Premium Essay

Obligate Aerobe, Facultative Aerobe

In: Science

Submitted By rosabellem2u
Words 471
Pages 2
An obligate aerobe is an organism that needs oxygen to develop or mature. The organism can be a plant, a virus or a bacterium. It can only live in the presence of oxygen. Contrary to a facultative aerobe, which can live with or without the presence of oxygen. If oxygen is available in the environment, it will use it to grow, if not it will still grow, but the development will not be as fast as if oxygen is present.
Since a human skin was swabbed for S. Epidermis, a temperature of 37 degree Celsius is required for the growth. L. Acidophilus have a range of temperature but the ultimate one is 37 degree Celsius.
If both tubes are put under a range of temperature, the highest being 37 degree Celsius, what would be observe at each temperature change. In addition to the previous, have a set of cap tube tight as to let know air in. What would be observed?
Culture media can be found in different varieties of consistency and substance structure. There are three general forms of culture media: solid, semi-solid and liquid. The liquid form is usually refer to as broth. Culture media are nutrient preparations used to cultivate microorganisms such as bacteria.
An agar is a jellylike substance obtained from a red alga and used especially in culture media or to give firmness to foods. An agar slant is used to preserve bacteria cultures. It is put in a tube with cap, that way it does not become dry easily. The tube is then place on a rack. The agar slant take less space compare to the agar dishes. The agar dish is also called agar plate, mostly used to test sensitivity to antibiotics and to culture microorganism. There is also the agar stab, a needle is used to stab the culture deeply into the agar.
S. Epidermis: no noticeable change, probably due to less than 27 degree C. Temperature will be increase and monitoring continued.
First the product seems to have…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Microbiology Studyguide

...production of new cells. Death Phase Population Is decreasing at a logarithmic rate. Prokaryotes (Bacteria) Gram Positive Low G + C Firmicutes 1. Clostridium: enospore-producing (obligate anaerobes) 2. Bacillales: a. Bacillus – rod-shapes, makes endospre, aerobic and facultative anaerobe b. Straphyloccus- clusters of cocci (MRSA) 3. Lactobacillales- aerotolerant anaerobes c. Lactrobacillus d. Streptococcus e. Enteroccus f. Listeria 4. Mycoplasmatales- lack a cell wall, small size, takes lots of shapes g. M. pneumoniae- walking pneumonia High G + C Actinobacteria 1. Bacteria that formed filaments a. No conidiospores b. Form conidiospore i. Actinomyces- Anaerobic ii. Streptocytes-Aerobic 2. Don’t form filaments c. Mycobacterium- acid-fast cell wall d. Carynebacterum- causes diptheria e. Propionibacterium- causes acne f. Gardnarella- stains gram-neg- causes bacterial vaginosis Gram Negative (proteobacteria-“many shapes”, all are chemoheterotropic (energy from chemicals, carbon from organic molecules) Alphaproteobacteria: Obligate intracellular parasite 1. Rickettsia: arthrod-borne and spread, spotted fevers- obligate intracellular parasites a. R. prowazekii- epidemic typhus b. R. typhi- endemic murine typhus c. R. rickettsii- rocket mountain spotted fever 2. Mycoplasma: refers to......

