Free Essay

Ocd: Do We Choose or Are We Programmed?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By erikadixonn
Words 1240
Pages 5
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Do We Choose Or Are We Programmed?
Erika Dixon
Algonquin College
ENL1813 Communications
Persuasive Research Essay

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Do We Choose Or Are We Programmed?
Sometimes I ask myself, “Where did my OCD Come From?” or, I have a mental breakdown and ask myself, “What am I doing?” Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is unwanted repetitive behaviours and thoughts that torture about 2% of the population (HealthProfs.com, 2014). Some people are convinced that this behaviour is a choice, and that people with OCD are pretending because they want attention. Although researchers don’t know exactly what causes OCD, they know it’s real, and research is proving that people are subconsciously programmed and nurtured into this behaviour through biology, family history, and life experiences (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2014).
Biological factors relating to the possible causes of OCD are an area of considerable research and theory, and it suggests that the brain of a person with OCD has irregular interactions, which makes them have uncontrollable repetitive behaviours and thoughts (HealthProfs.com, 2014). Biological causes of OCD have focused on a circuit in the brain which regulates primitive aspects of our behaviour such as aggression, sexuality, and bodily excretions (OCD-UK, 2013). When this circuit becomes activated, certain impulses are brought to your attention and cause you to perform a particular behaviour that appropriately addresses the impulse (OCD-UK, 2013). Abnormalities and imbalances in serotonin could also be to blame, because serotonin regulates everything from mood, aggression, impulse control, sleep, appetite, body temperature, and pain (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 2012). All of the medicines used to treat OCD raise the levels of serotonin available, to transmit messages within the brain more effectively (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 2012). Several brain imaging studies have been used to show the differences between the brains of people with OCD and those without OCD (OCD-UK, 2013). Despite the recognition, the scientific community is not sure if it is a cause for, or a result of, having the disorder, and how these differences relate to the precise mechanisms of OCD (OCD-UK, 2013). Although there has been a broad range of theories and considerable research, scientists so far have not been able to identify a definitive biological cause for a person developing OCD (OCD-UK, 2013).
Since the early years of the twentieth century, clinicians have suspected that family history plays an important role in the development of OCD (Nestadt, Grados, & Samuels, 2010). Several studies of families have shown a strong connection between a parent’s obsessive compulsive symptoms and those of their children (A.D.A.M, 2013). Although an inherited trait may be present, some researchers believe that many children can learn these behaviours just by observing a parent, sibling, or other close relative (A.D.A.M, 2013). Researchers have gone into in depth studies to prove OCD occurs much more commonly among relatives of OCD sufferers, than relatives of people without OCD (Nestadt, Grados, & Samuels, 2010). These researchers have come to a conclusion that they have enough evidence to support that OCD is a familial disorder (Nestadt, Grados, & Samuels, 2010). In addition to finding that OCD runs in families, the study showed that the earlier individuals develop these symptoms, the more likely they are to have a familial type of this condition (Nestadt, Grados, & Samuels, 2010). When the age of OCD onset was 5 to 17 years, the occurrence of OCD in relatives was 13.8%, but it was 0% in patients whose symptoms began between ages 18 to 41 (WebMD Health News, 2010). In other words, early onset of OCD symptoms indicates a strong genetic component within the disorder, and it could be a strong predictor of a child developing OCD (WebMD Health News, 2010). Children are being programmed by genetic factors and nurtured by OCD symptoms of first degree relatives (Beyond OCD, 2015).
Life experiences, such as traumatic and stressful events that occurred relatively early throughout an individual’s life, have not yet been confirmed an actual cause of OCD. Researchers tend to focus more on the biological and genetic causes of the disorder, rather than focusing on the psychological causes (OCD-UK, 2013). Many people who suffer from OCD will report that symptoms started occurring after a particular life event (Williams, 2011). However, particular life events are not thought to cause the OCD, but rather trigger it in someone already predisposed to the disorder (OCD-UK, 2013). The specific content of obsessions can be influenced by events that occur in a person's life, and this can be seen in cross-cultural studies of OCD (Williams, 2011). To further explain, the norms of society are differential according to varying demographics, therefore, particular life events triggering OCD would be different in each demographic area (Williams, 2011). The events that traumatize people are going to vary on several factors, such as the type of country they live in, how they were raised, parenting styles, stress, what people have seen, religious beliefs, etc. (OCD-UK, 2013). People who have had more stressful or traumatizing life events before the onset of OCD are more likely to engage in checking and symmetry compulsions (Williams, 2011). This could be an attempt to impose a degree of order in a world filled with increasing unpredictability, but it also shows how each life experience can uniquely affect the symptoms and severity of OCD (Williams, 2011). Some people are born with biological or genetic predispositions to OCD, and then a combination of life events light the fuse (Williams, 2011).
Despite the temptation to figure it all out, it is not possible to identify the exact cause of OCD in any particular person (Williams, 2011). It is clearly caused by a complex interaction of biology, family history, and life experiences (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2014). A victim’s biological and genetic factors program them to have OCD, and life experiences encourage and nurture the OCD to become active. OCD is programmed and nurtured into someone, and ultimately—inevitable.

