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Significance of Labor Law

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Effective
Meetings
Contents
Planning Your Meeting
Parliamentary Procedure
Agendas
Minutes
Committees
Role of Chairperson
Meeting Personalities

Effective Meetings is an update of the original resource package produced through the efforts of Karen Jensen and the
Recreation Resource Development Section of the Department of Fitness, Recreation and Sport, [1982].

Disclaimer
All information is believed to be accurate and reliable. We will make changes, updates, and deletions as required and make every effort to ensure the accuracy and quality of the information provided. However, the Province of
Manitoba and Recreation Connections Manitoba assume no responsibility for any errors and are not liable for damages of any kind resulting from the use of, or reliance on, the information contained herein.

Table of Contents
Reasons for Ineffective Meetings ..................................................................................................1
Checklist ..........................................................................................................................................2
Types of Meetings ..........................................................................................................................3
Parliamentary Procedure ...............................................................................................................4
Tips for an Effective Meeting .........................................................................................................5
Pre-Planning of a Meeting .............................................................................................................6
“Plan Your Meeting” Checklist .......................................................................................................7
Environment ...................................................................................................................................8
The Agenda .....................................................................................................................................8
Sample Agenda Format ..................................................................................................................9
Writing Clear Agendas....................................................................................................................10
Agenda Worksheet .........................................................................................................................11
Minutes Checklist ...........................................................................................................................12
Committees ....................................................................................................................................13
The Role of the Chairperson ..........................................................................................................15
Meeting Personalities ....................................................................................................................16
Summary .........................................................................................................................................18
Appendix A: Contact List

?

As an executive member or as an individual board member, you should be able to answer the question:

“What are we going to accomplish?” before any and all meetings.

There have to be reasons for meeting or “Why Meet?”

Reasons for Ineffective Meetings
Many meetings waste a lot of time. Even the best meetings are not as productive as they could be.
Some common reasons why meetings fail to accomplish their objectives are described below:

Poor Leadership
• A meeting often is dominated by a few members and others are excluded. The chairperson must manage such situations, allowing for input from all.

Lack of Preparation
• A meeting with no specific objectives, no background information on items where decisions need to be made or a lack of direction frustrates those in attendance, leaving them without a feeling of accomplishment.

Timing
• Poor timing can result in low attendance, and insufficient information available for the meeting. Ample time prior to each meeting allows members to plan and prepare for the meeting.

Uninterested Members
• Members who are unaware of the long-term goals of the association or have not been oriented often become uninterested. Responsibility within the group helps to involve these people and gives them a feeling of importance.

Disruptive Members
• People who are not involved in responsibilities of the organization often seek attention by developing disruptive behaviour. The chairperson should manage these behaviours and attempt to direct this energy productively.

Environment
• The physical environment has an impact on the productivity of any meeting. Some seating arrangements and table shapes encourage free and open participation, while others inhibit it. Find the most suitable environment for your association through experimentation.

Tradition
• Ritual and tradition keep many meetings as they presently are. Meetings are held at a customary time and place, whether or not there is a need for a meeting.
This handbook will suggest ways to solve these problems so your meetings will become more effective. Checklist
Complete this checklist to determine which areas need work.

Our meetings:

are planned beforehand by the chairperson and executive members
have clear written agendas, distributed in advance
start and end on time
usually accomplish the original purpose
allow equal involvement from all members

Need more help?
Contact the Recreation and Regional Services office nearest you. See Appendix A

Page 2

Effective Meetings

Types of Meetings
In productive organizations, meetings are of distinctive types. All meetings should have specific purposes for being held and specific tasks to be performed by the members. However, one meeting may include several different types within its structure. The different types of meetings are as follows:
Informational: The purpose here is to share information such as facts, data, decisions, or policies. Planning: The purpose of the planning meeting is to discuss a long range plan (one to ten years) for the organization.
Problem Solving: Similar to a planning meeting but problem solving considers one day to six months. The focus is on day to day business.
Evaluation: The purpose of this meeting is to assess progress according to the planning and/or problem solving meetings.
Training: A training meeting is held to educate the members; to expand knowledge, improve skill, or change attitudes of participants.
Celebrational: This time is spent enjoying being together and having a good time.