Words: 1104 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...Microbiology Task 2 : Aseptic Technique and Culturing Microbe PAGE 1 A. An obligate aerobe requires oxygen for growth. A facultative aerobe can grow based on what is available and grow with or without oxygen. B. S. Epidermis is found on the skin and L. Acidophillus resides in the intestine. Both are a bacteria/microbe and grow best at normal human body temperature close to 37 degrees celsius. They are mesophiles due to their moderate range temperature requirements.. C. There are multiple times where controlling the growth of microbes is important. At home, you want to avoid growth of microorganisms in the kitchen and while cooking. This is why we boil water for sterilization and cook foods to specific temperatures in order to kill the bacteria. When dealing with raw meats we disinfect the sinks, counters and any area that is possibly contaminated. Antibacterial wipes and sprays are useful for this process. In healthcare, we are sure to use sterile technique when doing certain tasks as not to introduce infection to a patient. In surgical area, they may sterilize the instruments in a hot air oven. D. We use various forms of media for cultures including nutrient broth, agar slant, agar stab, and agar dishes. Nutrient broth is a liquid medium that does not use agar and is used for inoculum preparation. Agar dishes are sterile covered petri dishes filled with a solid medium in them, the agar, and used to test, grow and culture bacteria. For the agar......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...reduce friction, to facilitate absorption or secretion), serous (minimize friction between opposing parietal, fluid on surface transudate), cutaneous (skin), synovial (synovial fluid). Microbiology 5 class: viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi/yeast/moulds, helminths/worms. Eukaryotes: true nucleus, organelles, cell wall, mostly multicellular, protozoa, plants, fungi/, animals( helminths). Prokaryotes: no nucleus, no membrane –bound organelles, cell wall present, mostly unicellular, bacteria. Viruses: obligate intracellular parasites, can only grow within a cell, must use host machinery to reproduce. Growth req: tem: 10-39, ph: close to neutral >6 or <8, water: prefer moist need water reproduction, nutrients: carbon, nitrogen, vitamins, amino acid, time, competition. Obligate aerobe: require oxygen to remain alive, must have oxygen to survive. Causes tuberculosis, prefer upper part lungs. Obligate anaerobe: must have No oxygen. Cause tetanus, penetrating wounds. Facultative anaerobe: can live in the presence or absence of oxygen, but prefer to use oxygen. Normal flora: live in/on us-bacteria plus others, anywhere contact with outside (eg, skin; nose; ears, mouth through GI tract),...

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mlt1 Task 2

...MLT1 TASK 2 Western Governor’s University April 02, 2015 Task: A. The difference between Facultative and Obligate aerobes is that while both aerobes require oxygen to survive facultative aerobes can survive with or without oxygen to survive. Obligate aerobes require oxygen to live and grow organisms, with facultative aerobes can grow live and grow organisms with or without oxygen depending on the certain conditions and organisms. B. According to labpaq (labpaq, received 2015) it stated it was very important to keep the temp at 37 degrees. 37 degrees is a prime temperature for S. epidermis and L. acidophilus bacteria that commonly live on the skin to grow. C. It is very important to control the growth of microbes one way to do this is with adequate aseptic technique. For example cleaning IV poles, blood pressure machines, stethoscopes using “sani wipes” or other disinfectants is appropriate. For proper aseptic technique in control growth on humans, I would use first and foremost proper hand washing, then things like iodine, alcohol, and hibicleanse. D. There are several forms of culture media. “Media can be either liquid (nutrient broth) or solid (agar).” (ScienceProf) “Very few forms of Microorganisms can degrade agar, so it usually remains in a solid form.” (Microbiology, Demystified, 2005) Agar slant puts the test tubes on its side to grow. Agar dishes are plates that lie flat to grow bacteria. “A culture made by inserting an inoculating nee...

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Lab 3

...Aseptic technique is where you use a loop to transfer an organisms from a dish to a media. That way you can grow more bacteria. E. Describe three common forms of growth that you are likely to see in a broth culture? The three common forms are Pellicle, Turbidity, and sediment. Pellicle is a mass of organisms floating on the top of the broth. Turbidity the organisms appear as general cloudiness throughout the broth. Sediment is a mass of organisms appears as a deposit at the bottom of the tube. F. What is the difference between an aerobe and an anaerobe? Anaerobes are organisms that do not require oxygen for their metabolic activities. While aerobes require oxygen for their metabolic activities. Aerobic energy is released by the complete oxidation of food. Anaerobic incomplete oxiden of food. G. Describe the difference between facultative and obligate? Obligate anaerobes cannot use oxygen for growth and are even harmed by it. Facultative anaerobes can grow without oxygen but can utilize oxygen if it is present. H. Which two types of media did you use in this lab? Why did you need two types of media? The two types of media used was MRS broth and Nutrient broth. The reason two broths were used was because the L. acidopholis cannot grow in certain Medias. L. acidopholis grows best in MRS broth. I. Describe your microscopic observations of your cultures. This action was not done during lab. The slides would need to be prepared to look at. J. Define the......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mirco Task 2

