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General Guidelines Version 6.7

March 28, 2016

General Guidelines Overview .................................................................................. 4
0.1

The Purpose of Search Quality Rating .................................................................................................... 5

0.2

Raters Must Represent the User .............................................................................................................. 5

0.3

Browser Requirements ............................................................................................................................. 5

0.4

Ad Blocking Extensions ........................................................................................................................... 5

0.5

Internet Safety Information....................................................................................................................... 5

0.6

Releasing Tasks ........................................................................................................................................ 6

Part 1: Page Quality Rating Guideline .................................................................... 7
1.0

Introduction to Page Quality Rating................................................................................................................. 7

2.0

Understanding Webpages and Websites ........................................................................................................ 7
2.1
2.2

What is the Purpose of a Webpage? ....................................................................................................... 8

2.3

Your Money or Your Life (YMYL) Pages.................................................................................................. 9

2.4

Understanding Webpage Content ........................................................................................................... 9

2.5

Understanding the Website .................................................................................................................... 11

2.6
3.0

Important Definitions ................................................................................................................................ 7

Website Reputation ................................................................................................................................. 14

Overall Page Quality Rating Scale ................................................................................................................. 17
3.1
3.2

4.0

Page Quality Rating: Most Important Factors ...................................................................................... 18
More about Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trustworthiness (E-A-T)........................................... 18

High Quality Pages .......................................................................................................................................... 19
4.1
4.2

A Satisfying Amount of High Quality Main Content ............................................................................ 19

4.3

Clear and Satisfying Website Information: Who is Responsible and Customer Service ................ 20

4.4

Positive Reputation ................................................................................................................................. 20

4.5

A High Level of Expertise/Authoritativeness/Trustworthiness (E-A-T) ............................................. 20

4.6
5.0

Characteristics of High Quality Pages .................................................................................................. 19

Examples of High Quality Pages ........................................................................................................... 20

Highest Quality Pages ..................................................................................................................................... 23
5.1

Very High Quality MC .............................................................................................................................. 24

5.2

Very Positive Reputation ........................................................................................................................ 24

5.3

Very High Level of E-A-T ........................................................................................................................ 24

5.4

Examples of Highest Quality Pages ...................................................................................................... 24

6.0 Low Quality Pages ............................................................................................................................................ 29
6.1

Low Quality Main Content ...................................................................................................................... 29

6.2

Unsatisfying Amount of Main Content .................................................................................................. 30

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6.3

Distracting/Disrupting/Misleading Ads and Supplementary Content ................................................ 30

6.4

Negative Reputation ................................................................................................................................ 31

6.5

Lacking Expertise, Authoritativeness, or Trustworthiness (E-A-T) ................................................... 31

6.6

Examples of Low Quality Pages ............................................................................................................ 31

7.0 Lowest Quality Pages ....................................................................................................................................... 34
7.1

Harmful or Malicious Pages ................................................................................................................... 34

7.2

Lack of Purpose Pages ........................................................................................................................... 35

7.3

Deceptive Pages ...................................................................................................................................... 35

7.4

Lowest Quality Main Content ................................................................................................................. 36

7.5

No Website Information .......................................................................................................................... 39

7.6

Highly Untrustworthy, Unreliable, Unauthoritative, Inaccurate, or Misleading ................................ 39

7.7

Hacked, Defaced, or Spammed Pages on a Website ........................................................................... 39

7.8

Extremely Negative or Malicious Reputation ....................................................................................... 40

7.9

Examples of Lowest Quality Pages ....................................................................................................... 40

8.0 Medium Quality Pages ...................................................................................................................................... 45
8.1

Examples of Medium Quality Pages ...................................................................................................... 46

9.0 Page Quality Rating Tasks ............................................................................................................................... 48
9.1
9.2
10.0

Instructions for Rating Page Quality Tasks .......................................................................................... 49
E-A-T: Page or Website? ........................................................................................................................ 49

Page Quality Criteria for Specific Types of Pages ..................................................................................... 50
10.1
10.2

Ratings for Pages with Error Messages or No MC ............................................................................ 50

10.3
11.0

Ratings for Encyclopedia Pages.......................................................................................................... 50

Ratings for Forums and Q&A pages ................................................................................................... 51

Page Quality Rating FAQs ............................................................................................................................ 55

Part 2: Understanding Mobile User Needs .......................................................... 56
12.0

