Free Essay

Outline Two Definitions of the Term ‘Miracle’. Examine Key Reasons for Believing in Miracles.

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By issyyork
Words 500
Pages 2
Background * Right and left hemispheres mirror each other, there are distinct areas dealing with speech production and comprehension showing their functional localization. It exists because Broca’s and Wernike’s areas are only found in left hemisphere. * Primary cortex is situated in frontal lobe; areas in right hemisphere receive information from and are concerned with activities on left side of body. * Sperry believes studies involving split-brain patients reveal ‘true’ nature of two hemispheres because commissurotomy disconnects the two hemispheres. This means they only work independently. * Previous research on animals showed behavioral effects. * Other research by Sperry on humans and monkeys suggested the behavioral effects of the surgery might be less severe than other forms of cerebral surgery, e.g. frontal lobotomy. * Akelaitis (1944) found that there were no important behavioral effects of surgical section of corpus callosum in humans, provided other brain damage was excluded. Research Method Aim and Hypothesis * Aim of the study was to investigate if each brain hemisphere: (i) Possesses an independent stream of conscious awareness (ii) Has its own separate chain of memories that are inaccessible to the other Method/Design/IV & DV/ Controls * Quasi experiment * IV- having a split brain or not * DV- participants ability to perform a variety of visual and tactile tests * Argued that because such extensive tests were carried out on a very small sample this study can be considered a collection of case studies Participants * 11 patients who had undergone the surgery * First patient had his surgery 5 and a half years before study was conducted, second patient had her surgery more than 4 years before the study was conducted, the other 9 patients had their surgery at varying times before the study was conducted. Materials/ Apparatus * Tachistoscope/ 35-mm transparencies/ a standard projector/ visual and tactile tests (objects) Procedure * Participant centered his gaze on fixed point in the center of an upright translucent screen. Visual stimuli on 35 mm transparencies arranged in standard projector, then back-projected at 1/10 of a second (too fast for eye movement) * Everything projected on left of central meridian of screen passed via left visual field to the right hemisphere, and vice versa * Presenting tactile information * Below screen, was a gap so that participants could reach objects but not see their hands. Info about objects placed in left hand is processed by right hemisphere, etc. * Undertook variety of visual and tactile tests, this is called a ‘tachistoscope’

Results

Discussion

* Commissurotomy has prevented both hemispheres from communicating. The right hemisphere appears to not have the ability to use language, so communicates independently with outside world by moving the left hand. The left hemisphere has language ability, so therefore can read and talk.

Conclusion

* People with split brains have two separate visual inner worlds, each with its own visual images * They have a lack of cross-integration where the second hemisphere doesn’t know what the first hemisphere has been doing * They have two independent streams of consciousness, each with its own memories, perceptions and impulses.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sign Miracle

...Sign Miracles Paper | BIBL 323 D17 201240 | Rev. Abdue L. Knox, I L22937066 | And truly Jesus did many other signs in the presence of His disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name. John 20:30-31 NKJV Everywhere Jesus went people were amazed at His miraculous powers. The Apostle John uses Jesus miracles as an organizing principle in his gospel. He calls them semeia, or “signs” indicating that each miracle was a concrete demonstration of Jesus’ divinity and messiah ship. The purpose of the signs were to produce belief as they did for the disciples at the wedding at Cana (John 2:11) and the household of the Nobleman (John 4:53). But these same miracles would incite anger and violence as in the case of healing the man born blind in John 11. (Earl D. Radmacher 1997) The first sign miracle Jesus performed in John’s Gospel was changing water into wine found in John 2:1-12. Jesus and His new disciples arrived at a wedding celebration that had already begun. Mary the mother of Jesus came to Him and told Him that the wine had run out. “Mary was simply informing him of the need, not ordering Him. Her statement is in fact much like a prayer made to Jesus. She knew he could do something.” (Towns 2002) Jesus directed the servants to fill six water pots, which he then turned into wine. “The changing of water into wine is surely meant...

Words: 1556 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

A. Outline at Least Two Defections of the Term Miracle. Examine Key Reasons for Believing in Miracles. B. Comment on the View That These Reasons for Believing in Miracles Are More Persuasive Than Potential Critiicisms.