...Microbiology Task 2 Obligate aerobes are organisms that only grow when oxygen is present. Obligate aerobes get energy from aerobic respiration. Facultative aerobes are organisms that can live with or without oxygen present. I incubated L. acidopholis and S. epidermidis at 37C. The incubation sites should stay a consistent temperature for at least 24 hours. Mesophiles are bacteria that best grow in moderate temperatures (between 25-45C). Most bacteria are mesophiles. Mesophile bacteria could include soil bacteria and bacteria that live on or within the body. When you want to prevent the growth of microorganisms you would want to control the growth of microbes. For the transferring of organisms for this experiment I used aseptic technique which is preventing the growth of microbes. There are several methods of sterilization including heat, incineration, boiling, autoclaving, and dry heat. Heat is the most commonly used. Thirty minutes of boiling kills everything except some endospores. Autoclaving is steam under pressure and is good for sterilizing almost anything. Autoclaving kills everything, including endospores. Dry heat is only used for things that won’t melt and must remain dry. Pasteurization kills most vegetative bacterial cells and pathogens. Types of culture media include nutrient and bacterial growth medium. Nutrient media is the standard growth media used for culturing most microbes. Nutrient media is available in both liquid broth and......

Words: 343 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mlt 1 Project

...MLT1 Project Lisa Davidson Western Governors University May 17, 2015 MLT1 Project A. Difference Between an Obligate and Facultative Aerobe An obligate aerobe has to have oxygen to grow, while a facultative aerobe can survive with oxygen present or no oxygen present (Todar, 2012). B. Temperature Requirements and Types of Organisms The temperature requirement for this experiment is twenty-four degrees Celsius or above which is room temperature. The two types of organisms cultured are lactobacillus acidophilus and staphylococcus epidermidis. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a probiotic which is a live bacteria that is good for your health and found naturally in foods like yogurt. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a gram positive organism which is found naturally on our skin. C. Conditions Necessary to Control Microbe Growth In this experiment, microbe growth was controlled by providing access to oxygen, which was achieved by loosening the tops on the test tubes, and maintaining a constant temperature of twenty-four degree celsius or above. Also needed for the lactobacillus acidophilus to grow, was nine milliliters of MRS broth media. In order for the staphylococcus epidermidis to grow, five milliliters of nutrient broth was needed to house a cotton swab that was moistened and rubbed on skin. Microbial growth is not bad if it is a good microbe; however, certain microbes cause disease. This growth left uncontrolled can cause individuals to become sick or even die. To...

Words: 520 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Task 2

...Task Stream 2 Microbiology can be broken down into categorizations based upon the environmental conditions necessary for organisms in which to grow. Two large categories of microorganisms are those requiring oxygen to live (obligate aerobes) and those which can grow with oxygen but have the ability to also grow without it (facultative aerobes). The obligate aerobes produce more energy from nutrients than anaerobes by using oxygen as the “final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, which produces most of the ATP in these organisms”(Betsy & Keogh, 2005, p.104). The facultative microorganisms are able to use oxygen but can also go without by using fermentation or anaerobic respiration when it is not available (Betsy & Keogh,2005). The microorganisms being cultured in our first task (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) are obligate aerobes. Microorganisms can grow in a variety of conditions with temperature being one of those variables, but the types we frequently encounter in our environment thrive in fairly warm temperatures. Both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are examples of these, which are referred to as mesophiles. Extreme temperatures (as in deep freezing or auotoclaves for example) are effective in destroying microorganisms due to their inability to thrive outside of more moderate temperatures). Growth of these two organisms would be optimized by remaining between 25 and 40 degrees celsius (Betsy...

Words: 1281 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Aseptic Technique

...TASK2 EXPERIMENT 3; ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE AND CULTURING MICROBES: Upon completion of the lab, write a brief essay (suggested length of 1-2 pc in which you; ⦁ A. Describe the difference between an obligate and facultative aerobe. Obligate aerobes are organisms that grow only in the presence of oxygen while facultative anaerobes are organisms that grows with or without oxygen, but generally grow better with oxygen. Also, obligate aerobes obtains energy from aerobic respiration while facultative aerobes obtains energy from aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation. ⦁ B. Discuss the temperature requirements of the organisms (you grew) in this lab. 1. Explain what type of organism they are (based on their temperature requirement). B. The temperature requirement of the organism I grew was within the room temperature of 25-45 degrees centigrade. This is a favorable temperature for growth of the organism I grew. B.1 This type of organisms are called mesophiles which refers to bacteria that grow best at moderate temperature. ⦁ C. Discuss under what condition you would want to control the growth of microbes. ⦁ 1. Explain what type of control you would employ in each situation C. Growth of microbes is being control under the following conditions; medicine, food science and agriculture. In Agriculture, growth of microbes is being controlled to prevent death of crops which leads to little or no produce. In medicine and food science growth......