Understanding Mobile Users, Mobile Queries, and Mobile Results ......................................................... 56
12.1

Important Rating Definitions and Ideas ............................................................................................ 57

12.2

Understanding the Query ..................................................................................................................... 58

12.3

Task Location (Locale) and User Location ......................................................................................... 58

12.4

Queries with an Explicit Location ........................................................................................................ 58

12.5

Queries with Multiple Meanings........................................................................................................... 59

12.6

Query Meanings Can Change Over Time ............................................................................................ 60

12.7

Understanding User Intent ................................................................................................................... 61

12.8

Understanding Result Blocks .............................................................................................................. 67

12.9

Rating on Your Phone Issues .............................................................................................................. 75

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Part 3: Needs Met Rating Guideline ...................................................................... 76
13.0

Rating Using the Needs Met Scale .............................................................................................................. 76
13.1

Rating Result Blocks: Block Content and Landing Pages................................................................ 76

13.2

Fully Meets (FullyM) .............................................................................................................................. 79

13.3

Highly Meets (HM) ................................................................................................................................. 88

13.4

Moderately Meets (MM) ......................................................................................................................... 96

13.5

Slightly Meets (SM)................................................................................................................................ 98

13.6

Fails to Meet (FailsM) .......................................................................................................................... 101

14.1

Porn Flag .............................................................................................................................................. 110

14.2

Needs Met Rating for Porn Results ................................................................................................... 110

14.3

Reporting Illegal Images ..................................................................................................................... 111

14.4

Foreign Language Flag ....................................................................................................................... 112

14.5

Didn’t Load Flag .................................................................................................................................. 116

14.6

Hard to Use Flag .................................................................................................................................. 118

15.0

The Relationship between E-A-T and Needs Met ..................................................................................... 119

16.0

Rating Queries with Multiple Interpretations and Intents ........................................................................ 121
16.1

Rating Queries with Both Website and Visit-in-Person Intent ........................................................ 121

17.0

Specificity of Queries and Landing Pages ................................................................................................ 122

18.0

Needs Met Rating and Freshness .............................................................................................................. 129

19.0

Misspelled and Mistyped Queries and Results......................................................................................... 131
19.1 Misspelled and Mistyped Queries....................................................................................................... 131
19.2 Name Queries ....................................................................................................................................... 132

20.0 Non-Fully Meets Results for URL Queries ................................................................................................. 132
21.0 Product Queries: Action (Do) vs. Information (Know) Intent ................................................................... 134
22.0 Rating Visit-in-Person Intent Queries ......................................................................................................... 135
22.1 Examples Where User Location Does (and Does Not) Matter ......................................................... 135

Part 4: Using the Evaluation Platform ............................................................... 138
23.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 138
24.0 Accessing the Evaluation Platform (EP)..................................................................................................... 138
25.0 Evaluation Platform Screenshot.................................................................................................................. 138
26.1 Understanding the User Location on the Task Page ........................................................................ 141
27.0 Notes about Using the Needs Met Rating Interface .................................................................................. 142
28.0 Using the “Report a Problem / Release this Task” Button ....................................................................... 142
29.0 Reporting Results with Duplicate Landing Pages ..................................................................................... 143
29.1 Pre-Identified Duplicates ..................................................................................................................... 143
29.2 Rater-Identified Duplicates .................................................................................................................. 144

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General Guidelines Overview
Welcome to the Search Quality Rating Program!
As a Search Quality evaluator, you will work on many different types of rating projects. The General Guidelines primarily cover Page Quality (PQ) rating and Needs Met (NM) rating; however, the concepts are also important for many other types of rating tasks.
For brevity, we refer to “Search Quality Evaluators” as “raters” in these guidelines.

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0.0 Introduction to Search Quality Rating
0.1

The Purpose of Search Quality Rating

Your ratings will be used to evaluate search engine quality around the world. Good search engines give results that are helpful for users in their specific language and locale.
It is important that you are familiar with and comfortable using a search engine. We encourage you to be an expert in
Google search! For example, experiment with using operators (e.g., quotes or a dash) in your searches or try using
Google’s advanced search option.

0.2

Raters Must Represent the User

It is very important for you to represent users in the locale you evaluate. You must be very familiar with the task language and location in order to represent the experience of users in your locale. If you do not have the knowledge to do this, please inform your vendor.

