these popular websites do not represent the full scope of social networks that exist. There are many other websites and platforms that use the same techniques of user interaction.
Community Social-networking Sites This is a broad term for any social-networking site whose purpose is to help users identify and enlarge their social networks by searching for existing contacts and finding new ones. Some of these community sites aim for a particular demographic: LinkedIn attracts working professionals; the original Facebook stuck to college kids; Black Planet, Asian Avenue target racial and ethnic affiliations. But other sites, like MySpace, Facebook and Hi5 are general community sites in which users can form smaller groups based on interests or demographics.
Media Sharing Sites These are sites where the main activities are uploading photos and videos and viewing other user's photos and videos. You don't have to be a member of the site to look at other people's pictures and movies, but you have to join to upload your own. Once you've joined, you can invite other users to be your friend, at which point they'll be added to your page as links with profile photos. YouTube is the most popular video-sharing site and Flickr is one of the best-known photo-sharing sites. We should mention that many of the general community sites include media-sharing elements, like the ability to post pictures, videos and music on personal profiles.
Social Bookmarking Sites Bookmarking is the practice of saving a link to a Web site in your Web browser. Social bookmarking, on the other hand, is saving that same link to a special social bookmarking Web site where other people can see what you're bookmarking. When you save a link to a social bookmarking Web site, you tag it with as many keywords as you like. Other people can look up bookmarks by tags, or they can browse by the most popular or most recent bookmarks. If you like the kind of links someone else is collecting, you can add that person to your network and receive notifications when they add a new bookmark. Examples of popular social bookmarking sites are Digg and Furl.
Blogging Social Networks These are social-networking sites, which bring together individuals and their blogs. Instead of a simple profile, each user keeps a running Weblog on topics of their choice. Sites like Livejournal, Blogger and Xanga allow users to search and browse for interesting blogs. When you find a kindred spirit, add his blog to your list of friends. You can form communities with other bloggers.
Music Social Networks Sites like Pandora, Last.Fm and iLike are a new breed of social-networking sites based on sharing music with friends. Pandora and Last.Fm work like streaming radio stations. You enter an artist name and the Web site creates a play list of songs that it thinks you'll like. You can play the full list in your browser and even rate the songs so that the Web site gets to know your tastes better. You can share your play lists and favorite songs with "friends" who are part of your network. Many of the more than 300 social-networking sites fall outside these five categories. But no matter the specific audience or goal of a social-networking site, they can all be powerful social-networking tools by strengthening our connections.
How does social media work Social media can be described as "our connections with other people." A social network is a social structure that maps out the relationships between individuals. Technically we all belong to one giant social network, but we also belong to smaller, tighter social networks defined by our families, our friends, where we live, where we work, where we went to school, our hobbies and interests and much more. When you create a profile on a social-networking site, you literally put yourself on the social-networking map. You can use the Web site to: * look up old friends; make new ones * share music, photos and videos * join groups based on interests such as politics, hobbies or favorite TV shows * find jobs or love; or browse for the weirdest profile picture To join any social-networking site, you'll first be asked to choose a login name and password. Once you're a member, you'll be asked to fill out some basic personal information, such as name, sex, age, location, hobbies/interests, etc. A lot of sites also allow you to upload a photo of yourself. This information is used to build a basic profile. Online profiles give us a chance to put our best foot forward and choose to share only the parts of our lives that are the most interesting. A disadvantage is that visitors to your profile could "label" you as a one-dimensional figure -- a punk music fan, a sports fanatic, a depressed poet -- instead of a whole person. On most social-networking sites, you can control who can view your full profile. On some sites, only "friends," or people who you've added to your network can see all the information on your profile, while others can only see your photo and some basic stats like your age and location. This gives the chance to connect and exchange information and experience with many people from around the world, find new friends and people with the same ideas.