...a) Outline at least two definitions of the term miracle. Examine key reasons for believing in miracles. The term miracle is queried over constantly for the reason that there are various definitions all consisting of why we should believe miracles to be true. Two of which belong to Thomas Aquinas’ and Richard Swinburne. Each poses reasons for why one should believe in miracles and whether they do really and truly exist. Firstly Aquinas posits his suggestion that miracles are ‘Those things…which are done by divine power apart from the order generally followed in things’. He sets out his definition with three main aspects; starting with the idea that events are done by God which nature could never have the capability of doing. One example used to support this is that it’s logically impossible to stop the Sun yet God with his divine power can. Therefore if this is broken and an act goes against it, it is thus a miracle. The second proposition is that things that are done by God which nature can do but not in that order also qualify as being a miracle. The final idea that Aquinas puts forward is that the events done by God that nature can do but God does without the use of natural laws also are deemed to be miracles. The significant thing about Aquinas’s definition of a miracle is that he allowed for the possibility of miracles to occur within the system of natural activity. Moreover he allowed for the possibility that God’s activity with the natural realm may be part......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Miracles

...
Why! who makes much of a miracle?
As to me, I know of nothing else but miracles,
Whether I walk the streets of Manhattan,
Or dart my sight over the roofs of houses toward the sky,
Or wade with naked feet along the beach, just in the edge of the
water,
Or stand under trees in the woods,
Or talk by day with any one I love--or sleep in the bed at night with
any one I love,
Or sit at table at dinner with my mother,
Or look at strangers opposite me riding in the car,
Or watch honey-bees busy around the hive, of a summer forenoon, 10
Or animals feeding in the fields,
Or birds--or the wonderfulness of insects in the air,
Or the wonderfulness of the sun-down--or of stars shining so quiet
and bright,
Or the exquisite, delicate, thin curve of the new moon in spring;
Or whether I go among those I like best, and that like me best--
mechanics, boatmen, farmers,
Or among the savans--or to the soiree--or to the opera,
Or stand a long while looking at the movements of machinery,
Or behold children at their sports,
Or the admirable sight of the perfect old man, or the perfect old
woman,
Or the sick in hospitals, or the dead carried to burial, 20
Or my own eyes and figure in the glass;
These, with the rest, one and all, are to me miracles,
The whole referring--yet each distinct, and in its place.

To me, every hour of the light and dark is a miracle,
Every cubic inch of space is a miracle,
Every square yard of the surface of the earth is spread with the
same,
Every foot of the interior swarms...

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Miracle

...Historical Film Prompt: Miracle The film Miracle is about the U.S men’s ice hockey team winning the 1980 gold metal for the Winter Olympics, led by head coach Herb Brooks. Miracle was fairly accurate with its historic content during the course of the movie. The director Gavin O’Connor did a good job tying in historical and political background that brought the film together, which made it unique to other sport films. In the beginning of the film there was a sequence highlighting the historical events that lead up to the 1980 Winter Olympics. Miracle specifically opened up with the historical footage against the Vietnam War in the 1960s. Our country endured the time where it was divided because of the support of the Vietnam War. To make things worst, the 1970’s was also a hard time for the United States. The United States had to deal President Richard Nixon’s Watergate Scandal during the year of 1974. A scene in the movie showed a headline saying “5 were arrested in connection to GOP.” Later stating that President Richard Nixon had resigned from office, making him the first president to step down. And the following years lead up to another problem known as the hostage crisis in Iran during 1979 to the 80’s. The film also accurately portrayed the oil crises in the film multiple times. The oil crisis was mentioned early on in the film and in the middle when the coaches were at a gas station filling up their bus. At the gas station there was a sign that announced that the gas......

Words: 1430 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

By Definition, Miracles Can Never Happen. Discuss.

...“By definition a miracle can never happen.” Discuss. The known definition of a miracle is “an extraordinary and welcome event that is not explicable by natural or scientific laws and is therefore attributed to a divine agency.” However, Peter Vardy in The Puzzle of God gave four different definitions provided by many different scholars, including Aquinas and Hume, with Hume believing they are impossible but cannot be disproved compared to Aquinas believing they are completely possible even within the system of natural activity. What a miracle is can be debated forever due to the many different interpretations of who and why they come about, with psychologists such as Freud arguing they are just an illusion and Wiles arguing that miracles do exist but not as a result of God’s will. The real question is whether the laws of nature can ever be broken and to that affect – do miracles define themselves into non-existence? The definition of a miracle provided by Hume is “a transgression of the laws of nature brought about by the volition of a deity.” He believes that miracles are simply an interposition by some invisible agent, but he however goes on to challenge this definition with his theoretical case miracles which argued that the laws of nature we experience are constant and therefore cannot be changed, In response to this, as the laws of nature cannot be defied, (if they could be broken they would not be laws), by Hume’s definition, miracles can never happen, as laws of......