Meeting Tempo
Another item worth noting is the tempo of successful meetings

Meeting Type

Pace

Informational
Planning
Problem Solving
Evaluation
Training
Celebrational

Quick, Crisp
Slow, Deliberate
Meandering
Slow, Contemplative
Smooth, Flowing
Rambling

Page 3

Effective Meetings

Parliamentary Procedure
Although the majority of voluntary organizations strive to keep their meetings as informal as possible, there is a place and a time for the implementation of Parliamentary Procedure. These rules of order are a basic tool for maintaining order and control in group discussions.
Parliamentary Procedure appears, at first, to be a complex and confusing system to follow. You will find a few simple procedures will improve the efficiency of your meetings.

Use of Parliamentary Procedure will:
 allow only one item to be discussed at a time
 facilitate action
 allow fairness to every member
 be effective in managing large groups
 allow for many quick decisions to be made
 assist in accurate record keeping
 maintain order

For detailed information on the rules of order, please see attached....

Page 4

Effective Meetings

Tips for an Effective Meeting
1. Have a clear purpose
2. Plan ahead before the meeting
 Subject matter identified
 Important preliminary information distributed
 Each participant knows what is expected

3. Agenda
 List specific measurable objectives rather than topics

4. Involve the right people
 Attendance should be limited to those whose presence is essential for achieving the purpose 5. Timing
 Choose the right time and the right place for participants
 Limit the time of the meeting
 Start on time – end on time

6. Summarize what the meeting has accomplished
 Record all formal decisions made at the meeting for future reference
 List actions to be taken, when and by whom

In summary, people want the following from your meetings:
They want trust.
They want background information.
They want a clear background for participation..
They want to speak and be heard.
They want their ideas recognized.
They want the discussion “buttoned up” at the end.
They want to know what steps of action will follow.

Page 5

Effective Meetings

Pre-Planning a Meeting
You will need to look at the expectations, hopes and needs of those who attend a meeting. An awareness of these factors will help you do a better job when you prepare meetings.

Trust




Operate in an atmosphere of trust
A conviction that ideas are wanted
A sense of plan and purpose in attitude

Background




Information on the causes of a problem or situation which requires a meeting
A flight plan, a road map
An understanding of why there is concern

Target




A constructive purpose all can identify
A clear focus on the subject area
A specific question to pin- point ideas

Participation





An appreciation of the difficulties some have in speaking up at a meeting
A willingness to do pre-planning
Confidence in the leader’s methods
Fairness to both ideas and people

Ground Rules




Thoughtful control for the sake of the individual and the group
A clear statement of the ground rules
Proper techniques to allow people to be heard

Recording



A system of keeping records of the meeting
Evidence that ideas are heard and will be recorded

Summary



A plan for ending the meeting as a complete experience
A realistic summary

Follow Up



What will happen next?
What is expected of members?

Page 6

Effective Meetings

Plan Your Meeting Checklist
Some time must be spent in preparation of a meeting in order to make it successful. It is very important that people leave the meeting with a feeling of accomplishment rather than frustration. A well-planned meeting helps to achieve this. The following checklist can be used by your organization to make it easier to plan each meeting. All meetings vary, so you may have to adjust it to meet your particular needs.

Publicity
 Notices to members including date, time, location, purpose

Agenda and resource material to include copies of
 Agenda
 Past meeting minutes

 Materials to be discussed
 Committee reports

Before the Meeting





Assignments
Contacts
Reports
Test equipment (LCD project, conference phone etc)

Location














Ventilation
Parking
Traffic Directions
Lighting
Telephone access
Wall Space for Flipcharts






Size of room
Electrical outlets
Acoustics
Temperature
Washrooms
Stairs/elevators

Extension cords
Flip chart/extra paper
Coffee, tea, water or other refreshments
LCD projector

Equipment






Tables (numbers, size, shape)
Chairs (numbers, comfort)
Screen
White board/markers
Laptop