0.3

Browser Requirements

Check with your vendor for browser requirements. You may use helpful browser add-ons or extensions, but please do not use add-ons or extensions which interfere with or alter the user experience of the page.

0.4

Ad Blocking Extensions

Do not use add-ons or extensions that block ads for Needs Met rating or Page Quality rating. These add-ons or extensions may cause you to give incorrect ratings. As a rater, only use an ad blocking extension or add-on if specifically instructed to do so in the project-specific instructions.

0.5

Internet Safety Information

In the course of your work, you will visit many different webpages. Some of them may harm your computer unless you are careful. Please do not download any executables, applications, or other potentially dangerous files, or click on any links that you are uncomfortable with.
It is strongly recommended that you have antivirus and antispyware protection on your computer. This software must be updated frequently or your computer will not be protected. There are many free and forpurchase antivirus and antispyware products available on the web.
See here for a Wikipedia page on antivirus software and here for a Wikipedia page on spyware.
We suggest that you only open files with which you are comfortable. The file formats listed below are generally considered safe if antivirus software is in place.






.txt (text file)
.ppt or .pptx (Microsoft PowerPoint)
.doc or .docx (Microsoft Word)
.xls or .xlsx (Microsoft Excel)
.pdf (PDF) files

If you encounter a page with a warning message, such as “Warning-visiting this web site may harm your computer,” or if your antivirus software warns you about a page, you should not try to visit the page to assign a rating.
You may also come across pages that require RealPlayer or the Adobe Flash Player plug-in. These are generally safe to download.
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0.6

Releasing Tasks

Most raters have difficulty rating some tasks now and then. Some queries are about highly technical topics (e.g., computer science or physics) or involve very specialized areas of interest (e.g., gaming or torrents). Please release the task if, after research, you don’t understand the query or user intent for the task or the content of the landing page
(LP).
You may release tasks for these reasons:







Lack expertise: You feel that you personally can’t rate the query.
Suspicious files: The task contains unknown or suspect file formats.
Offensive content: You believe that the LP will be offensive to you or you feel uncomfortable visiting the LP.
Technical problem: The query/instructions/results have obvious rendering or formatting issues.
Wrong language: The query/task is in the wrong language, i.e., it cannot be understood by users in the locale you are rating.
Content behind a paywall: The content is behind a paywall that you do not have access to.

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Part 1: Page Quality Rating Guideline
1.0

Introduction to Page Quality Rating

A Page Quality (PQ) rating task consists of a URL and a grid to record your observations, in order to guide your exploration of the landing page and the website associated with the URL. Ultimately, the goal of Page Quality rating is to evaluate how well the page achieves its purpose. Because different types of websites and webpages can have very different purposes, our expectations and standards for different types of pages are also different.
Here's what you'll need to be a successful Page Quality rater:




Your experience using the web as an ordinary user in your rating locale.
In-depth knowledge of these guidelines.
And most importantly—practice doing PQ rating tasks!

The examples in these guidelines are very important. Please view each one and keep in mind a few notes about the examples: •



2.0

Webpages and websites change rapidly, so we use images or "snapshots" of webpages in most of our examples. The information in the examples was accurate at the time it was added, but content and websites may change over time.
Some examples show pages on desktop and some show pages on mobile devices.

Understanding Webpages and Websites

PQ rating requires an in-depth understanding of websites. We'll start with the basics. Along the way, we'll share important information about Page Quality rating, so please read through this section even if you are a website expert!

2.1

Important Definitions

Here are some important definitions:
A webpage is connected to the World Wide Web and can be viewed or "visited" using a web browser (e.g., Chrome), a browser on your phone, or a search app. In the 1990s, webpage content was mostly text and links. Today, webpage content includes many forms of media (such as images, videos, etc.) and functionality (such as online shopping features, email, calculator functionality, online games, etc.).
A URL is a character string which your web browser uses to “find” and display a webpage. Page Quality rating doesn't require you to have in-depth understanding of the structure of URLs, i.e., you don’t need to know the difference between host, domain, etc. But if you are interested, see here to read more.
A website or site is a group of World Wide Web pages usually containing hyperlinks to each other and made available online by an individual, company, educational institution, government, or organization. Popular websites include
Facebook, Wikipedia, Yahoo, YouTube, etc.
Note: In these guidelines, we will use the word “website” to refer to a collection of pages owned and controlled by a single entity (individual, business, etc.). But we will also use “website” to refer to major “independent” sections (or hosts) of some websites which were created to achieve separate purposes. For example, the Yahoo website is organized into different sections (or hosts), such as Yahoo Finance (finance.yahoo.com), Yahoo Mail
(mail.yahoo.com), Yahoo Sports (sports.yahoo.com), etc. Each of these has its own purpose. It’s OK to refer to each of these sections as a website; for example, the Yahoo Finance website and the Yahoo Sports website. You may also refer to pages on Yahoo Finance or Yahoo Sports as belonging to the Yahoo website.

