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Nurse

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Introduction
In 1990, Mayer and Salovey wrote, 'Emotional Intelligence' (E I) which gave rise to this concept as a medium of individual assessment that accurately describes the attributions for responses to successes and failures in life. In 1995, Daniel Goleman wrote his popular follow-up to this work, entitled, Emotional Intelligence, Why it can Matter More than IQ. Here Goleman, expanded upon this concept and provided it with an often criticised and lay version of the earlier notions of Mayer and Salovey.
This paper, concentrates largely on the works of Mayer and Salovey and Goleman as a tool to establishing the inherent link between emotion and intelligence. This paper will therefore begin by giving an overview of the origins of the concept of Emotional Intelligence and how these two attributes of the human condition are linked. There will be a description and critique of the meaning, distinctive nature and importance of E I. Following this, there will be exploration of Mayer and Salovey's four areas of E I, which are assessed on the basis of the MSCEIT ability test. These four areas will be compared with the five areas stated by Goleman and each will be critically assessed. Finally there will be a discussion of the practical applicability of E I to the education of adults and its relevance in various genres of the workforce.
A. The Origins of E I
1. Emotion
Mayer and Salovey stated that the traditional image of emotion is as a vice of human nature that is to be controlled as it was perceived to have the capability of fully possessing the individual to create a complete loss of cerebral control, thus depriving him of his rationality. This was then turned on its head with the new concept of emotion as the motivating force which for the first time gave insight into emotion as an integral function of the human condition. Emotion is therefore a response mechanism whereby the appropriateness of its intensity has been determined through natural selection.
2. Intelligence
The same professors then turned their attentions to intelligence, which they acknowledge the definition provided by Wechsler, which describes intelligence as: the aggregate of global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.
3. Emotional intelligence
The concept of emotional intelligence was therefore created by Mayer and Salovey as a means of identifying types of intelligences that go further to identify the social context of intelligence beyond that of the conventional IQ intelligence. They did this because they noticed that the two concepts are not wholly separable but their work was largely unnoticed at the time of its publication in 1990. Indeed, it was not until Goleman's publication in 1995 when the E I concept finally gained popular recognition. The reason for this was the appeal of everyday life, and adult referencing to the E I concept, which provided it with a more workable model for the lay person.
B. The Link between Emotion and Intelligence
1. What is E I?
Salovey and Mayer define E I as a subset of social intelligence, namely, the ability to understand, manage and manipulate the responses of others. E I is a sub-set of this concept that is defined as the ability for the individual to understand ones own feelings and the feelings of those around them: the ability to monitor one's own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among the and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions.
The ability itself is a measurement of how an individual is able to make decisions based on their own and other's personal, emotional responses throughout life. Goleman noticed profound differences in test groups of children in relation in simple temptation exercises when he referred back to his subjects fourteen years after the initial tests. The result was a profound tangent of social maladjustment in those who acted on impulse and profound social adjustment in those who were able of overcome emotional urges.
2. The Distinctive Nature of E I
Unlike the conventional IQ concept, E I deals with emotion, which is given driver status as a key element to the personal influences that affect our lives. In contrast, the conventional IQ deals specifically with intellectual abilities such as dimensional perception, numerical ability, literacy and problem solving. Unlike emotional intelligence, the vital social dimension is not provided for. This means that IQ, although accurate in the determination of intelligence, provides no indication of success in life and emotional intelligence is a more complete picture.
3. The Importance of E I
Goleman's writing on the subject of Emotional Intelligence has found its way into the main curricular of schools in deprived areas of the USA. An example is that of the New Haven, Connecticut Public Schools with large scale unemployment and poverty. The result is an inherent need to diffuse the types of social problems that depressed areas such as these can create. The ability to understand ones own emotion, those of others around you and make decisions rationally based on these responses is vital to social wealth. This expands throughout all human, emotive concepts such as self esteem and confidence to interact with others, which inherently lead to improved abilities in leadership and teamwork.
C. The three Areas of E I according to Mayer and Salovey in 1990
In order to fully understand the origins of E I, it is essential to draw upon the original three branch model of firstly, appraisal and expression, secondly, regulation and thirdly, utilization of E I that are present in the 1990 paper. In 1997, these concepts were re-devised to encompass identification, use, understanding and management of emotion but they came after the publication of Goleman's book, Emotional Intelligence, and contain the same broad concepts of the original 1990 paper. Another reason for scrutiny of the earlier work is that the 1990 text was the primary inspiration for Goleman. Explanation of the 1990 categories below does refer to the four branch model devised in 1997.