Materials
 Name tags
 Felt markers
 Paper

 Masking tape
 Pens

Page 7

Effective Meetings

The Agenda
An agenda is simply a brief outline of what you intend to discuss and in what order. Its purpose is to assist the chairperson in seeing what order. Its purpose is to assist the chairperson in seeing that business is conducted fairly and quickly, as well as to provide direction, order and advance information to those attending.
Essentially there are three kinds of items that are a part of most meetings:
Items for Information
 simply inform the board of action taken affecting the members


announcements, copies of correspondence



serve as progress reports from committees

Items for Discussion, Referral or Tabling
 require further input by members prior to a recommendation for decision or action


lack sufficient information and need to be referred to a committee or the executive



may be poorly-timed or those that you do not wish to take immediate action on

Items for Decision and Action
 require action of an immediate and visible nature by board members


result in specific recommendations



Environment
The formation of the meeting room will influence the outcome of your meeting and set the atmosphere for discussions.
Consider the following
Members seated across a table facilitates opposition and disagreement Sitting side by side makes disagreements more difficult
The position of the chairperson indicates the role that he/she intends to play. Sitting at the end of a long, narrow table reveals power and complete control, whereas a chair who sits among the members becomes more of a facilitator. It is more difficult to manage discussion from this last position.

in order for your meetings to be fruitful some decisions and actions must be evident

The format of the any agenda should be accepted by the members of your organization and it should be followed at each meeting. However, if it is deviated from, the group should be made aware of the changes and the reasons for doing so.

Page 8

Effective Meetings

Sample Agenda Format
District Recreation Commission Meeting
7:00 pm, September 12, 2011
Multi-purpose Room, High School
(Times are listed are for guideline purposes)

Agenda
Call to order
 Make introductions if necessary (5 minutes)

Approval of agenda (2 minutes)

Approval of minutes from last meeting (3 minutes)

Business arising since last meeting (12 minutes)
i.

Item 2 in previous minutes refers to the adhoc Fundraising Committee Report.
Please be prepared to discuss recommendations 1 though 4 regarding next year’s fundraising priorities.

Strategic Priorities (30 minutes)
i.
Program/Service priorities – discuss and determine key priority over next 6 month

Committee Reports (18 minutes)
 Executive Committee
 Program Committee
 Fundraising Committee

Other Business (7 minutes)
i.
Board education – update on Directors Liability Insurance ii. Items from the floor iii. Items introduced by the Chair

Evaluation of meeting, next meeting date/agenda items (7 minutes)
Page 9

Effective Meetings

Writing Clear Agendas
In order to make an agenda more useful, it should consist of specific measurable objectives, rather than topics. Writing clear and complete objectives for a meeting requires practice. One simple guide to follow is to start each statement with to and follow it with a verb.
Examples:
 To set date, time, location for our next tournament
 To discuss method and develop critical path to increase participation levels by 10%
 To identify evaluation methods for officials in our area
Objectives stated in the terms of used above may require further refinements during the meeting. They will help when deciding who should attend, as well as allow participants to prepare for the meeting. With a well-prepared agenda, composed of objectives, (not topics), your meeting will be simplified and shorter.

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Effective Meetings

Agenda Worksheet
1. Purpose of the Meeting

2. List of all committees to present reports

3. List of all of the items to be covered at the meeting
a) Items from last meeting

b) New items

4. Prioritize items according to the required length of time needed to accomplish each

5. Develop these items into specific, measurable objectives – not topics

6. Type out the order of the agenda

7. Additional information attached to the agenda

8. Inform members of the agenda by email or fax or mail.

Page 11

Effective Meetings

Minutes Checklist
Good minutes are essential because they are the only record of business for your organization.
They will be required for constant referral.
Your minutes should include the following:

Heading
Date
Time
Location
Name of chair
Names of members present
Names of members absent
Starting time
Adoption of minutes from last meeting
Summary of ideas and topics discussed
Suggestions proposed, action by whom, by when
All motions made
 of members who made motions
Name
 of members who seconded motions
Name
 of motions (carried or defeated)
Outcome
 of adjournment
Time
 time, location of next meeting
Date,
Page 12

Effective Meetings

Committees
A committee is two or more persons who have been chosen by the organization to carry out a specific task.
Benefits:


Saves time and prevents boredom at meetings. The committee can work out the project details and report back at the next meeting.



People can choose the committee that their abilities/interests suit best.



Involves everyone; thus one person is not loaded with all of the responsibilities



Trains new members; involving the inexperienced with experienced members.

