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Phobias, Addictions, Conditioning

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Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning
Amy A. Schroeder
University of Phoenix
General Psychology
300
Belky Schwartz
March 16, 2014

Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning
Phobias, addictions born that way or are we taught these characteristics through different forms of conditions that occur throughout our lives, in this paper I will be exploring these ideas. Distinguish between classical and operant condition, explain what extinction means and how it is achieved it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning, explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning, and how addiction can be developed through operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning is probably most recognized in the field of behaviorism, and the work of Ivan Pavlov, Pavlov's dog. Classical conditioning was discovered completely on accident, just as many of the world's great scientific endeavors. Pavlov noticed that when he came into a room that his dogs were in they would begin to salivate, even if he were not feeding them. This leads him to explore what was happening on a deeper level, and ultimately leads to a great scientific discovery. Classical conditioning occurs when there is an association between environmental and naturally occurring stimulus, eventually, after conditioning only one stimulus will need to occur for the desired result. In Pavlov's study, the food was the unconditioned stimulus, and the salvation was the unconditioned response. Using a bell as a neutral stimulus, it is a neutral because it does not produce any response. After time, the dogs associate the bell with food and begin to salivate with just hearing the bell and not being fed. The dogs had been classically conditioned to associate the bell with food. (McLeod, 2007)
Operant conditioning is an approach introduced by Burrhus Frederic Skinner; he believed that we did have a brain, but…...

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