Premium Essay

Personality Psychology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By valoreamor
Words 851
Pages 4
Introduction to Personality
When describing personality, one must take many factors into consideration. The definition itself is complex as there are many different opinions depending on the many theories of personality development. The New Big Five article by McAdams and Pals describe the unique facets of personality psychology. The factors that influence individual’s persona are many and are briefly mentioned in this essay.
Personality Defined
It is difficult to define personality. Each personality theorist has their own opinion depending on their own personal experiences (Feist & Feist, 2009). Although there is not a single specific definition for personality, each personality theorist has a distinct idea of the meaning of the word personality (Feist & Feist, 2009). A definition that may describe personality pertains to the unique traits and characteristics that relate to behavior that individuals possess that make them special and different from others (Feist & Feist, 2009). The authors further distinguish traits and characteristics. Traits could be distinctive, or they could be shared by a certain species (Feist & Feist, 2009). It is the pattern of the traits that distinguishes personality (Feist & Feist, 2009). Characteristics are also unique and have to do with “attributes as temperament, physique, and intelligence” (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 4).
Theoretical Approaches to Personality
Although there are several theoretical approaches in the study of personality, psychodynamic, humanistic, and learning theories, the most interesting idea in understanding personality psychology is found in the article, A New Big Five, written by Dan McAdams and Jennifer Pals. The big five are principles that study the “theoretical trends in personality psychology” (McAdams & Pals, 2006, p. 204). This theory is intriguing…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Psychology- Narcissitic Personality Disorder

...April J. LaytonPsychology Branz Narcissistic Personality Disorder Overview of the study Narcissistic Personality Disorder, NPD, in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- Fourth Edition describes that the foundation “lack of empathy” in NPD is entirely based on clinical observation and expert consensus. However, a similar apprehension and empirical, or publicly observed, evaluation of the criterion “lack of empathy” in this disorder are inadequate, making the intent in this study was to empirically determine compassion in patients with narcissism according to the DSM-IV. This disorder is a severe mental disorder with popular rates of up to 6% in general population, unrelenting functional impairment, and high suicide rates. This disorder was established as an individual foundation, criterion 8, in the DSM-III-R (1994), which explains the “inability to recognize and experience how others feel”. It was also affirmed in the DSM-IV and the DSM-IV-TR as criterion seven. More studies that have been based on the DSM-IV also uncovered low diagnostic accuracy of the criterion “lack of empathy”. The hypothesis is: the discrepancy is due to the fact that no theoretical constitute influences the NPD criterion “lack of empathy” in the DSM (1983), and so its assessment may be destitute. Participants Recruited were 47 inpatients that had been diagnosed with NPD by the Department of Psychiatry, Charité — Universitätsmedizin Berlin and contributing......

Words: 1112 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality

..."Personality is the entire mental organization of a human being at any stage of his development. It embraces every phase of human character: intellect, temperament, skill, morality, and every attitude that has beeen built up in the course of one's life." (Warren & Carmichael, 1930, p. 333) (In an acknowledged overstatement...) "Personality is the essence of a human being." (Hall & Lindzey, 1957, p. 9, characterizing statements by Gordon Allport) "An individual's pattern of psychological processes arising from motives, feelings, thoughts, and other major areas of psychological function. Personality is expressed through its influences on the body, in conscious mental life, and through the individual's social behavior." (Mayer, 2005) "Personality" can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person who uniquely influences his or her cognitions,emotions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. Personality may also refer to the patterns of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited by an individual over time that strongly influence their expectations, self-perceptions, values and attitudes, and predicts their reactions to people, problems and stress. There is no consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology. In a phrase, personality is not just who we are, Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the nomothetic and the idiographic. Nomothetic......

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Danielle Taliaferro PSY 211 June 5, 2013 Andrea Mc Lellan, MA, MFT Personality The study of personality is one of the major topics of interest within psychology. Each of us, as human beings, influences much that is within us and around us. Each person has many psychological attributes; feelings, thoughts and motivations. It is our personality that orchestrates our psychological qualities. Some individuals cannot help but wonder how the personality works, how it came to be and what it might mean for their future. Some also wonder about the personalities of others; how they are the same or different from them. Although these questions are intriguing, the question that must be answered first is the most basic: “What is personality?” Personality encompasses the many characteristics that arise from within an individual. It is what makes an individual unique. Researchers have developed four different perspectives on personality. Each of these perspectives attempts to describe different patterns in personality, including how these patters form and how people differ on an individual level. Psychoanalytic Perspective emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind. This perspective was created by psychiatrist Sigmund Freud who believed that things hidden in the unconscious could be revealed in a number of different ways, including through dreams, free association and slips of the tongue. Freud’s work shaped the fields of......