1. Appraising and Expressing Emotions in the self and others
This is a double pronged notion of firstly identifying emotions in oneself and others and then using them to achieve a specific goal, which are facilitated through verbal and non-verbal communication. To understand others, perception is facilitated through body-language and empathy, all of which are key social skills. Mayer and Salovey state that clear communication of emotion is necessary in order to effectively convey feelings as well as be able to decipher emotive responses. The verbal version of clarity is therefore the use of coherent language as a way of expressing emotion.
The non-verbal version of emotive expression is as far more widely used tool in emotive expression and appraisal as our specie is well adapted in the art of producing many facial expressions. E I is a recognition of the assessment level in ability to both express and empathetically decipher this non-verbal method of emotive communication. Empathy in particular is regarded by Mayer and Salovey as one of the most base and essential tools in any social specie.
2. Regulating emotion in the self and others
-------------------------------------------------
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
This is the process of understanding emotions in order to, 'monitor, evaluate and regulate,' them. Mayer and Salovey also refer to the longer lasting 'mood' as a key facet of the emotional spectrum that also requires regulation. Moods and emotions tend not to be conscious decisions but are states of minds that the individual can learn from in order to ascertain for the future the precise environments and situations that will bring about these moods. This results in conscious efforts to either avoid or seek the behaviour that will trigger the mood. The complexity of this model is added to by further notions of social association so as to avoid jealousy and promote pride and also to more prominently recall positive mood stimulants as opposed to negative ones. Further to this is the inherent desire to know full sorrow, which although somewhat baffling, is in its own right an educator as to the potential extent of profound joy.
Regulation of emotions in others is an essential tool for the workforce as it is key to the employer's ability to pick out the best employees. This is determinable from indications such as appearance and grooming in the workplace, attention to work ethic, punctuality and contribution to the working environment.
3. Utilization
Utilization relates to the management of emotions and in the self. Mayer and Salovey refer to the varied ability in us all to 'harness emotions in order to solve problems.' The mood that we are in will draw attention to different solutions that are dependent on a requisite mood as inspiration. This has the result that multiple moods create varied solutions that give way to skills in creativity, flexibility of planning and motivation.
5. The Meyer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
In 1999, Mayer and Salovey's 1997 four branch model of Emotional Intelligence was developed from an earlier test to measure performance tasks that assessed the ability to perceive the intensity of emotion. The test takers are required to answer questions relating to the outcome of increased intensity of emotion and changes in mood and the predominant task is to therefore select the correct course of action in a given situation. This is the E I equivalent to the IQ test and is a clear indication of the technical stance of Mayer and Salovey.
D. The five Areas of E I according to Goleman
1. Self Awareness
This is very similar to Mayer's observation of the identification of emotion in oneself. Goleman points to the maxim of Socrates, know thyself as a major key to the fulfilment of life. 'Metacognition' or 'Self Awareness,' are essential in order for us to be able to recognise our emotions and, more importantly, the thoughts that these generate: being aware of our mood and our thoughts about that mood,
Goleman, accurately draws upon the profound spectrum of differences that are inherent among us in our ability to be self aware. He states that, on the one hand, some of us can be engulfed by our emotive responses and others can be accepting of them but neither of these groups is active in the pursuit of escape from emotional extremity. On the other hand, the self aware individual applies rationality to the emotion in order to aid in its diffusion.
2. Self Regulation
An awareness of the self is a fundamental requirement towards self regulation which will allow us, not only to 'know ourselves,' but also regulate or control our emotive responses. The afore mentioned, self aware group, who actively rationalise their emotions are the most sophisticated self regulators. Plato himself made the definition between, 'passion's slave' and sophrosyne or: care and intelligence in conducting one's life; a tempered balance and wisdom,
The ability to temper such emotions as rage is regarded as the forefront emotions to which escape is sought.
3. Motivation
Positive thinking is a further sophistication of E I that extrapolates from Mayer and Salovey's notion on seeking specific moods. Goleman uses the concept of 'hope,' whose intensity in the individual will determine the outcome following a failure. In simple terms, the defeatist will be utterly demoralised whereas students of a high hope will have the will power to motivate themselves to try harder. High commitment to motivation through hope will most certainly yield a positive outcome. In addition, the status of flow, which Goleman describes as the 'zone' between boredom through lack of personal stimulus and overwhelming sensations intrinsic to acute difficulty is the exact wavelength that teachers should seek in order to obtain optimum motivation. The problem however is that this is profoundly difficult in large classrooms where the state of 'flow' is different for each student.