Why is social media so popular The use of social media is growing rapidly. For marketing professionals, social media is a new outlet that can potentially be used to help increase the interest in a product or service.It used to be that the ability to create content and distribute it to an audience was limited to individuals and organizations that owned the production facilities and infrastructure to do so. In other words: ‘the media’. If you were in the video creation and distribution business you were called a TV station and employed thousands of highly skilled individuals to write, film, edit and broadcast your content through a relatively small number of channels to the public. Similarly, if you were a newspaper, you hired a team of reporters and editors, designers, typesetters, printers and delivery men, and had deals with a network of newsagents for them to sell your product to your audience. With the advent of digital technology and the internet it became a lot easier for people to create their own content, be it images, words, video or audio. But even five years ago, it was still beyond most people’s technical skills to create and maintain their own website. Today, the ever-lower costs of computers, digital cameras and high-speed internet access, combined with free or low-cost, easy-to-use editing software means that anyone can have a live blog website up and running within minutes of deciding to do so. With a little reading and fiddling they can upload video or sound too.

Social media and marketing Over the past several years, social media have emerged to redefine the digital media landscape and, in the process, have changed the way we think about the dissemination of marketing messages. In particular, Facebook has facilitated two unique consumer experiences of interest to brand marketers: * The ability for consumers to identify brands of interest and connect with them has enabled sharing between brands and consumers in new ways. Brands and their consumers can now create two-way relationships and share content, news, and feedback. * Social media also have facilitated innovative ways of sharing information about brands between friends. Whether consumers are voicing their affinity for certain brands or their experiences with products and services, Facebook not only encourages this type of sharing but can accelerate its reach and virility. Brands increasingly are interested in establishing a social presence and engaging with their fans, helping shape their customers’ experiences, and even leveraging their voices for greater marketing impact. Underscoring the importance of this channel, 100 percent of the Advertising Age Top 100 Advertisers have established Facebook pages for their brands. As this new marketing paradigm unfolds, there is palpable excitement about its potential to drive value for businesses but also anxiety about the difficulty of grasping the full promise of this emerging medium. According to a study conducted by the Harvard Business Review, only 12 percent of companies surveyed indicated that they were effective users of social media; just 7 percent said they were able to integrate social media into their marketing activities. These problems are all too common for businesses attempting to succeed in today’s social-media environment. Part of the challenge is that as social media have evolved, the research methodologies and key metrics developed to describe social activity have served to isolate—rather than integrate—into traditional marketing terms. For example, most research on branded content on social platforms has focused on describing the incidence of these types of branded content (and, to a lesser degree, categorizing it as “positive” or “negative”) without regard to the size or composition of the audience receiving that content. Simply knowing how many brand mentions exist does little to provide insights for the potential impact of that content. In fact, it actually can lead brands to focus on suboptimal strategies because it highlights only content creators—at the cost of not understanding its distribution. The current research indicates that an approach that is instead focused on the audience of branded content on social platforms—namely, audience reach and frequency—can unlock a much better understanding of the true impact (and, therefore, value) of those impressions. This approach is more favorable because it allows brands to focus on marketing activities that drive scale within audiences of interest. Additionally, it provides brands the opportunity to understand the profile of those audiences reached with various types of content and to begin to understand the impact of that content exposure. Important is that an approach focused on audience reach and frequency also would serve to integrate brand activity on social platforms with other parts of the marketing mix because reach, frequency, and Gross Ratings Point (GRPs) are standard units of measurement across most media channels, including television, online, radio, and print.
Old Spice – the Company Old Spice is a prominent American brand of male grooming products. It is manufactured by Procter & Gamble, which acquired the brand in 1990 from the Shulton Company. The Shulton Company, original producer of Old Spice, was founded in 1934 by William Lightfoot Schultz. The first Old Spice product was for women, introduced in 1937. Old Spice for men followed in 1938. The men's products were dominated by shaving soap and aftershave lotion, marketed with a nautical theme. Sailing ships in particular were used as a trademark. The original ships used on the packaging were the Grand Turk and the Friendship. Other ships used on Old Spice packaging include the John Wesley, Salem, Birmingham, Maria Teresa, Propontis, Recovery, Sooloo, Star of the West, Constitution, Java, United States, and Hamilton. Procter & Gamble purchased Old Spice from the Shulton Company in June 1990. The clipper ship was replaced by the yacht logo in February 1992. In the late 2000s, Procter & Gamble introduced many forms of deodorant sticks, body washes, and body sprays in several scents under the Old Spice brand.