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A homepage of a website is the main page of the site. It is usually the first page that users see when the site loads.
For example, http://www.apple.com is the homepage of the Apple site, http://www.yahoo.com is the homepage of the
Yahoo company site, and http://finance.yahoo.com is the homepage of Yahoo Finance. You can usually find the homepage of a website by clicking on a “home” link or logo link on subpages of a website.
A subpage on a website is any page on the site other than the homepage. For example, http://www.apple.com/iphone is a subpage on the Apple website, and http://finance.yahoo.com/options is a subpage on the Yahoo Finance website.
A webmaster is the person who is responsible for maintaining a website.
Important: You must be very comfortable exploring websites, both by clicking links and modifying URLs in the address bar of your web browser. Become a website detective and explorer!

2.2

What is the Purpose of a Webpage?

The purpose of a page is the reason or reasons why the page was created. Every page on the Internet is created for a purpose, or for multiple purposes. Most pages are created to be helpful for users. Some pages are created merely to make money, with little or no effort to help users. Some pages are even created to cause harm to users. The first step in understanding a page is figuring out its purpose.
Why is it important to determine the purpose of the page for PQ rating?




The goal of PQ rating is to determine how well a page achieves its purpose. In order to assign a rating, you must understand the purpose of the page and sometimes the website.
By understanding the purpose of the page, you'll better understand what criteria are important to consider when evaluating that particular page.
Websites and pages should be created to help users. Websites and pages which are created with intent to harm users, deceive users, or make money with no attempt to help users, should receive the Lowest PQ rating. More on this later.

As long as the page is created to help users, we will not consider any particular page purpose or type to be higher quality than another. For example, encyclopedia pages are not necessarily higher quality than humor pages.
Important: There are highest quality and lowest quality webpages of all different types and purposes: shopping pages, news pages, forum pages, video pages, pages with error messages, PDFs, images, gossip pages, humor pages, homepages, and all other types of pages. The type of page does not determine the PQ rating—you have to understand the purpose of the page to determine the rating.
Common helpful page purposes include (but are not limited to):









To share information about a topic.
To share personal or social information.
To share pictures, videos, or other forms of media.
To express an opinion or point of view.
To entertain.
To sell products or services.
To allow users to post questions for other users to answer.
To allow users to share files or to download software.

Here are a few examples where it is easy to understand the purpose of the page:
Type of Page
News website homepage

Purpose of the Page
To display news.

Shopping page

To sell or give information about the product.

Video page

To allow users to watch a video.

Currency converter page

To calculate equivalent amounts in different currencies.

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Here are two examples of helpful pages where the purpose of the page is not as obvious:
Page with a NonObvious Purpose

Discussion
This page looks as though the purpose is to share factual information, but the page starts with the text
“Christopher Columbus was born in 1951 in Sydney, Australia.” This is obviously inaccurate! Was this page created to help users or to trick and confuse users?

Christopher Columbus
Page Example

In this case, exploring the website can help us understand the purpose of the page. This website was built by educators to teach about interpreting information found on the Internet.
After reading about the website on the About This Site page, it should be clear that the purpose of the page is to serve as an educational tool. The information on the page is deliberately inaccurate so that it can be used as an example of misinformation on the Internet. This page and website do have a helpful and beneficial purpose.