4. Empathy
This is one of the most fundamental of emotive skills. This represents his designation of the attributes that Mayer and Salovey described in their account of the ability to recognise the emotions of others. Empathy is the awareness to register the pains and the joys of others, which Goleman determines as essential for the development of ability to caring for the feelings of others and solidifies relationships between family, friends and partners. Without empathy, serious deficits of human compassion are noticeable and these can manifest in sociopath behaviour, child abuse and other acts that are inherent in a lack of empathy.
5. Social Skills
The ability to determine the social structure of ones surroundings is a key skill in the development of knowing the emotions of those around us and being able to shape them. Goleman refers to the specific model of an argument between two toddlers and their mother as an illustration of sophisticated handling of emotional perception in others at extremely young ages. This is related to Mayer and Salovey's concept of appraising, expressing and regulating the emotions in others in order to achieve a specific goal. The adult counterpart is what Goleman describes as the 'mastery' of being able to diffuse the extreme emotions of others.
E. Critical Assessment of the works
The concept that Goleman adds little to the insights of Mayer and Salovey is to ignore the importance of creating a general work that is accessible to the lay individual. Emotional Intelligence is a scientific study of the interaction of the emotional and rational portions of the brain and any attempt to communicate such study and findings to the general public is surely the ultimate goal of the social science of psychology! Education in this field provides the individual with a greater understanding of how they think and react to life and it is essential that such knowledge become just as integral to the well being of basic fundaments of life as are the more practical skills of reading and writing.
Further to this, the concept that Goleman is suggesting that we 'be nice' is an overly simplistic summary of his writings. Goleman describes intricate flaws that can occur in the neurological communication between the emotive and rational portions of the brain. He accurately describes the effect that long or short term deficits in either emotional or rational awareness can have on the personality and social, interactive skills of the individual.
Meyer and Salovey argue profusely that there is more to E I than the simple feature of being nice and far from being contradicted by Goleman, he extrapolates upon this point. This is accurately illustrated by Goleman's constant reference throughout the five elements of E I to the subjective decision making that is determined by dominance by the mind of either the emotional or rational brain portions. The result is that an argument to be nice contradicts the internal and external factors related to awareness of emotion in ourselves and others that lead to profound differences in displays of characteristics such as niceness. Goleman argues that a normative balance and sophisticated grasp of the above five skills will lead to the most positive response to a given situation and lead to the greater success in present and future life. These positive responses are not confined to displays of nicety. This is merely a common fiction that results from external perception of constant niceness in individuals who in reality are highly attuned to their E I and reserve negative emotions for extreme situations.
F. The Practical Application of E I as it applies to the education of adults
The application of good E I in the work place is of fundamental importance. All five elements of E I contribute to a rounded perception of both the self and others that ensures a sophisticated navigation through the roadmap of social interaction, in which sophisticated levels of E I act to facilitate successful completion of the task in hand. The following are two key examples of how this operates in adult life.
1. Military Sophistication - the Canadian Armed Forces
Livingstone, Nadjiwon-Foster and Smithers prepared a on the use of Emotional Intelligence in the leadership skills of the Canadian Armed Forces. The Forces are an ideal premise from which to analyse E I as they draw upon the two key areas of social interaction that are dependent on E I, namely, leadership and teamwork but that such skills are essential in all adult groups. Livingstone, Nadjiwon-Foster and Smithers draw upon Mayer and Salovey's later four branch model of E I and identified key uses for leadership such as idealized influence of the role model and inspirational motivation that create the role model and encourage teamwork under the proficient and respected leader. Further to this, individualised consideration through attention by the leader to the individual skills and needs of each team member are fundamental to the utilization of the full potential of a company of soldiers. The intellectual stimulation required in the location of 'flow' and transformational leadership as a tool for the creation of job satisfaction are also fundamental to efficient armed forces that thrive on teamwork and leadership.
3. Sales
Sales instils a third prong of skill sourced from E I and is highly useful for the adult world. This is the power of persuasion. In no other profession is the skill of establishing fast rapport and engaging in emotional sale through the rapid identification of a buying need more profound and acute than in the sales environment. This is because the hard sale technique, unlike the widespread application of E I for teamwork and leadership, requires the sales person to utilize persuasion in order to harness the emotional impulse. This carries with it a more passionate and more definite decision to make a purchase.