References
A.D.A.M. (2013). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/risk-factors.html
Beyond OCD. (2015). What Causes OCD. Retrieved November 8, 2015, from OCD Education Station: http://www.ocdeducationstation.org/ocd-facts/what-causes-ocd
Canadian Mental Health Association. (2014). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Canada: Canadian Mental Health Association.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. (2012). Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved 11 13, 2015, from What Causes OCD?: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/a_z_mental_health_and_addiction_information/obsessive_compulsive_disorder/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_information_guide/Pages/ocd_causes.aspx
HealthProfs.com. (2014, November 24). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from Psychology Today: http://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/obsessive-compulsive-disorder
Nestadt, G., Grados, M., & Samuels, J. F. (2010). Genetics of OCD. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824902/
OCD-UK. (2013). What Causes OCD? Retrieved November 7, 2015, from OCD-UK: http://www.ocduk.org/what-causes-ocd
WebMD Health News. (2010). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Runs In Famalies. Retrieved November 7, 2015, from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/news/20000427/ocd-possibly-hereditary?page=2
Williams, M. T. (2011). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and the “Root of the Problem”. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/culturally-speaking/201112/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-the-root-the-problem…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Do We Have Free Will?

...Do We Have Free Will? It is Friday night and your friends have just invited you to what is supposed to be the best party of the year, but it is your little brother’s birthday. Right before the party, you sit down to weigh your options and decided to stay home to celebrate your little brother’s birthday. Did you just make a free choice, or was your decision just the result of the natural laws in the universe coming together forcing you to stay home? In the words of Arthur Schopenhauer, ""Man can do what he wills but he cannot will what he wills" . According to this, though you may believe that you have the complete freedom to choose where you wanted to go, your ultimate choice was caused by the events that occurred before this one. Although the choice of going to the party or staying home may seem to have given the illusion of free will, there was ultimately a physical law that could most likely explain why this decision was made. First off, there are three main viewpoints on the idea of free will: compatibilism, determinism, and indeterminism. Compatibilists state that it is possible for both free will and determinism to exist at the same time. Given an instance, a compatibilist will say that even though you are only really presented with one option in all situations, if this option is in accordance with the your true desires, then you have free will. Another idea some compatibilists believe is that there is always a natural law that can explain an outcome, but......