Words: 1559 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Personality

...Team Personality Traits Dennys Bayona PSY/250 September 10, 2013 Maritza Telleria Team Personality Traits Psychology talk about five domains of personality also called the big five personality traits. The big five personality traits are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The Five Factors The preference in the use of the five factors has been determined by the consistency in the ability to measure the personality without overlapping. Many studies believed that the five factors of personality can predict future outcomes. But is still in research the correlation with these factors and job performance. Some organizations and interviewers asses people base on the five personality traits and these organizations perceived that leadership on an individual is exhibit by lower amounts of neurotic traits, higher levels of openness, balanced levels of conscientiousness, and balance levels of extraversions. Openness: This trait reflect the degree of intellectual curiosity, also describes the imagination and how independent is the individual. My results marked my personality as conventional, down to earth, narrow interest, uncreative. I wont seek out new experiences. Conscientiousness: This trait reflects the degree of responsibility and organization, this trait is normally marked by the individual tendency to show self discipline and aim for achievement. My test results marked my personality......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Personality

...Introduction to Personality Tyanda Trent PSY/405 November 18, 2013 Patti Tolar Introduction to Personality In doing the assignment the essayist took opportunity to educate herself and readers of this essay on personality. In the following passage the essayist will give the definition of personality. She will also give reason for how an individual’s personality is developed. The essayist will also research theoretical approaches in studying personality. Last, the essayist analyzes some of the factors that influence an individual’s personality. After reading this essay, the essayist wants readers to have clarity on the theory of personality. Defining Personality The word personality originates from the “persona”, meaning the covering that an actor can wear during Greek and Roman drama performances (Feist & Feist, 2006). The reason for them to wear the mask is to cover a deceptive appearance to portray the character in which they are playing. The present-day description of personality is not the deceitfulness of character or appearance; however, it is the action of apparent behavior that can be the label of certain physiognomies and traits of an individual. The physiognomies give the understanding of an individual, to include intelligence, physical ability, and attitude. According to Theories of Personality, personality involves, “…a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s......

Words: 1209 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality

...Freud and Horney Dan Mathis PSY/405 December 4, 2013 Dr. Maley Freud and Horney Psychology currently exists according to theory. From theory practice develops, and with studies theory becomes accepted. Sigmund Freud, though seemingly less relevant created theory that lead the field of psychology. The psychoanalysis, though often disregarded for the language involved helped to develop many theories following is its footsteps. Certainly Karen Horney appeared to develop some of her own work based on Freud’s psychoanalysis. Both Freud’s and Horney’s theory examined the limitations, strengths, and independence of an individual. The determination of free will versus deterministic viewpoints only becomes mired in the determination of the subconscious. The similarities of the two theories do not make either less viable as they focus on separate ideas. Psychoanalysis The Psychoanalysis theory developed by Freud remains one of the most famous theories of personality. The unconscious mind drove Freud’s theory for the entirety of his career. The development of understanding that an individual’s actions do not exist solely in the conscious mind. Freud developed some terminology to explain these ideas: the Id and the superego derive a juxtaposition surrounding the ego. Imagining a devil and an angel on the shoulders of a person creates a reasonable facsimile of the theory. Understanding that the id and superego prevail in the unconscious mind requires self-awareness.......

Words: 1253 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Ap Psychology Test Personality

...money. I chose C, homeostasis. Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium, with everything being equal. This has nothing to do with juan being obsess with building up his bank balance. His satisfaction by gaining more money isn’t being achieved so equilibrium is wrong. Correct answer is B, secondary drives. 12. Tracy has recently been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Tracy is likely to display all the following except Concept Tested: Eating Disorders Page 411. People with anorexia nervosa normally do not think anything is wrong with their eating habits. They have perfectionist personalities, are obsessed with being thin and attractive, but find their actions and eating habits are not wrong. Anorexia is the act of starving in order to lose weight. I chose answer A. This answer is completely wrong. People with anorexia have extreme perfectionist personalities. Every little detail about themselves seems wrong, and they strive to fix them. Correct Answer is C. seeing her eating habits as problematic 23. Whit started to play the saxophone. He wants to get better at, so he watches the techniques of professional players and practices constantly. Whit does not care how he compares to other saxophone players, nor does he want to seek help from others. Whit appears to have adopted a(n) Concept Tested: Need for achievement Bottom 421, top of 422. Learning goals are when people adopt a mentality of going things to get better at them. Playing tennis...