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Microbiology Lab-Bacterial Growth and Controlling It

...A. Describe the difference between an obligate and facultative aerobe. Obligate aerobes are bacteria that require oxygen for growth. They will only grow at the top portion of the culture media where it meets the air and has a lot of oxygen. Facultative aerobes grow based on what is available to it. They prefer oxygen but oxygen is not necessary for growth. These aerobes mainly cluster at the top of the culture media where they have a high concentration of oxygen but will dispersed throughout because they do not require oxygen. B. Discuss the temperature requirements of the organisms in this lab. 1. Explain what type of organisms they are. Staphylococcus epidermis and Lactobacillus acidophilus are both a bacteria microbe. They grow best at normal body temperature, close to 370C. Microorganisms are classified according to their preferred temperature ranges. Because both grew at 370C, they would be classified as mesophiles. Mesophiles grow best in moderate temperatures ranging between 250C – 450C (Alonzo, n.d.). C. Discuss under what conditions you would want to control the growth of microbes. 1. Explain what type of control you would employ in each situation. To minimize the risk of contamination from unwanted organisms, aseptic technique is required. In this experiment I washed my hands with antibacterial soap. I then place on gloves to prevent contamination to the cultures from the bacteria on my skin and to protect myself from unintended exposure of......

Words: 1328 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Task two A. Describe the difference between an obligate and facultative aerobe. Obligate aerobe refers to the organisms that cannot survive in environments without any presence of oxygen. Facultative aerobes refer to the organisms that can survive in the presence of oxygen, but they do not require it to survive (Gillespie, Hawkey, & Wiley, 2006). B. Discuss the temperature requirements of the organisms in this lab. The temperature requirement of the organisms in this lab is approximately 37℃. These organisms require this optimum temperature for enzyme reactions to take place. Too low temperature below the optimum deactivates enzymes reactions while too high temperatures above optimum denature enzymes. S. cerevisiae, s. epidermis and l. acidophilus are facultative anaerobe (Gillespie, Hawkey, & Wiley, 2006). C. Discuss under what conditions you would want to control the growth of microbes. To grow bacteria in a laboratory the conditions in the lab needs to mimic the particular microbes natural environmental. To culture microbe’s sterile, disinfecting, aseptic techniques need to be used. For instance, aseptic techniques are also needed to transfer food to the microbe. Sterilization is a process of destroying all forms of life on an object or in a material including endospores. Disinfectant are chemicals which kill growing microbes, but not necessarily spore and are...

Words: 685 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Viruses and Cell Walls Unit 1 Note

...bacteria & archaea - single celled, prokaryotic (no membrane bound organelles) Bacteria: - pathogens (infectious) ; mutualistic (help host organism and itself) ; commercial (yogurt, anti-biotics) - has ONE chromosome in nucleoid - has ribosomes - uses flagella to move - pili to stick to stuff - MAY contain PLASMID (loop of DNA that provides advantage to bacterium) - cell wall contains peptidoglycan that provides strenght + a capsule Shapes of bacterium: - COCCUS (circle) 1 coccus = MONOCOCCI 2 cocci = DIPLOCOCCI chain of cocci = STREPTOCOCCI cluster of cocci = STAPHYLOCOCCI - BACILLUS (like a cheeto) - SPIRILLUM (spiral) Metabolism: autotrophic or heterotropic - obligate aerobes = need oxygen - obligate anaerobes = cannot survive in oxygen - facultative anaerobes = can undergo aerobic and anaerobic respiration REPRODUCTION Binary Fission (asexual) -exact replica is made - contain Plasmid (DNA outside nucleoid region) Conjugation (sexual, most common) - 2 bacteria come together via Protein Bridges and transfer plasmid - the bacteria that receives Plasmid now might have genetic favour in changing conditions Transformation (unfacourable conditions) - bacteria picks up DNA from environment (dead cell) - (if DNA is from a different species, it's called horizontal transfer) Endospore Formation (asexual, unfavorable conditions) - bacteria form spores - spores form thick wall that surrounds DNA and cytoplasm Archaea - cell......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Aerobic and Anaerobic