Words: 895 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Why We Do What We Do

...RUNNING HEAD: Why We Do Why We Do What We Do “To be or not to be that is the question” (Shakespeare, 1945) most notably said in Shakespearian text. Today we ask the same question within our actions. Are we able to be ourselves in the decisions we make or are we not? In business we exam many problems and situations and act appropriately based the business needs and practices. In many cases the decisions we make our not within our means or not based on whom we are. Many business decisions are made with utilitarian approach. The decision is based not on the character of the person but the decision itself. Decisions like these can often make or break a company. “Character is a major component of leadership. This goes hand and hand with integrity and commitment will come naturally.”(Klann, 2007) Developing Character can lead to major personal achievements within an organization. Virtue Theory shifts the focus of decision making based on rules and regulations to morals and ethics based on one’s self being. This can be seen in a positive light depending on the business someone conducts. In many situations it can lead to difficult decision making when it comes to organizations that have to abide by certain policies and procedures that may not agree with an individual’s morals and ethics. “Is it wrong to steal a loaf of bread to feed your family…?” (Groening, 1989) Deontology brings us the dilemma of what the moral high ground is and why. Individual morality differs for each......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Should We Choose Prolife

...the future and make the world a better place, is killed. Abortion has a negative effect on society as a whole. When we allow the killing of unborn children, we become desensitized and it can eventually lead to the euthanasia of terminally ill people, the elderly, the mentally handicapped and finally, and most importantly, the unwanted. Society should be responsible for protecting all life, not destroying it. There are other options to abortion. They are, of course, abstinence, but if you can not refrain from sex and you do get pregnant, you have the option of adoption. Although many people chose the horrible choice of abortion, many do chose to give life to their child. They chose to give their child up for adoption. Children like me can grow up in a loving home knowing that even though their mother or father may not have wanted them, someone else does. With adoption, their chances of survival are better than if they’re left stranded on the streets. Abortion is a very touchy subject for me, especially because I had a 50/50 chance of survival. Take a look at the people sitting next to you. There is a chance that they would not be sitting there. Your mothers made a decision to keep you and for that, you should be thankful. Let us remember the ones who were not so lucky. When the time comes and you or your wife is pregnant, I hope you’ll remember this and choose life, not death by abortion. Thank You...

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Do We Need Change

...is evolution (gradual development). That is only if we believe that theory is right and consider GOD as a great business man and human as GODS product. So where we are now as human because we have evolved through time. So will it be wrong to say that all the different business evolved on the same principle? That is to make profit. But the businesses which stays for long as market leader are those who constantly innovating .Examples of those companies who once were major leaders are either have been shrunk ,or finished or have lost their identity or catching their tails since then due to not evolving or anticipating a change for future. i.e. DELL, MICROSOFT,WANG LABORATRIES ONCE LEADING FIRMS DISAPPEARED COMPLETELY. An other good example of innovationg is Italian Tractor magnate Ferruccio Lamborghini saw little value in racing cars and As legend has it, Lamborghini presented his concerns to Enzo, who told him to go soak his head, and Ferruccio stormed off, vowing to build a better car. That is a great lesson and a great contrast but there it is normally I tend to say ”impossible is im possible”and Mr Fruruccio proved it. Concluding remarks: so my understanding from the module is that it is very important that if one wants to stay in this competitive market he(business) has to keep on evolving according to the market situation and customer need. A And in doing so making sure that they do not fall into the trap of ignorance Vijay Govindarajan,...

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Dammed If We Do Dammed If We Don’t

... Research Paper Dr.Babaie November 25th 2012 Dammed If We Do Dammed If We Don’t In our everyday lives we rarely think of how we get our drinking water or where it even comes from. If we were to do a little research we would most likely come to the conclusion that it came from, or was in some part due to the use of a dam. Dams are part of everyday life and impact us in more ways than we can even express. First there are the general purposes we all think about: recreation (boating, swimming, etc.), drinking or water for irrigation, and possibly energy production better known as hydroelectric power generation. Yet there are many more active, passive, and even religious ways that dams effect the many cultures, whether effluent or poor; around the globe (Abraham). * Going back to ancient Rome there is mention of retaining and trapping water for public and civil uses. They created the first aqueducts not to far off from the systems many countries still use today to deliver their water for drinking and other public uses, such as filling fountains and using for mill power. It was said that no matter how much of a drought or shortage of water in Rome, the fountains were the last thing to be shut down (public drinking water, even water for the senate was shut off) were the public fountains, to show Rome’s great power and prestige in case of invasion, and for public image also. * Today we live in a much more complicated world. A world filled with people and......