Words: 1047 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Joseph Torres PSY 405: Theories of Personality March 17, 2014 Sarah Lind University of Phoenix Personality Psychology of personality is the study of personality, which a person’s differences distinguishes him or her from others. Defining personality becomes difficult because of the many aspects that are included. The word theory tends to be confused with other words like hypothesis or philosophy, which many factors can affect a person’s personality. There are different theories that assist psychologists in determining how or why a person develops characteristics and traits. Without a clear understanding, personality will continue to be a focus for psychological research and theories. Personality Definition The term “personality” in the Latin reference means persona, which is like a mask an actor, wears in shows during the Greek or Roman performances (Feist & Feist, 2006). The actor superimposes his or her persona to establish an appearance in the characters plot. During modern day, personality has a separation from false appearances in regards to behavior that is observable. Personality tends to describe the characteristics or traits of people. There are consistencies of behaviors that traits take account for through time, which characteristics describe the attributes of a person. An example would be a person’s intelligence of physique. A pattern of traits, which are permanent, with characteristics that are unique provide consistency to the......

Words: 1340 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Personality

...Defining Personality Personality, this common thread weaves its way through the life of every person on earth, subsequently making each person's behavior different from the next. There are a number of theories on how personality develops; however, none have pinned the development of personality to any one definition. With this in mind, this paper encompasses a discussion surrounding some definitions of personality, examines research methodology that help explain personality development, and the factors that influence personality development. Personality Perspectives For many years people studied personality and theorized about where this behavior came from. Personality is a unique aspect to each individual and is "…a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior" (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 4). In addition, speculation of personality development centers on genetics and the environment. However, there are challenges in the interpretation of personality development test data, as there are a number of perspectives trying to define personality and each theory is unique to the perspective of the theorist. If one looks toward psychoanalyses for an answer, Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, or Carl Jung would contend that personality is a result of early childhood experiences and "…ongoing compromise among numerous independently operating mental subsystems" (Funder, 2001, p. 199). Thus,......

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality Psychology

...Introduction The history of psychology dates as far back as ancient Greece. The philosophers since the 4th century BCE have been trying to define exactly what it is that makes us, us. Plato proposed four groupings (artistic, sensible, intuitive, reasoning) and Aristotle hypothesized four factors (iconic i.e. artistic, pistic i.e. common sence, noetic i.e. intuition and dianoetic i.e. logic) and contributed to ones social order in society. (blog. tiptaplab.com). Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that governs the personality and its variations between individuals. The areas of focus include; construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes, investigation of individual psychological differences, investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals. Personality also refers to someone’s public image (blog. tiptaplab.com). The word personality is a Latin word personae, which is the mask actors wore in ancient Greek plays. They changed personae to let audience know they were assuming different roles (www.reading fanatic.com). Key contributors of Personality There are several contributors to school of personality psychology who explore personality in different contexts. They include Gordon Alport, who believed personality is something within an individual that leads to characteristics of behaviour and thought. Carl Rogers on the other hand thought it is a self organized consistent......

Words: 2230 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Personality Psychology

...Personality 85-251 Final Examination Instructions: Be sure to read each question carefully and answer each part of each question completely. Each question is worth twenty points (10 for accuracy and completeness of information, 10 for application of concepts). 1. What does it mean to say that a perspective on personality is inherently deterministic? Give an example of a perspective we discussed in class that has, at its core, a deterministic worldview. Support your assertion by giving examples of how this perspective is deterministic. When a personality is inherently deterministic, it means that personality is pre-determined from birth or due to life conditions and specific events. It is very similar to psychoanalytic theory in which Freud believes there are 4 stages that everyone must go through and their ability to successfully move on from these stages determine their personality in the future. If they fail at one stage, they are fixated there. Any event that occurs outside of early childhood has little influence on a person's personality. Determinism is the opposite of freewill. An example is if a child fails at the anal stage of the psychoanalytic theory because it fail to develop a sense of the right time and place to produce things, then that child be fixated on that stage and would grow up to have either compulsive or retentive traits. This is deterministic because children learn at a young age the right time and place to do certain things, such as to...