"If your grandfather hadn't worn it, you wouldn't exist."
"The original" In early 2008, the original Old Spice scent was repackaged as "Classic Scent," both in the after shave and cologne versions. The traditional white glass bottles gave way to plastic, and the grey stoppers to red. Old Spice Classic shower gel is sold using the slogan "The original. If your grandfather hadn't worn it, you wouldn't exist.
Marketing Strategy Procter & Gamble, the company behind the Old Spice line of men's deodorants, aftershaves and other toiletries, took a brand that of late has made people think of their uncle or that old guy down the street and not only made it cool again, but made it one of the most talked-about names on the Internet. P&G translated a successful TV campaign into a monster viral Internet phenomenon. The campaign is simple: The manly star from the TV spots responds to queries on Twitter via humorous 30-second YouTube videos that are being watched and re-tweeted with abandon. The company has a character who is not only loved by ladies, but equally loved by guys. A woman's man that was okay for men to love. Then they realized there were no edges to where he could exist. Snarky and often hilarious, the videos quickly went viral, where they have surpassed 100 million views and quickly made Old Spice the all-time most-viewed sponsored channel on YouTube. At one point on July 16, a, the brand owned eight of the 11 most popular videos on the service. More importantly, Old Spice body wash sales reportedly more than doubled year over year, and that was before the YouTube videos kicked in. By locking the campaign into any proprietary place would have just severely limited the exposure it would get and diminish it. The whole idea of responding to people and being very smart about who the company decided to respond to, and in what manner, that wouldn't have worked if it hadn't done it in a format like YouTube where they are able to embed it. People are very familiar with the ways of sharing it, liking it, and favoring it, and just the fact that it can go everywhere very quickly was a huge positive. Old Spice knew it couldn't be just responding to tweets in words, that wouldn't have felt so special and had been done before. The fact that they were able to do this in video feels appropriate in relation to the prior TV ads. It's not just responding to tweets, it's looking at the environment right now. YouTube is the place where people share video. Twitter is the place where--celebrities dying or whatever it is--those things blow up so quickly. Old Spice knew that it can only run this thing for a short time so Twitter felt like the place to create the explosion. It's keeping the allure and mystique of this guy alive. Finding that balance between exposing him to the world, (not literally), without overexposing him is really important. Obviously it doesn't have the same level of high production value as the TV ads, but just enough to make it feel like it ties into everything people have seen before. The production level is the key there. P&G launched an Old Spice social media blitz that will have its YouTube videos being replayed for months -- and will leave other companies studying how it did it."The Old Spice strategy makes brilliant use of social media," said Augie Ray, an analyst at Forrester Research Inc. "The response has been terrific. Social networks are buzzing. Video re-sharing has been very high, and the Old Spice YouTube channel now has 75 million total upload views. And this effort shows evidence of going even more viral."Old Spice received a lot of attention when it first aired some quirky commercials featuring ex-football player Isaiah Mustafa, who promoted Old Spice products while making fun of heart throbs from Harlequin romance novels. Procter & Gamble featured Mustafa in a series of quick-hit videos that responded individually to messages and questions that some fans submitted via Facebook, Yahoo and Twitter. The videos -- which featured Mustafa bare-chested and with a towel wrapped around his waist, holding an Old Spice bottle and addressing individual users, such as "W. Spencer on Twitter" and "Rose from Yahoo" -- had people flocking to YouTube to play and replay them. Even comedian and talk show host Ellen DeGeneres and actress Alyssa Milano got in on the action, posting their own questions and receiving personalized video responses. The videos were released over a period of a few days during the week. The Old Spice videos, which were the brainchild of Portland, Ore.-based ad agency Wieden + Kennedy, accounted for seven of the top 10 videos on YouTube."Certainly, they showed everyone how to create viral videos," said Rob Enderle, principal analyst at Enderle Group. "This was surprisingly good work from a brand that most folks had largely written off as obsolete. They created an entertaining video that also made the company appear new and trendy." “Using social networks like Twitter and YouTube was a big part of making that happens”, added Enderle. Using Facebook, Yahoo and Twitter, customers -- and noncustomers who were amused by the effort -- sent in questions as silly as "How do I get women to stop chasing me after I use Old Spice body wash?" And many of them were able to see Mustafa give funny answers to their specific questions.