Words: 1684 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

We Are What We Choose

..."We are What We Choose"
Remarks by Jeff Bezos, as delivered to the Class of 2010
Baccalaureate
May 30, 2010 As a kid, I spent my summers with my grandparents on their ranch in Texas. I helped fix windmills, vaccinate cattle, and do other chores. We also watched soap operas every afternoon, especially "Days of our Lives." My grandparents belonged to a Caravan Club, a group of Airstream trailer owners who travel together around the U.S. and Canada. And every few summers, we'd join the caravan. We'd hitch up the Airstream trailer to my grandfather's car, and off we'd go, in a line with 300 other Airstream adventurers. I loved and worshipped my grandparents and I really looked forward to these trips. On one particular trip, I was about 10 years old. I was rolling around in the big bench seat in the back of the car. My grandfather was driving. And my grandmother had the passenger seat. She smoked throughout these trips, and I hated the smell. At that age, I'd take any excuse to make estimates and do minor arithmetic. I'd calculate our gas mileage -- figure out useless statistics on things like grocery spending. I'd been hearing an ad campaign about smoking. I can't remember the details, but basically the ad said, every puff of a cigarette takes some number of minutes off of your life: I think it might have been two minutes per puff. At any rate, I decided to do the math for my grandmother. I estimated the number of cigarettes per days, estimated the number of puffs per cigarette...

Words: 1370 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Do We Need Government

...Running head: DO WE NEED GOVERNMENT? Do We Need Government? If so, What Should be its Role Abstract The topic of government has always been a large area of conflict. In the following, I will discuss why we need a government and I believe we do need a government. First, do we need government and if so, what role should be its role? I began my paper by addressing these questions by looking at the United States Constitution. “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” People are the ones working alongside government to carry out these mandates stated in this important document. Do We Need Government? If so, What Should be its Role Role of Government In responding to the questions Do we need government? If so, what should be its role?, my answer has to be yes. Thomas Paine’s quote, “Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable one.” (Paine, 1995) is as true today as it was during the Revolutionary War when he wrote it. In my opinion, we need government and the government needs us, so that Americans can continue to work together with government in harmony, to keep our country growing and developing. Our forefathers escaped to the New......

Words: 1542 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Whe Do We Lie

...because it's so contrary to the world we live in. Can you imagine telling someone you were breaking up with him because of his looks? Or admitting to your boss that you'd read his private e-mails? What about confessing to the days that you're so depressed you stay in bed crying? We don't do that in polite society. If we break up with someone, we tend to think of courteous ways to put it, and if someone asks how we're doing, we respond that we're fine, when in actuality, we'd like to go home and spend quality time with our favorite liquor. In other words, we lie. But why? Why are we so deceitful when we claim with that we value honesty in our interpersonal relationships? To some extent, we can be proud of our lies. Lying is considered a sign of intelligence and cognitive skill, because it takes some aptitude to recognize the way things are and then create and present an alternative to that reality. And it's a skill that we exercise quite a bit; in a study published in the Journal of Basic andApplied Psychology, researchers found that 60 percent of the subjects lied at least once during a videotaped 10-minute conversation [source: Lloyd]. Researchers reported that all the subjects believed they'd been completely truthful during the conversation, so when they watched the playback of the tape, they were amazed to find they'd said deceptive things. The ability to lie and not realize it is a gift unique to humans. Not only do we deceive others, we can trick ourselves into......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Free Will; Do We Have It or Not