Conclusion
Analysis of both Mayer and Salovey and Goleman have revealed two outcomes. Firstly there are two versions of the E I concept of which the former is both intellectualised and scientific and the latter, by Goleman, is simplified and popular with greater reference to real scenarios as a tool to illustration. Secondly, it is emphasised that both schools are in harmony and each fulfil the two different yet essential goals for the use and teaching of E I, namely, a technical framework from which to develop further intellectual discourse in the highly relevant application of E I to adult life and secondly, a popular outreach those same adults which facilitates them with the opportunity to soul search their own personal endeavours with Emotional Intelligence.
Bibliography
Articles
Mayer, J.D., DiPaolo, M.T., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 772-781.
Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.
D Wechsler, The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence, (Williams and Wilkens, Baltimore, 1958)
N. Cantor and J. F. Kihlstrom, Social Intelligence: The Cognitive Basis of Personality, in Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 6P (Shaver, 1985) 15-33
Holly Livingstone, Maria Nadjiwon-Foster & Sonya Smithers Emotional Intelligence & Military Leadership, Prepared for: Canadian Forces Leadership Institute (March 11, 2002, as represented by the Minister of National Defence)
Salovey, P, C., & Mayer, J. D. (1993). Emotional intelligence and the self- regulation of affect. In D.M. Wegner & J.W. Pennebaker (Eds.) Handbook of mental control (Pp. 258-277). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Mayer, J. D., & Stevens, A. (1994). An emerging understanding of the reflective (meta-) experience of mood. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 351-373.
Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S., Turvey, C, & Palfai, T. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.) Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 125-154).
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1995). Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4.197-208.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000) Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of Human Intelligence (2nd ed), pp 396-420. New York: Cambridge.
Mayer, J.D. (2000). Spiritual Intelligence or spiritual consciousness? Journal of Psychology and Religion, 10, 47-56.
Text Books
D Goleman, Emotional Intelligence, Why it can matter more than IQ (Bloomsbury, 1995)
Salovey, P., & Sluyter, D. J. (1997). Emotional development and emotional intelligence. New York: Basic Books and Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997).
What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds). Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.
Steve Hein, E Q For Everybody (1996) Full text available at http://eqi.org/eqe96_1.htm
Video
Daniel Golemen Presents: Emotional Intelligence: A new vision for Educators (Video) (National Professional Resources Ltd, 1996)
Personality And Society
1. Generalised others an individual's internalized impression of societal norms and expectations.
2. “I” self
The “I” accounts for the creative and spontaneous aspect of self, and helps explain why we do not act in the same situation. The “I” represents the raw, active, un-socialised self. It results partly from our basic genetic make-up, and partly from the fact that socialisation is never perfect or complete.
3. Looking-glass self
The Looking-Glass Self is a sociological concept that has three major components and is unique to humans
There are three main components of the Looking-Glass Self (Yeung, et. al. 2003).
1. We imagine how we must appear to others.
2. We imagine the judgment of that appearance.
4. We develop our self through the judgments of others.
5. Peer group a social group consisting of people who are equal in such respects as age, education, or social class
Teenagers usually prefer to spend time with their own peer group.
6. Significant others
Significant other (or SO) is a generic term used to refer to any person who has great importance to an individual's life such as a family member or close friend.[1] It can also be used as a gender-blind term for a person's partner in an intimate relationship[1] without disclosing or presuming anything about their marital status or sexual orientation as it is vague enough to avoid offence by using a term that an individual might consider inappropriate (e.g. lover when he or she considers him a boyfriend, or her a girlfriend when he or she considers her a life partner).
7. The “id”
In Freudian theory: the division of the psyche that is totally unconscious, and serves as the source of instinctual impulses and demands for immediate satisfaction of primitive needs.
8. The “superego”
According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, the superego is the component of personality composed of our internalized ideals that we have acquired from our parents and from society....
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...and Objectives of this research paper is to find out how different people like nurses, medical staffs, and family members experiences the death and dying between patient(s) and love one(s). Background with this paper is that there are many people dying and that are patient(s) and close one(s) and the research is conducting what experiences that these people have after their death that been left behind. Design of this research is to have a qualitative group interviews with the nurses and medical staffs that want to talk about and public group interviews with love ones and also if they don’t want to do the group interview they can do a questionnaire survey to be anonymous. Methods of this research had taken place in the lunch room of the hospital for nurses and any other medical staff that want to do the group interviews or questionnaires survey over the course of twelve months and the same with the general people that observation had taken placed in a public library. Conclusion of this research is that the nurses and medical staff have a difficult time to recuperating from a dying patient(s) or death that occurs. It also relives that the general public that also took place in the research are more impacted on losing their love one(s) or the person that they care about for the people that volunteer in the research. Experiments of Death and Dying of Patients and Love Ones Most often there are nurses and medical staffs in hospitals that deal with the death and dying of......