A committee may do any particular job the organization wishes. The size of the committee depends on the size of the project. It should include both new and experienced members.
Methods of Appointing a Committee
1. Election by members
2. Volunteers
3. According to a resolution
Types of Committees
Standing Committees are those which are active throughout the year.
Special Committees are those which are appointed to serve a single event or purpose.
These are also called Ad Hoc Committees and are often dissolved at the conclusion of the event or project.
Organization
A committee is organized similar to the larger board. The chairperson calls the committee together and presides at the meetings It is important definite duty assignments are made within the committee. Since committee are appointed as representatives of a whole organization, reports must be made by the chairperson to the board members at meetings.

Page 13

Effective Meetings

Committee Reports

1. Reports should be written and a copy given to the secretary.

2.

All members of the committee should agree on the contents of a report before it is presented.

3. Include the following:

Name of the committee and the date

List of the committee members’ names

Specific purpose of the committee

4. Procedure

What has been done

Information that has been gathered

Proposed action plan

Names of those assigned to carry out specific tasks

5. Recommendations

Should be made at the larger committee or board meeting in the form of motions and acted upon

Note: For more information about the duties of the committees, president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer and members, read pages
4-10 in the booklet entitled Parlimentary Procedures.

Page 14

Effective Meetings

The Role of the Chairperson
The position of the Chairperson is the single most important role in your association. It is obvious that the chairperson is in the prime position of being able to affect the direction of any meeting. Your Chairperson essentially has 4 major roles to play at any meeting:
1. The Chairperson must be fully informed on each item and thus be able to determine what the objective is. In order for the chairperson to be effective he/she:
 Should set aside the time to review each agenda item with the person responsible for bringing it forward


Must know why the board is dealing with an item and what action is required



Must be generally aware of all the alternatives



Must be able to guide his fellow members towards their objective

2. The Chairperson must be able to encourage the involvement of each board member in discussions to ensure that all relevant points are heard.
 The Chairperson should not be the main spokesperson on the agenda items.
His/her role should be to elicit comments from colleagues and if possible arrive on a generally agreed upon course of action.


Encouraging discussion also entails a fairly high degree of management by the chairperson. Individuals should not be allowed to dominate the discussion. The
Chairperson should not allow the discussion to drift.

3. The Chairperson must be able to determine various alternatives.
 The chairperson must be able to take a wider view of problems and to point out the various options available to the association.
4. The Chairperson must be capable of summarizing the main points and bringing the item to a decision.
 The chairperson should be serving in a directing capacity – to draw out the main points, summarize then and have a motion made on the item.

Page 15

Effective Meetings

Meeting Personalities
Several of the personalities mentioned are disruptive behaviours which seem to be attempts to take over or challenge the chairperson. It is important for leaders to develop responses to such situations in order to maintain control and to accomplish the objectives of the meeting. The leader can confront this behaviour by following these guidelines:
1. Confrontation is most effective, allowing the individual to examine his/her behaviour and its consequences. It expresses care and concern, not punishment. It should be done privately.
2. Focus on the behaviour and avoid labelling the person. Classifying the person only increases his/her defensiveness.
3. Point out the effects this behaviour has on the group. Often, the disruptive individual is unaware of the negative impact of his/her behaviour.
4. Suggest alternative behaviours that will be more productive, satisfying participation for the disruption member.







The Province of Manitoba has staff available to assist organizations with
 Consultation
 Meeting Management
 Strategic Planning
See Appendix A for Contact Information






Page 16

Effective Meetings



The Orientor
The Facilitator

 Generally the chairperson
 Clarifies, defines, identifies and states ideas to others





The Initiator

 Always starts something




 Assists the group in getting proper focus on the topic
 Keeps discussion on the right track
 Chairperson's task but hopefully others will play this role too
 Keeps the discussion going by asking for explanations or




asking questions concerning the topic

The Harmonizer
The Recorder
The Summarizer
The Expeditor
The Fact-Seeker
The Compromiser
The Monopolizer

 Shows approval (smiles, nods head) and verablly gives approval



 Key role of the chairperson



 Attempts to have all sides of the question considered




 Keeps written records of decisions and actions of the group



 Brings ideas together which have been contributed by other members



 Not necessarily the role of the chairperson





 Interested in the comfort of the members, the physical setting and the materials
 Opens windows, distributes pens and paper, etc.