...Free Will; Do We Have it or Not The question of free will is one which has been hotly debated for millennia. Some people believe that humans have the capacity for free will - the ability to choose their actions without being forced to follow a certain course by either by the influence of others or by natural laws. For many theists, free will is regarded as a special gift from God. The notion of human free will is also an important premise for a lot of what happens in human society - in particular, when it comes to our legal system. Free will is necessary for the notion of personal responsibility. If people do not have free will, then it is difficult to argue that they are personally and morally responsible for their actions - and if that is the case, how can they be punished for their misdeeds? In fact, how can they be praised for the good things they do, if those actions were not also freely chosen? George Orwell did not have free will when it came to shooting the elephant. Orwell expresses his conflicting views regarding imperialism through three examples of oppression by his country, by the Burmese, and by himself on the Burmese. Thus he was not morally responsible. This made Orwell realize his role in society and has made him a stronger man. But first let’s see what led to his feeling toward the Burmese people. The building up of the feeling of pressure starts with Orwell feeling humiliated and disrespected from the Burmese and shifts to a feeling of......

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Do We Have Free Will

...Student: Instructor: Class: Date: Do we have Free Will? Yes. The issue of whether we have a free will or not is disputable. For the purpose of this study, I will look into what others have said about this topic. First, I will consider the opinions of three writers who have written contrary to my opinion supporting their argument with the reasons they have given. Secondly, I will analyze the opinions of those writers who believe that we have free will. This will of course be followed by supportive argument behind their opinions. On the last section of this study, I will rebut on the two different opinions. It seems that we do not have free will. For as (Merrill 293), the idea of free will is invalid because conditions of free will are not succinctly stated. There exists a problem of stating the conditions due to a foggy idea of the meaning in the cause effect relationships. The notion between the cause effect relationships is based on experience. In other words, this relationship is based on a succession of time. Although the succession in time can be proved in the laboratory, it cannot be consciously proved because a human being can do the same thing twice but with different consciousness. It seems that we do not have free will. For as (Clement Dore 500-501) free will is associated with making choices out of consciousness. Free will knows no coercion and one accepts responsibility for his actions. People engage in logical reasoning in making their day-to-day choices,......

Words: 1346 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Fear: Do We Control It?

...Fear: Do We Control It, Or Does It Control Us? TLJ Honors Psych Fear: Do We Control It, Or Does It Control Us? Abstract Fear is the mind's way of responding to both physical and emotional danger. It has vast effects on an individual's psychological state, and is directly controlled by the amygdala. Fear is a necessary defense, because without it we would not protect ourselves from legitimate threats. Traumas and bad experiences can trigger emotional fears. Though it seems nowadays, we play into these fears -- fears that are not at all life threatening-- all too often allowing them to become irrational fears. Since the beginning of time there has always been an instilment of fear in our minds, whether the fear was that of eating the 'Forbidden Fruit' , to local legends like Slenderman, and even the bizarre idea of a robotic coup de' etat. The only difference between these fears, is how strongly we let them affect us psychologically. Do we allow our fears to be spoon-fed to us by society and the media? Are we completely irrational when it comes to some of these fears? What is the correlation between our fears of the past and those of the present? Finally, what will the future of mankind hold? All of these factors play a major part in understanding the affects fear can have on society as a whole. Keywords: Fear, Irrational, Media, Past, Present, Future Fear: Do We Control It, Or Does It Control Us? Since the dawn of......

Words: 4073 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Why Do We Plan

...how you would respond if they were deployed. Plan what to do in case you are separated during an emergency * Choose two places to meet: * ̶ Right outside your home in case of a sudden emergency, such as a fire * ̶ Outside your neighborhood, in case you cannot return home or are asked to evacuate * * Choose an out-of-area emergency contact person. It may be easier to text or call long distance if local phone lines are overloaded or out of service. Everyone should have emergency contact information in writing or saved on their cell phones. Plan what to do if you have to evacuate * Decide where you would go and what route you would take to get there. You may choose to go to a hotel/motel, stay with friends or relatives in a safe location or go to an evacuation shelter if necessary. * * Practice evacuating your home twice a year. Drive your planned evacuation route and plot alternate routes on your map in case roads are impassable. * * Plan ahead for your pets. Keep a phone list of pet-friendly hotels/motels and animal shelters that are along your evacuation routes. Terrorist Attacks Terrorist attacks like the ones we experienced on September 11, 2001 have left many concerned about the possibility of future incidents of terrorism in the United States and their potential impact. They have raised uncertainty about what might happen next, increasing stress levels. There are things you can do to prepare for terrorist attacks and reduce the stress......