“It's all about customer participation.”
The beginning of “Smell like a man, man!” campaign For P&G, it began with a Super Bowl that introduced its brand character, the Old Spice Man. Played by shirtless baritone Isaiah Mustafa, a handsome, former NFL wide receiver with a polished comedic sense of timing and washboard abs, the Old Spice Man promised women he was "the man your man could smell like," even if no man could ever be as truly manly as The Old Spice Man. The original Super Bowl commercial was created by legendary ad agency Wieden + Kennedy, which is best known for its Nike, Honda and ESPN Sports Center commercials. It has been viewed on YouTube more than 13 million times. Five months later, Wieden posted a simple message on Old Spice's Facebook and Twitter page: "Today could be just like the other 364 days you log into Twitter or maybe the Old Spice Man shows up" And show up he did. As people tweeted questions about manliness to the Old Spice Man, he began posting near-real-time video vignettes responding to the queries, all in character and with no small degree of humor as he stood bare-chested, abdominals front and center in a bathroom set with the creative crew and comedy copywriters of Wieden + Kennedy behind the camera furiously writing jokes and chasing down props. In a two-day blitz, the team produced more than 180 video "shout-outs," including a marriage proposal (she accepted) and exchanges with celebrities including Ellen DeGeneres, Demi Moore, Christina Applegate, Alysa Milano, George Stephanopoulos, Olympics speed skater ApoloOhno, gossip blogger Perez Hilton, tech gadget blog Gizmodo, Stanley Cup champions Chicago Blackhawks and Starbucks (which now has 10 million fans on Facebook). Key to the effort was the response to Kevin Rose, the founder of social network Rose tweeted the Old Spice Man about his own illness that day. Rose was enamored. He tweeted, "Holy sh*t, best get well video EVER from Old Spice." That message went out to his million-plus Twitter followers. A viral phenomenon was born. The decision to include Rose and the celebrities was no accident. The Wieden team purposefully selected not only persons with huge followings on social networks — followings that dwarfed Old Spice's own — but specifically those with particular credibility and influence over the Technorati and social media addicts. The social media kingpins told their followers, their followers told their friends, and the math compounded exponentially, fervently and quickly. Old Spice's Twitter followers increased more than 1,000 percent. Nearly 600,000 people on Facebook gave its ads thumbs-up "like it" vote. And, according to Advertising Age, the Old Spice commercials received more than 7 million online views this week alone — and that does not include the viral vignettes we're talking about here. The cost of media: nothing. The Old Spice ‘smell like a man’ campaign went out with a bang fueling tremendous press coverage and particular interest in its use of social media. With Isaiah Mustafa’s individual video responses to fan and celebrity tweets via YouTube, Old Spice chalked up impressive results: 34 million aggregate views and a billion PR impressions in a week, eight of the top 11 most-popular videos on YouTube, and even a sales increase of 107% in a month.
It’s not about Social While tempting to describe ‘smell like a man’ as a social media success story, it is important to keep in mind the cross-channel mix. This wasn’t a social media campaign; it was an integrated campaign delivered over many months with a unified creative strategy across multiple channels including TV, PR, and even couponing, etc… It was the way ‘paid’ and ‘earned’ media mutually reinforced one other which generated the viral effect.
Define the right strategy before defining the digital agenda At the heart of ‘smell like a man’ was a strong creative solution, rooted in customer insight, that helped reposition and revitalize the 74 year old brand and helped them extend into a new highly competitive category. Wieden + Kennedy brought a strong creative approach that didn’t alienate other genders, paid homage to the legacy of the brand, and served up a refreshed approach infused with vitality and wit. Starting with a thoughtful strategy and an on-point creative approach rather than a discipline-specific agenda (e.g. social) offered Old Spice a platform upon which to build its brand and extend its campaign.