OmNomNomNom
Page Example

At first glance, this page may seem pointless or strange. However, it is a page from a humorous site that encourages users to post photos with mouths drawn on them. The purpose of the page is humor or artistic expression. This page has a helpful or beneficial purpose.
Even though the About page on this website is not very helpful, the website explains itself on its FAQ page. 2.3

Your Money or Your Life (YMYL) Pages

Some types of pages could potentially impact the future happiness, health, or financial stability of users. We call such pages “Your Money or Your Life” pages, or YMYL. The following are examples of YMYL pages:






Shopping or financial transaction pages: webpages which allow users to make purchases, transfer money, pay bills, etc. online (such as online stores and online banking pages).
Financial information pages: webpages which provide advice or information about investments, taxes, retirement planning, home purchase, paying for college, buying insurance, etc.
Medical information pages: webpages which provide advice or information about health, drugs, specific diseases or conditions, mental health, nutrition, etc.
Legal information pages: webpages which provide legal advice or information on topics such as divorce, child custody, creating a will, becoming a citizen, etc.
Other: there are many other topics which you may consider YMYL, such as child adoption, car safety information, etc. Please use your judgment.

We have very high Page Quality rating standards for YMYL pages because low quality YMYL pages could potentially negatively impact users’ happiness, health, or financial stability.

2.4

Understanding Webpage Content

All of the content on a webpage can be classified as one of the following: Main Content (MC), Supplementary Content
(SC), or Advertisements/Monetization (Ads). In order to understand the purpose of a webpage and do PQ rating, you will need to be able to distinguish among these different parts of the page.
Webpage design can be complicated, so make sure to click around and explore the page. See what kind of content is behind the tabs and test out the interactive page features. Content behind the tabs may be considered part of the MC,
SC, or Ads, depending on what the content is.

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2.4.1 Identifying the Main Content (MC)
Main Content is any part of the page that directly helps the page achieve its purpose. Webmasters directly control the
MC of the page (except for user-generated content). MC can be text, images, videos, page features (e.g., calculators, games), or it can be user-generated content such as videos, reviews, articles, etc. which users have added or uploaded to the page. Note that tabs on some pages lead to even more information (e.g., customer reviews) and can sometimes be considered part of the MC of the page.
Type of Page and Purpose
News website homepage: the purpose is to display news.
News article page: the purpose is to display a news article.
Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product.

Content behind the Reviews, Shipping, and Safety Information tabs are considered to be part of the MC
Video page: the purpose is to allow users to view a video.
Currency converter page: the purpose is to calculate equivalent amounts in different currencies.
Blog post page: the purpose is to display a blog post.
Search engine homepage: the purpose is to allow users to enter a query and search the Internet.
Bank login page: the purpose is to allow users to log in to bank online.

MC Highlighted in Yellow
MC - News Homepage
MC - News Article
MC - Shopping Page
MC - Video Page
MC - Currency Converter
MC - Blog Post Page
MC - Search Engine Homepage
MC - Bank Login Page

2.4.2 Identifying the Supplementary Content (SC)
Supplementary Content contributes to a good user experience on the page, but does not directly help the page achieve its purpose. SC is controlled by webmasters and is an important part of the user experience. One common type of SC is navigation links which allow users to visit other parts of the website. Note that in some cases, content behind tabs may be considered part of the SC of the page.
Sometimes the easiest way to identify SC is to look for the parts of the page which are not MC or Ads.
Type of Page and Purpose

SC Highlighted in Blue

News article page: the purpose is to display a news article.

SC - News Article

Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product.

SC - Shopping Page

Video page: the purpose is to allow users to view a video.

SC - Video Page

Blog post page: the purpose is to display a blog post.

SC - Blog Post Page

2.4.3 Identifying Advertisements/Monetization (Ads)
Ads may contribute to a good user experience. Advertisements/Monetization (Ads) is content and/or links that are displayed for the purpose of monetizing (making money from) the page. The presence or absence of Ads is not by itself a reason for a High or Low quality rating. Without advertising and monetization, some webpages could not exist because it costs money to maintain a website and create high quality content.
There are several different ways to monetize a webpage, including advertisements and affiliate programs. See here for more information on website monetization. Note that monetization on mobile pages may be more subtle than monetization on desktop pages.
The most common type of monetization is advertisements. Ads may be labeled as "ads," "sponsored links,"
“sponsored listings,” “sponsored results,” etc. Usually, you can click on the links or mouse over the content to determine whether they are Ads, as they often refer to a URL outside of that website. Ads may change when you reload the page, and different users may see different Ads on the same page.
Webmasters can choose to display Ads on their page (for example by joining an advertising network), but they may not always directly control the content of the Ads. However, we will consider a website responsible for the overall quality of the Ads displayed.
Important: For the purpose of this guideline, we will consider monetized links of any type to be “Ads.” See here for different types of website monetization.
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Type of Page and Purpose

Ads Highlighted in Red

News article page: the purpose is to display a news article.