Words: 1617 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Assess Hume’s Reasons for Rejecting Miracles. (35 Marks)

...Hume was a verificationist and approached miracles from an empirical view, relying on probability as a basis for his reasons for rejecting miracles. Hume defined miracles as a ‘violation of the laws of nature’, he believed that the laws of nature were set in stone, through the use of a posteriori knowledge Hume identified them as being universal and unchanging. Hume observed that some Biblical miracles, such as Jesus walking on water, violated those laws of nature. He then went on to identify the probability that a violation of these laws could occur, Hume argued that if the probability of an event occurring was low then there was little chance that the miracle had actually occurred. This would be true in the event of a baby falling from a 3rd floor window and escaping unscathed, the probability of this happening is extremely low thus Hume would state that a report of it happening was false and it probably did not happen. Through using the principle of probability a miraculous event should be labelled as a miracle only where it would be unbelievable for it to be anything less. Upon following this principle it is less likely that the testimony is false than the miracle occurred should you have a prior belief, however if you do not believe in a deity and the probability of a miracle occurring then the miracles happening is less likely than the testimony being false. This argument used by Hume is not an effective argument as there are cases in which the laws of nature have......

Words: 793 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Miracle

...Miracle Miracle Introduction The movie that I have chosen to write about was the movie “Miracle”. The movie miracle has many different types of cultural differences that are not that easily seen at a first glance. However, when you watch the movie more than once you can begin to see the cultural differences that occur in the movie. The cultural differences that I was able to see from this movie were Jim Craig’s miscommunication with coach, Jim Craig’s father’s miscommunication, the different styles of play between the Soviet’s and the US, and the difference between USA and Soviets players. The first cultural difference that occurred in the movie was easy to see and hear. Jim Craig, who was the goaltender, had his mother pass away leaving just his father to support him. In the opening scene in the movie, the hockey committee is having tryouts to form together a hockey to team to compete in the Olympics. When Herb Brooks, the head coach of team USA, is scouting his players, the assistant coach says, “Why is Craig starting over Janacek, his mother died and his game has been off ever since” (O’Connor)? Herb then replies, “Have you ever seen him when his game is on” (O’Connor). As the movie goes on, Jim Craig makes the team and Herb Brooks has everyone take a test, to see how hard he can push them. However, Craig does not take the test. When Herb goes to Craig’s room to ask him why he didn’t take the test, Herb could tell that something wasn’t......

Words: 982 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outline Two Definitions of the Term ‘Miracle’. Examine Key Reasons for Believing in Miracles

...Dasein and the quest for authentic Being-in-the-world Essay Two 'I am Condemned to be free': Sartre, Freedom and Bad faith Essay Three 'Hell is other people': Sartre and being-for-others Essay Four Generating a meaningful existence: A Nietzschean based interpretation back [pic] Mary Jennings: Associate Award Essay One Doubt, certainty and knowledge in Descartes and Merleau-Ponty Essay Two Justice and the Other in Levinas Totality and Infinity Essay Three Heidegger's Dasein and Cartesian scepticism Essay Four Heidegger's notion of Befindlichkeit in Being and Time back [pic] Andrew Watson: Associate Award Essay One Plato's view of the fine arts in the Republic Essay Two Plato's theory of divine inspiration (mania) Essay Three A Comparison of Plotinus' philosophy of art and beauty with that of Plato Essay Four Mimesis in Aristotle and Pollock back [pic] Kenneth Head: Associate Award Essay One Does Life Have a Meaning? Essay Two The Status of Religious Language Essay Three Moral Complexity in the Making and Keeping of Promises Essay Four Personal Autonomy and Individual Moral Growth back [pic] Stuart Hopkins: Associate Award Essay One Justice and Morality in Plato's Republic Essay Two Kant and the 'Morality of Anger' Essay Three Hobbes and Absolute Sovereignty Essay Four Locke's Theory of Resistance back [pic] Tony Bellotti: Associate Award Essay One Descartes' Method of Doubt Essay Two Problems that arise from the incompatibility of Subjective......