Leave room for experimentation, even failure To P&G’s credit, they provided room for their agency to experiment with different approaches, and weathered some bumps in the road. For example, the initial ‘digital’ extension of the campaign, a Valentine’s Day micro site where you could send messages to a special someone in your life proved to be a frustrating, cumbersome experience. It forced customers to sign up and wait for verification links to arrive via email. Essentially, it was a buzz kill of an experience in stark contrast to the delightful and entertaining YouTube video approach. Innovation didn’t happen overnight, there were lessons learned along the way, the hard way. You can’t innovate without experimentation. P&G’s fortitude in giving Wieden + Kennedy room to continue experimenting enabled their agency to create a groundbreaking campaign finale. Social media does not exist in a vacuum. It is part of a complex marketing mix that needs to stem from sound strategy.
The Post-Old-Spice principles of social media marketing
Create a persona that is strong and on point Start with selecting someone, or something, as the character that captures your brand positioning. It needs to inspire people to interact. It certainly can be you, but you'll want to consider carefully. Not only will it require a commitment of time, energy and dedication, but you're going to have to live by the results. I've seen a handsome British owner of a business use his picture in a promotional e-mail, and then send the same e-mail only changing the picture to a clerk from his mailroom. The mailroom clerk drew 20 percent more response. The owner stepped aside. Business is business. In the case of The Old Spice Man, the character is meant to appeal to women (hey, most men don't wear a scent to please other men) with manly insult humor that would appeal to men. You can select a humorous persona, but make sure you can sustain it. You can probably hire a local stand-up comic to play the role for you. People will think it's you, only funnier. There are other character options that may be far more appropriate than and just as engaging as humor, such as providing service, knowledge, empathy, honesty, sincerity, advocacy and the ever-utilized fanatical price-slashing or stain-removing screaming crazy. Only you can pick what's right, but the goal is to create the viral phenomenon that will make people compete for your attention. We're also assuming here that these are ultimately video-driven personas. Even so, it is vital that you can capture the personality in a written and spoken voice. You're going to need to entice people to join in before you can let them see your act.
Seed social networks with invitations to interact Ask people to play along, and somebody will. If it's worth it, they'll tell their friends. Let's look at a few hypothetical examples. Suppose you have an auto parts dealership. You can invite people to submit their greatest auto modification desires. You can find the greatest influencers through auto clubs, your knowledge of your customer base or even the best auto shops in town and have them be the answer men. Or prove your own knowledge by answering directly in your chosen persona. If you own a gym franchise, you can have people enter a "Biggest Loser"-type weight reduction contest and let others cheer them on. Have a dance studio or music studio? Stage your own online "America's Got Talent." Own a bridal shop, invite brides to be to play "Say Yes to the Dress" and let others vote. Run a wine shop, take questions on how to match food with wine and let chefs from the best restaurants provide the answers and recipes.
Engage the engaged, the famous and the influencers There is fame on a big scale, and there is fame on a local level. Seek out anyone intriguing, like the mayor or the local newscaster. The main objective here is to engage people that others will find intriguing or impressive. Don't forget bloggers. They have followings, some considerably larger than you might expect. You are trying to have others do the heavy lifting of spreading the word and gaining more people to participate. You'll have the additional benefit of gaining more links to your website, which over time will increase your ranking with search engines, especially in local search —which for most entrepreneurs is the most important. Bloggers also tend to have their own Twitter and Facebook followings, which will help greatly in compounding your audience.
Personalize the response and people will compete for inclusion Whether it is a contest, advice, or just a conversation, every time you make the exchange personal with that one customer you create demand from others to also want your character to give a "shout out" to them. That is at the core of the Old Spice phenomenon. People started competing to be witty or provocative making their best bets on what would intrigue the Old Spice Man to want to respond to them. Many thousands did not get a response, but it seemed like all of them did. And the ones that didn't kept trying harder to impress the Man. Also, every blogger or celebrity who did get a response wrote about it. It was a badge of honor.
