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In: Business and Management

Submitted By hattan11
Words 574
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Estimating Projects
• Estimating
–The process of forecasting or approximating the time and cost of completing project deliverables. –The task of balancing the expectations of stakeholders and the need for control while the project is implemented

• Types of Estimates
–Top-down (macro) estimates: analogy, group consensus, or mathematical relationships –Bottom-up (micro) estimates: estimates of elements of the work breakdown structure
Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 5–1

Why Estimating Time and Cost Are Important
• Estimates are needed to support good decisions. • Estimates are needed to schedule work. • Estimates are needed to determine how long the project should take and its cost. • Estimates are needed to determine whether the project is worth doing. • Estimates are needed to develop cash flow needs. • Estimates are needed to determine how well the project is progressing. • Estimates are needed to develop time-phased budgets and establish the project baseline.
Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 5–2

Factors Influencing the Quality of Estimates
Planning Horizon
Other (Nonproject) Factors Project Duration

Organization Culture

Quality of Estimates


Padding Estimates

Project Structure and Organization

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin 5–3

Estimating Guidelines for Times, Costs, and Resources
1. Have people familiar with the tasks make the estimate. 2. Use several people to make estimates. 3. Base estimates on normal conditions, efficient methods, and a normal level of resources. 4. Use consistent time units in estimating task times. 5. Treat each task as independent, don’t aggregate. 6. Don’t make allowances for contingencies. 7. Adding a risk assessment helps…...

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