 Needs more information on a topic before making a decision



 Add stability to any meeting





 Gives ground or admits that there are two sides to the question in order that progress be made



 Speaks up at every opportunity (interrupting others to do so)



 Uses 10 words when 1 would do



The Encourager




 The know-it-all

The Recognition Seeker •

 Draws attention to his/her self



The Whisperer
Mr./Mrs. Zipper

 Whispers throughout the meeting



 Rarely, if ever, contributes to the group as a whole




 Does not talk

Page 17

Effective Meetings

Summary
Your organization must evaluate the effectiveness of your meetings and then practice better and new techniques. If you follow the suggestions in this booklet, you will find your meetings will become more constructive, shorter and more enjoyable.
Remember to:


Have a purpose for a meeting



Pre-Plan each meeting



Inform all members



Keep accurate records

Page 18

Effective Meetings

Appendix A: Contact List
Province of Manitoba Recreation and Regional Services
Winnipeg (Main Office)
310, 800 Portage Ave.
Winnipeg, MB
R3G 0N4
Phone: 204-945-3766
Fax: 204-945-1684
Email: RRS@gov.mb.ca
Central Region
225 Wardrop St.
Morden, MB R6M 1N4
Phone: 204-822-5418
Fax: 204-822-2915
Toll-free: 1-866-346-5219
Eastman Region
20-1st St., South
P.O. Box 50
Beausejour, MB R0E 0C0
Phone: 204-268-6018
Fax: 204-268-60670
Toll-free: 1-800-665-6107
Interlake Region
62 Second Ave.
P.O. Box 1519
Gimli, MB R0C 1B0
Phone: 204-642-6006
Fax: 204-642-6080
Toll-free: 1-866-259-5748
Province of Manitoba Aboriginal & Northern Affairs
Box 33, 59 Elizabeth Drive
Thompson, MB R8N 1X4
Phone: 204-677-6794
Fax: 204-677-6525
Email: anaweb@gov.mb.ca

Norman Region
59 Elizabeth Drive
Thompson, MB R8N 1X4
Phone: 204-677-6784
Fax: 204-677-6862
79 3rd St. West
Box 2250
The Pas, MB R9A 1M4
Phone: 204-627-8213
Fax: 204-627-8236
Parkland Region
27-2nd Ave., S.W.
Dauphin, MB R7N 3E5
Phone: 204-622-2022
Fax: 204-638-6558
Westman Region
146, 340-9th St.
Brandon, MB R7A 6C2
Phone: 204-726-6066
Fax: 204-726-6583
Toll-free: 1-800-259-6592…...

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...flexible means for the adjustment of wages and employment conditions to economic and technological changes in the industry, as a result of which the chances for conflicts are reduced. 12. As a vehicle of industrial peace, collective bargaining has no equal. It is the most important and significant aspect of labor-management relations, and extends the democratic principle from the political to the industrial field. 13. It builds up a system of industrial jurisprudence by introducing civil rights in industry. In other words, it ensures that management is conducted by rules rather than by arbitrary decisions; Need for Collective Bargaining (a) A high degree at collective bargaining as measured in terms of the proportion of workers covered by collective agreements; (b) Qualitative conduct of the parties to collective bargaining both before a situation warranting negotiations develops and the methods followed at the time of arriving at agreements; (c) The right priorities assigned to different methods in the agreement and their changing pattern over time; and (d) A structure of bargaining with emphasis on central bargaining which is purported to give some order and stability to labor management relations. more at http://www.citeman.com/1213-importance-of-collective-bargaining.html#ixzz3AdbXht88...

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...Abstract In today’s economy more companies are announcing that they had to systematically create some type of strategic plan to reduce the workforce in there company. The cause of reduction can be due to overstaff, slow sales, and or slow production which leads to termination. When this type of decision has to be made, it can put a heavy burden on the Human Resources Department or the Vice President of Human Resource. When making a decision to have a reduction in the workforce by terminating employees, you have to be mindful you don’t violate employment laws. This paper will discuss the recommendation of which employees to terminate based on the scenario that is given of each employee. In the given scenarios, five employees’ work ethics is given and of the five, three must be fired and two can be transition into other jobs within the company. The key is to terminate the employees without violating employment laws and give the reason for the termination. Also I will discuss any possible post termination litigation that could occur. Mike Williams is a 34 year old Asian male who has an overall performance rating of above average. With his experience and college education he, would be a valuable asset to the company. Even though the computer system he utilizes will be obsolete, additional training on a newer system would put him up to speed with his other colleagues. Mike also has no absenteeism which could indicate that he is dedicated and committed to quality work...