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hume on Miracles

...Evaluate the claim that belief in miracles leads to a belief in a God who favours some but not all of his creation. 35m The definition of the word ‘miracle’ has not been unanimously agreed upon by scholars and thinkers. Hume famously defined miracles as ‘violations of the laws of nature by a particular volition of the deity.’ It can be argued that Hume would agree that belief in miracles would lead to a God who favoured some but not all of his creation as they are defined by him as exceptions to the norm based purely on the ‘volition’ (or will) of God. In this sense God would therefore decide when and where to intervene. The fundamental problem with this position is the anthropomorphic language which is used to describe God, many would argue that God does not act from volition because He does not have human attributes or limitations. Maurice Wiles argued that a God who intervenes selectively would not be worthy of worship due to his failure to act on a wider scale. Wiles argue that such a God would be guilty of being arbitrary (acting on random choices) and partisan (seeming to support a certain party or group). Wiles is concerned that a God who performs miracles, in the traditional sense, is picking and choosing who to perform miracles for, relieving suffering for some and allowing it to happen to others. He argues that the believer is subsequently left with two choices: to reject belief in miracles and petitionary prayer, or to accept that God is morally culpable for......

Words: 862 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Miracles

...Hume defines miracles as ‘violations of the laws of nature’ which leads him to reject their existence, as by definition, they are beyond the realms of reasonable belief. In defence of miracles, Swinburne challenges some of Hume’s practical arguments. Hume claims miracles only occur among uneducated and ignorant people, suggesting a lack of convincing testimony. Swinburne questions how you define when people are educated and what level of education is required to give ‘reliable’ testimony of a miracle, underlining Hume’s vagueness. It could mean that people lack a familiarity with science as Hume suggests, but this fails to explain why many people who are clearly educated still attest to experiencing miracles. However, historical evidence is used to support Hume’s case. It is evident that as the nation develops and becomes more educated, the number of reported miracles disappear. Swinburne also criticises Hume’s proposition that contradictory reports of miracles occurring in different religions cancel each other out. Swinburne condemns the view that miracles in any religion prove the truth of one religious belief correct over another. He points out the majority of reported miracles by theists involve God helping someone, for instance through healing. Instead of this being contradictory, they perhaps simultaneously verify the belief in a common benevolent God, validating miracles. Furthermore, Hume’s definition of a miracle is criticised as he places emphasis on the fixed...

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Miracles

...(a) Outline the key concepts of miracle and examine the main reasons to believe in miracles The world miracle derive from the Latin word ‘miror’ which means I wonder at. Miracles is a posterior and inductive argument. There are three key concepts of miracles which are it should break the law of nature, it must have purpose and significance and it should be open to religious and spiritual understanding. The definition associated with miracles comes from David Hume stating “a miracle is a transgression of a law of nature by a particular violation of the deity”. One key concept of miracles comes from Thomas Aquinas a 13th century philosopher whom believed in a realist view of miracles and states “things that are done occasionally by divine power apart from the order generally followed in things”. He proposed three categories, the first rank which are events done by god that nature and humans can logically not do such as Jesus walking on water. The second rank are events done by god that nature could do but not in that order for example the resurrection of Jesus. The third ranks are events done by god that nature can do but god does without the use of natural laws such as the healing of Peter’s mother-in-law in the chapter of Nark in the bible. This is one of the key concepts of miracles as Aquinas ranks are consistent with religious tradition. There are two concepts of miracles one of which is a realist view where miracles actual do have to have happened to be meaningful and......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Miracles Revision

...person interprets an event as an act of God and another does not? Hume Created a case against miracles saying not that they do not happen, but that it would be impossible to prove them – he is an empiricist (bases knowledge on experience). A miracle is ‘A transgression of a law of nature brought about by a particular violation of a Deity’. Nothing that can happen in nature should be called a miracle. Had 5 arguments against believing in miracles; one philosophical and four psychological. Not enough evidence of miracles to outweigh our general experience. Rationality requires that belief is proportionate to evidence. ‘A wise man proportions his belief to the evidence’. Insufficient witnesses – must be witnessed by a highly credible, good sense, well-educated person. How much education is ‘enough’? The testimonies usually came from ignorant and barbarous nations. People tend to exaggerate and are drawn towards the sensational and drama. The often have a desire to believe. There are conflicting claims that cancel each other out. Hick’s response would be that all religions lead to one God though. Hume will never be fully able to fully prove to believers that miracles do not occur, as the definition of a miracle implies divine activity and this is ultimately beyond our earthly considerations. But sceptics and believers can be said to both agree that the occurrence of miracles must be a very rare event. Critque of Hume Hick would say that we do not know the laws......