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...physician. “The joint commission considers wrong site surgery to be sentinel events that are an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or physiological injury, or the risk from that point forward. Serious injury specifically includes loss of limb or function” (Dillon, 2008) Mr. Joseph Benson is a sixty-two-year-old who has circulation problems and is diabetic; one of his limbs requires amputation. I will explain in this negligence paper the differences that separate negligence, gross negligence, and malpractice. I will look into the reasoning why nursing shortages and union problems may have caused the disaster. Finally, I will state why it is important to document because of the chances of negligence should I be Mr. Benson’s nurse. Briefly I will describe my ethical principles concept, this will guide my hospital practice and I documented the case that will satisfy legal and moral requirements. Negligence “Negligence is described as failure to use such care as a reasonably prudent and careful person would use under similar circumstance” (Weld and Bibb, 2009, p.3). Negligence can be deemed as “carelessness a deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would use in a particular set of circumstances. (Guido, 2010, p.92). Some typical examples that point to negligence are as follows: inadequate hydration, malnutrition, never turning on an Apnea monitor and lack of care. Negligence occurred when the Neighborhood hospital, amputated the......

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...the art of nursing one must appreciate and have knowledge of the nursing foundation and historical events that have evolved over time to understand and apply to their current practice. The article Nursing History, Theory and Conceptual Models states that before Florence Nightingale, nurses were the “sinners, saints, or mothers.” The women that were nurses’ from the beginning of time were women that were either religious leaders or more commonly had a disgraceful reputation to society and over the years nursing has evolved to a highly respectable profession. I remember learning the historical events and the history of nursing before learning anything else in my first nursing class. In order to move forward sometimes you must step back and take a closer look to understand things clearer. Identify at least three trends in nursing practice from the "Nursing Timeline of Historical Events" media piece. 1. One trend in nursing would be Florence Nightingale’s dedication to improve healthcare sanitation and hygiene which has saved so many lives and continues to be pursued to the modern day of nursing. The Nursing Timeline of History piece discusses how her development and advancement to enhance nurses’ education contributed to the “establishment of measures to analyze disease and mortality rates using statistical measures.” Through evidence based research she was able to distinguish set patterns and change treatment and nursing practice to save lives. Over several decades,......

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...and other as caring is a useful educational strategy. Through its reflective and practical content theprofessional portfolio can represent an RN to BSN student’s expression of knowing self as living caring.3. When a patient suffers from care -- nurses' characterization of patients' suffering related to care [Norwegian].Abstract:The occurrence of suffering related to care, suffering beyond what illness causes and which is brought about by the nurse-patient relationship, constitutes an ethical challenge for Caring Science. The purpose of this study is to describe how nurses characterize patients' suffering related to care as well as how suffering related to care can be prevented. In this study, latent content analysis is used to assess nurses' thoughts pertaining to patients' suffering related to care within various care contexts. The study results show that a rigid organization, an inflexible caring culture, or an unreflective care relationship can contribute to the emergence of suffering related to care. In order to prevent such, nurses' emphasize their personal responsibility to influence the organization that they work for and their part in consciously creating a caritative caring culture. When establishing a caring relationship, nurses stress the importance of reflecting on the inequalities of care relationships, recognize a patient's suffering in care, as well as strive to use Caring Science's fundamental values and knowledge when caring for a patient. Further studies......

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...I’m not one of those people who grew up always knowing that they wanted to become a nurse. I went through the usual childhood fantasies: pilot, lawyer, scientist, architect, etc. But, never a nurse. My complete fascination and admiration for the profession is something that came to me rather recently in my life. In fact, what inspired me to pursue nursing was my experience with my pregnancies and the birth of my second child. Second child? Yes, I have two babies. So maybe I am going about things in a somewhat unorthodox manner, but it sure makes for an interesting and challenging learning environment. Given my life situation, maintaining a 3.3 GPA in my undergraduate studies and a 3.5 GPA in my prerequisite coursework has proven difficult, though I hope my persistence and hard work will ultimately pay off. The delivery of my first-born child was by way of cesarean section. While it was perfect and beautiful and completely orchestrated, I knew almost immediately after the birth that if I were ever blessed with another baby, I wanted to do things differently. When that time came around, the plan was to attempt a vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). Jumping feet first into this “plan”, I made sure to complete hours upon hours of research as to be armed with applicable information to provide to my obstetrician. While I knew VBAC deliveries were not necessarily favored in the medical community, I never anticipated the difficulty I would face when proposing my wishes.......

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