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...History of the Labor Movement “It constitutes a yearly national tribute to the contributions workers have made to the strength, prosperity, and well-being of our country” (United States Department of Labor). This quotation is referring to one of our national holidays, Labor Day. Ultimately, the labor movement in the United States formed this holiday celebrated every September. Labor day is a day to celebrate how far American workers have come since before the 19th century. During the 1800s American workers could be found at their job for most of the day almost everyday. It was a hard time for families to make ends meet forcing even their children to work. On average, an individual would work twelve hours a day, seven days a week. Easy jobs, such as working in a factory or mill, children as young as five would be working to help their families pay bills and even eat a meal (History, 2010). Soon times got tougher for Americans by having wage cuts and needing them to work more hours. Several different strikes occurred starting in 1768 over these wage reductions. Workers fought for several years to be treated differently by getting paid more and working less hours; to fight for these rights strikes were happening more frequently. Soon reform efforts were popping up to fight against the social inequality occurring; Knights of Labor and National Union Labor were the most popular. However, their efforts were not changing the economic conditions the workers faced;......

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Labor Law

...িব ােস কৃ ত কাজ-কর্ম রkণ 336৷ কিতপয় েkেt চাkরীর বর্তমান শর্তাবলী সংরkণ 337৷ আiন, িবিধ eবং pিবধােনর সারসংেkপ pদর্শণ 338৷ কিতপয় িবেশষ aবsায় বাড়ীঘর বা আি নার মািলেকর দািয়t 339৷ তথয্ সংgেহর kমতা 340৷ িনেয়াগ সmর্ক aনুমান 341৷ কিতপয় তথয্ pকােশ বাধা-িনেষধ 342৷ কিতপয় িবষেয় েগাপনীয়তা রkা 343৷ েবাের্ডর কারয্ধারা রkণ 344৷ েবাের্ডর েময়াদ, kমতা, কারয্ধারা iতয্ািদ সmের্ক সাধারণ িবধান 345৷ সমকােজর জনয্ সম-মজুরী pদান 346৷ সাধারণ েkেt েকার্ট িফস 347৷ কিতপয় p , iতয্ািদ সmেn বাধা- িনেষধ 348৷ ei আiেনর uপর pিশkণ 349৷ ে ড iuিনয়েনর কিতপয় কর্মকাn িনিষd 350৷ aনয্ আদালেতর eখিতয়ােরর uপর বাধা-িনেষধ 351৷ িবিধ pণয়েনর kমতা 352৷ িবিধ, pিবধান o sীেম দে র িবধান 353৷ রিহতকরণ o েহফাজত 354৷ মূল পাঠ eবং iংেরজীেত পাঠ তফিসল Copyright®2008, Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs Today's Total Visit 2795 বাংলােদশ ম আiন, 2006 ( 2006 সেনর 42 নং আiন ) [11 aেkাবর 2006] িমক িনেয়াগ, মািলক o িমেকর মেধয্ সmর্ক, সরব্িনm মজুরীর হার িনর্ধারণ, মজুরী পিরেশাধ, কারয্কােল দুর্ঘটনাজিনত কারেণ িমেকর জখেমর জেনয্ kিতপূরণ, ে ড iuিনয়ন গঠন, িশl িবেরাধ utাপন o িন িt, িমেকর sাsয্, িনরাপtা, কলয্াণ o চাkরীর aবsা o পিরেবশ eবং িশkাধীনতা o সংি িবষয়ািদ সmের্ক সকল আiেনর সংেশাধন o সংহতকরণকেl pণীত আiন েযেহতু িমক িনেয়াগ, মািলক o িমেকর মেধয্ সmর্ক, সরব্িনm◌্ ন মজুরীর হার িনর্ধারণ, মজুরী পিরেশাধ, কারয্কােল দুর্ঘটনাজিনত কারেণ িমেকর জখেমর জনয্ kিতপূরণ, ে ড iuিনয়ন গঠন, িশl িবেরাধ utাপন o িন িt, িমেকর sাsয্, িনরাপtা, কলয্াণ o চাkরীর aবsা o পিরেবশ eবং িশkাধীনতা o সংি িবষয়ািদ সmের্ক সকল আiেনর সংেশাধন......

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