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Assess Hume's Rejection of Miracles

...defined miracles as a “violation of the laws of nature” and consequently rejected their occurrence as both improbable and impractical. This view has been supported by modern scientists and philosophers such as Atkins, Dawkins and Wiles to a certain extent. However Aquinas, Tillich and Holland and Swinburne to a certain extent reject Hume’s reasons, instead arguing that miracles have a divine cause and that Hume’s arguments are weak. This essay will argue that Hume’s reasons for rejecting miracles are not valid and in doing so consider his two main arguments; lack of probability and Hume’s practical argument. Hume’s first reason for rejecting miracles was a lack of probability. He argued that evidence from people’s experience of observing the world showed the laws of nature to be fixed and unvarying. However to suggest a miracle occurred was to say that the laws of nature had been violated, hence his definition of miracles being a “violation of the laws of nature.” Miracles were reported has having occurred by eyewitnesses, as is stated in the Bible in the case of Jesus raising Lazarus from the dead. However for Hume it was far more likely that the eyewitnesses were mistaken in what they witnessed, than for Jesus to have actually raised Lazarus from the dead and in doing so violated fixed laws of nature. A violation of the laws of nature was therefore an improbable occurrence. Wiles’ agrees with Hume’s point that it is more likely the eyewitness was wrong than a......

Words: 1313 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Asses Humes Reason for Rejecting Miracles. (35) 

...Asses Humes reason for rejecting miracles. (35)  Hume defines a miracle as a transgression of a natural law by a particular volition of the deity. This does not imply that a miracle is an extraordinary event but it is one that breaks the natural law and that it is brought about by the action of God. Other two definitions would be that a miracle is an event that has religious significance and this does not need to have broken the laws of nature to be regarded as a miracle but it needs to reveal something about God. The last definition of a miracle is a view of Thomas Aquinas who defines miracles as an event caused by God. In this essay I will be discussing why Hume rejects miracles and arguments for and against his theories. Hume was an empiricist, so he believed that it was more likely that the report of a miracle was mistaken than the laws of nature were violated. He did not say that miracles did not happen, but that it would be impossible to prove them. Hume’s argument is based on the principle of induction, which is the suggestion that future events will take place based on previous evidence. This is because evidence from people’s experience of observing the world showed the laws of nature to be fixed and unvarying. For example, the sun has risen every day in the past, so it is very likely that it will rise again and not stand still in the sky. However, Hume did accept that whatever happened countless times in the past did not guarantee such would happen again in...

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Assess Hume’s Reasons for Rejecting Miracles

...,ASSESS HUME’S REASONS FOR REJECTING MIRACLES Hume’s rejection of miracles comes from his theory that there are laws of nature which are based on past experience, a posteriori, and appear to be unvarying and universal. During this essay I will put forward Hume’s approach before assessing his reasons for the rejections of miracles and what other philosophers have said about his rejection. According to the dictionary definition, a miracle is defined as: ‘a highly improbable or extraordinary event that is not explicable by natural laws and is considered to be divine’. Hume’s definition of a miracle is not that different from the dictionary definition, defining them as: ‘a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity, or by the interposition of some invisible agent.’ He puts forward two separate arguments against miracles; one being a priori and the other being a posteriori. The first of his arguments is based on the lack of probability and is a priori. Hume argues that miracles are violations of the laws of nature and a ‘firm and unalterable experience’ has established these laws of nature. He did not deny that these events, miracles, would not happen; but instead said that they are the least likely event possible, and improbable events need witnesses of higher credibility than witnesses required for more probable events. Hume argued that even the most impressive testimony will at most counterbalance the unlikeliness of the event. Clearly, a serious...

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5