...requirements. Some bacteria require oxygen; some can grow with or without it and some are actually killed by oxygen. Bacteria are generally classified into three main groups with respect to oxygen: 1. Obligate aerobes: Like humans, these organisms have an absolute requirement for oxygen. Because aerobic metabolism generates the toxic byproduct hydrogen peroxide, obligate aerobes must produce the enzyme catalase which breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas. 2. Obligate anaerobes: Not only do these organisms not require oxygen, they are often killed in its presence. Because anaerobic metabolism does not generate hydrogen peroxide, obligate anaerobes generally do not produce catalase. The causative agent of botulism, Clostridium botulinum is an obligate anaerobe. Since the canning process removes the air, Clostridium botulinum can grow in inadequately sterilized canned foods. This isn't normally a problem in fresh foods since they are exposed to air. 3. Facultative anaerobes: These organisms will use oxygen in their metabolism if it is available, but can also grow without oxygen. Again, since aerobic metabolism generates hydrogen peroxide, they produce catalase. E. coli, which is normal flora of the intestine, is an example of a facultative anaerobe. In addition to these three basic categories of oxygen requirements, bacteria may also be classified as microaerophillic (requires oxygen, but can only tolerate limited amounts),......

Words: 1075 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...why? 2. A smear of a thirty six hour culture of a particular organism was stained with malachite green and then counterstained with safranin: a) Draw a labeled diagram of the structure that stained green b) Explain the mechanism of this staining procedure. c) Describe how the structure in (a) was produced. 2. Describe briefly various types of microscopes TEM Phase contrast SEM Flourescent bright field and dark field 3. What type of stains are the following? How do the stains work? Acid fast stain capsule stain flagella stain UNIT 6 Microbial Growth and Reproduction a) Explain the following terms as they relate to a bacterium's response to molecular oxygen (O2). i. obligate aerobe ii. obligate anaerobe iii. facultative (an)aerobe b) Draw a typical growth curve for a bacterial population in a closed system (like a test tube. Label each of these phases of the growth cycle: a. lag; b. exponential; c. stationary; d. death. Describe the condition of the cells at each phase of the cycle. c) What is the generation time of a bacterial culture? d) If a fresh culture medium is inoculated with 500 bacterial cells per ml, how many cells will be present after four generations? e) A bacterium having a generation time of 30 minutes will undergo_____cell divisions per hour. During 3 hours of growth, the cells would double______times. Beginning with 10 cells per ml at time 0, how many cells would be present at 3 hours? f) Starting......

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Research: Thiobacillus Thiobacillus are small, Gram-negative, rod-shaped cells (0.3–0.5 × 0.9–4.0 µm). Some species are motile by means of polar flagella. No resting stages known. Energy is derived by the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds, including sulfides, sulfur, thiosulfate, polythionates, and thiocyanate. Sulfate is the end product of sulfur-compound oxidation, but sulfur, sulfite, and polythionates may be accumulated by most species, sometimes transiently. All species can fix carbon dioxide by means of the Benson–Calvin cycle and are capable of autotrophic growth; some species are obligate chemolithotrophic, (this means a bacterium that obtains its energy from inorganic compounds containing iron, nitrogen, or sulfur, and not from living on decaying organisms) while others are chemoorganotrophic. The genus currently includes obligate aerobes and facultative denitrifiers. Denitrifiers contribute to the nitrogen cycle which consists of the ongoing processes that Nitrogen has to undertake as it is the largest gas compound in the atmosphere. Their primary purpose being to metabolize nitrogenous compounds, with the assistance of the nitrate reductase enzyme, to turn oxides back to nitrogen gas or nitrous oxides for energy generation. The process of denitrification lowers the fertility rate of reproduction of the soil and thus is less common in areas where the land is rather well-cultivated. But this loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere can eventually be......

Words: 1873 - Pages: 8