Words: 2498 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Personality

...The many theorists of personality and psychologists cannot agree on a definition of personality. They understand that it is what makes each person unique, but other than that they are baffled. This is not from a lack of trying. Many theorists have been studying personality for years. Sigmund Freud has theorized many things about personality and his work is still being used today. Nature verse nurture is another debate in the personality world. Psychologists cannot come to a conclusion as to whether it is genetics or the environment that gives people their personality. Psychologists have theorized many ways as to how people obtain their personality, whether it is nature or nurture; this paper will discuss that topic. The word personality has no set in stone meaning. The reason for this is because psychologists cannot agree on the meaning. Each branch of psychology will think that the meaning of personality is different, as well as each psychologist within the branch thinking that the meaning is different. Although psychologists do not agree on the same definition they can agree on what it does to a point; this is the generic definition of personality. They agree that personality is the characteristics and traits of a person that attribute to each person’s own behavior. Since psychologists cannot agree on just one definition of personality, many psychologists have come up with theories for what it is and different concepts about it. According to Feist & Feist (2009),” A......

Words: 1141 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality

...Essay Topic: The Conceptualization of personality has changed throughout history. Discuss how the various theories of personality have contributed to the modern definition of personality. In your answer, refer to psychological theory and research. Aim to support your discussion with the relevant theories on personality, and with reference to research studies which have been undertaken. What is personality some may ask, think of the following definitions, what do they have in common. “"Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics behavior and though" (Allport, 1961, p. 28). “The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique” (Weinberg & Gould, 1999). Both quotes highlight and personalize the individual and consequently adopt an idiographic view. So it can be said that within modern day society an idiographic view assumes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person; and that there are times when it is impossible to compare one person with others. It tends to use case studies for information gathering. The nomothetic view, on the other hand, highlights comparability among individuals. This frame of reference sees traits as having the same psychological meaning in each individual. This approach tends to use self-report personality questions, factor analysis, etc. People differ in their......

Words: 1364 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Personality

...An individual’s personality defines who they are as a person. Tests and studies have been conducted to measure these personality traits. This paper will not only define what personality is, but will give an insight to my personality and the concepts or “construct” that explain my personality. Through personal reflection it shows variable environments determine whether personality features are consistent or change based on the situation. Although I have never taken a personality test prior to this assignment, I will explain why these test, if valid and reliable can prove to have variable outcomes if not consistent and continual. Personality Based on the definition provided by the International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, Personality most commonly refers to the psychological features that distinguish one individual from another (Darity, 2008). There are other characteristics in people that make a distinction between them, like the color of their hair and eyes, their race, or even the differences in their jobs; however it is that of which there are psychologically different that distinguishes their personality. The differences that can be described in individuals can be if they are considered introverted versus outgoing, or hyper and stressed versus calm and peaceful. Attitudes can be displayed as positive or negative and though processes can be viewed as broad and open mined versus intolerant or small minded. William Darity (2008) goes on to state a......

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personalities

...Theories of Personalities Elizabeth Scott PSY/405 August 29, 2012 Mark Schmitz Theories of Personalities Two major theories of personality are the psychoanalytic theory and the interpersonal theory, in these reading we will be talking about how these two theories compare to each other and just take a deeper look into the theories in general. The Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic theory was developed by Sigmund Freud and is best described as what some people call the Freudian slip; this means that you say something in front of someone that you shouldn’t have said, also known as a slip of the tongue. These slips are considered to reveal some sort of underlying and unconscious thoughts or feelings. Take for example your ex and your new significant other, you’re talking one day and you accidently not even thinking about it call your new significant other by your ex’s name. This happens because there may be some feelings left somewhere deep down inside for your ex that you just can’t get rid of and your thinking about them unconsciously and accidently say their name. The psychoanalytic view also states that there are inner forces that we as humans are unaware of that direct our behavior, the unresolved feelings you may have for your ex caused you to call your new partner by their name. The Interpersonal Theory The interpersonal theory was developed by Harry Stack Sullivan, Sullivan insisted that personality is shaped almost entirely by the......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4