Make it episodic and easy to share This is all about interactive storytelling. The more stories, the more consistent the delivery of new episodes, the more frequently people will check it out, and the greater the odds to become either a media habit or an outright addiction. This also provides the greatest opportunities for people to share a link to an episode with their friends. You want to take every opportunity to feed the virus. You will also be able to measure which subjects and types of responses get the best results. As with anything in business, provide more of what people want and less of what they don't.
Keep the videos simple and short Find the location that works. It doesn't have to be elaborate. The Old Spice Man never left the bathroom, never looked anywhere but right at the camera, and never changed his posture. There is power in familiarity. There is an old saying: An idea is finished not when you've put everything you can think of into it, but rather when you've taken out everything you possibly can. Limit the personality traits of your persona. Don't attempt sophisticated cinematography. There is a real estate agent in Canada named Ian Watt who bought a camera mount, hooked it to the dashboard of his car, turned it on and just started talking about his market while he was driving from place to place. He came across as wildly aggressive, on the go, in the know, always working for you, with a personality as driven as Gary Vaynerchuk. Vaynerchuk, too, is a great example of minimalist consistency. His videos are all shot straight on in the dingy, poorly lit conference room of his wine store in New Jersey. Doesn't matter. He became a self-proclaimed $60 million wine shop and a frequent guest on Leno and Conan O'Brien. Don't let the setting or the production distract you from putting across the persona.
Promote it with tie-ins offline Put up signage in your store promoting what you're doing online. If you advertise, make sure to promote your online contests or character. It will go much further than the classic — and clichéd — line, "Visit our website." Get yourself a cell phone with a video camera, shoot simple videos and upload them to your website and YouTube channel. Engage people of influence, especially those who are either well-known or thoroughly engaged in social media like Facebook and Twitter, to play along with you. Make your character strong, appealing and consistent. And enjoy the fruits of viral marketing. This year, Wieden + Kennedy took its campaign further by introducing a rival for The Old Spice Guy: former male supermodel Fabio. The two Old Spice titans clashed in Old Spice's Mano a Mano En El Baño, a YouTube event held on July 26 last year, where both men submitted responses to the same posts on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, and viewers could vote for their favorite Old Spice Guy response. The epic conclusion to the YouTube duel featured time travel, multiple Fabios, and intergalactic balloons.
The Old Spice Guy campaign has set the bar for how other companies and agencies can approach viral advertising, by focusing on the fans first. Old Spice has struck a perfect balance of content and advertising, but the fact of the matter is that other companies can, too.

“The Impact of Social Media Usage on Consumer Buying Behavior” by MathurPooja, Black Jennifer E., Cao Jiangmei, Berger Paul D.* and Weinberg Bruce D.
Kaplan, Andreas M.; Michael Haenlein (2010) "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media". Business Horizons 53(1): 59–68. ‘’The Power of “Like” How Brands Reach (and Influence) Fans Through Social-Media Marketing’’,AndrewLipsman, GrahamMudd, Mike Rich, Sean Bruich --------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Kaplan, Andreas M.; Michael Haenlein (2010) "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media". Business Horizons 53(1): 59–68.
[ 2 ].
[ 3 ].
[ 4 ]. Source: - “The Impact of Social Media Usage on Consumer Buying Behavior” by MathurPooja, Black Jennifer E., Cao Jiangmei, Berger Paul D.* and Weinberg Bruce D.
[ 5 ]. ‘’The Power of “Like” How Brands Reach (and Influence) Fans Through Social-Media Marketing’’,AndrewLipsman, GrahamMudd, Mike Rich, Sean Bruich
[ 6 ].
[ 7 ]. by Sharon Gaudin
[ 8 ]. by Paul Gillin
[ 9 ].
[ 10 ]. by Elise Moreau
[ 11 ].
[ 12 ].
[ 13 ].
[ 14 ].
[ 15 ]. “Lesson from the Old Spice man” by the Entrepreneur staff
[ 16 ]. “Old Spice-strategic, not just social”
[ 17 ]. “Post Old Spice principles”…...

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