Words: 1219 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Chiquita: Doomed If We Do, Doomed If We Don't

...University of Caloocan City Camarin Campus A business case analysis entitled “Chiquita: Doomed if we do, doomed if we don’t” Shane Marie Diesta Christian Balagtas Eric Jay Etoc II. Recommendation Statement Our team recommends Chiquita International to withdraw their segment in Columbia should the threat of the AUC puts the life of the employees and the compliance with the government at stake. III. Background Information Chiquita Brands International, Inc. (“Chiquita”) ,along with its subsidiaries, is an international marketer and distributor of bananas and pineapples sold under the Chiquita and other brand names in 70 countries, and packaged salads sold under the Fresh Express and other brand names primarily in the United States. With over twenty six thousand employees across six continents, the banana company faced one of its red hot scandals, right in Columbia. Chiquita admitted that it had been paying for years to the violent, right-wing terrorist organization United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia – an English translation of the Spanish name of the group, "Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia" (commonly known as and referred to hereinafter as the "AUC") in exchange of AUC not giving harm to Chiquita’s employees. The AUC had been designated by the U.S. government as a Foreign Terrorist Organization ("FTO") on Sept. 10, 2001, and these designations made it a federal crime for Chiquita, as a U.S. corporation, to provide money to the AUC. In April 2003,......

Words: 1999 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

How Do We Know?

...Intro to Philosophy 11 January 2016 How Do We Know? ”How do we know? This is a very intriguing question once you really think about it. How do we acquire knowledge? How do we know something to be true? Is it through experience or does it come from another realm in which we previously inhabited? Is everything we know and will learn in the future already mapped out for us? Throughout history man has sought out to answer these deeper questions and through philosophy they have begun to open their eyes to the universe in which we live. Answering question after question each philosopher perfecting the former theory and all of it leading up to the ultimate question the purpose of life. Epistemology is a form of philosophy that comes from the greek word for knowledge “episteme” and “logos” meaning explanation (chaffee 229) this encompasses the nature of knowledge and justification. It is through epistemology and metaphysics that philosophers attempt to othe answer questions like: can we ever really know anything? what is the difference between belief and knowledge? Can there be different “truths” for different people. or is “truth” the same for all? Pre-socratic philosophers used these ideas to lay the foundation for philosophy as we know it today. Plato, a student of Socrates, and as an ancient Greek philosopher he not only preserved Socrates teachings for future generations but also contributed original ideas on a wide range of issues such as morality, politics, metaphysics......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Why We Choose the Careers We Choose

...recognized as a disease. This disease is fatal if left untreated. While obtain to research employment opportunities and obtaining as much information regarding the treatments of addiction. Being able to completely understand and relate to addicted individuals to be able to counsel and helping patients that are suffering from the bondage of drug and alcohol addiction. As the National Institute on Drug Addiction stated: “drug addiction is a complex illness characterized by intense and at times uncontrollable drug craving along with compulsive drug seeking and use that persist even in the face of devastating consequence. While the path to drug addiction begins with the voluntary act of taking drugs over time a persons ability to choose to do so becomes compulsive and seeking and consuming the drug becomes compulsive. The behavior results largely from the effects of prolonged drug exposure on the brain functioning”(September, 2009). Drug and alcohol addiction has become more prominent within the community. Addiction is now identified as a disease. The disease, as well as, other diseases, is manageable. But work will be needed to continue to keep the disease from becoming fatal then without treating the disease of addiction. This known disease affects the brain and the body. Education, treatment and rehabilitation are needed to help restore the mind, body, and spirit, to be able to keep the disease from advancing to the fatal......

Words: 260 - Pages: 2