Ads - News Article

Video page: the purpose is to allow users to view a video.

Ads - Video Page

Blog post page: the purpose is to display a blog post.

Ads - Blog Post Page

Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product.

No ads – Shopping Page

2.4.4 Summary of the Parts of the Page
Let's put it all together.




Main Content (MC) is any part of the page that directly helps the page achieve its purpose. MC is (or should be!) the reason the page exists. The quality of the MC plays a very large role in the Page Quality rating of a webpage.
Supplementary Content (SC) is also important. SC can help a page better achieve its purpose or it can detract from the overall experience.
Many pages have advertisements/monetization (Ads). Without advertising and monetization, some webpages could not exist because it costs money to maintain a website and create high quality content. The presence or absence of Ads is not by itself a reason for a High or Low quality rating.

On some pages, reviews may be considered MC, and on other pages they may be considered SC. Use your best judgment and think about the purpose of the page.
Do not worry too much about identifying every little part of the page. Think about which parts of the page are the MC.
Next, look for the Ads. Anything left over can be considered SC.
Type of Page and Purpose

MC, SC, and Ads Highlighted

News article page: the purpose is to display a news article.

Summary - News Article

Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product.

Summary - Shopping Page

Video page: the purpose is to allow users to view a video.

Summary - Video Page

Currency converter page: the purpose is to calculate equivalent amounts in different currencies.

Summary - Currency Converter

Blog post page: the purpose is to display a blog post.

Summary - Blog Post Page

Bank login page: the purpose is to allow users to log in to bank online.

Summary - Bank Login Page

2.5

Understanding the Website

Pages often make more sense when viewed as part of a website. Some of the criteria in Page Quality rating are based on the website the page belongs to.
In order to understand a website, look for information about the website on the website itself. Websites are usually very eager to tell you all about themselves!
You must also look for reputation information about the website. We need to find out what outside, independent sources say about the website. When there is disagreement between what the website says about itself and what reputable independent sources say about the website, we’ll trust the independent sources.
2.5.1 Finding the Homepage
The homepage of a website usually contains or has links to important information about the website. Webmasters usually make it easy to get to the homepage of the website from any page on the site.
Here's how to find the homepage of a website:




Examine the landing page of the URL in your PQ rating task.
Find and click on the link labeled “home” or “main page.”
Having trouble finding it? Try using “Ctrl-F” (“command-F” on a Mac) to search the page for the text “home” or
“main.” You may also try clicking on the website logo, which is usually at the top of the page.

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Sometimes, you may be given a webpage or website that appears to have no navigation links, no homepage link, and no logo or other means to find the homepage. Even some High or Highest quality pages lack a way to navigate to the homepage. If you can't find a link to the homepage, modify the URL by removing everything to the right of “.com,”
“.org,” “.net,” “.info,” etc. and refresh the page.
Occasionally, your rating task will include a URL for which there are two or more justifiable “homepage” candidates.
For example, you may not be sure whether the homepage of the URL http://finance.yahoo.com/news/category-stocks is http://finance.yahoo.com or http://www.yahoo.com.
Important: When you have more than one homepage “candidate,” please use whichever one offers the most information about the specific webpage in the rating task. Use your judgment. The goal is to understand the webpage and the website(s) it is associated with, not find the one unique, correct homepage.
In the following examples, we have included the URL of the page to be evaluated in the rating task, as well as the URL of its associated homepage. We have also included an image that shows where to click on the landing page to navigate to the homepage. In the image, you will see a red box around the link or the logo you would click to navigate to the homepage.

URL of the Task Page

Image that shows where to click to get to the homepage

Homepage of the Website

Williams-Sonoma Homepage http://www.williamssonoma.com/products/s hun-premier-7-pieceknife-block-set

http://www.williams-sonoma.com
This “WILLIAMS-SONOMA” logo shown in the upper left part of the page is clickable and takes users to the homepage of the website. http://answers.yahoo.com http://answers.yahoo.co m/question/index;_ylt=A nAYEU1fED6ncg1jRCF y30kk5XNG;_ylv=3?qid =20091214193523AAQ qHQS In this case, we will consider http://answers.yahoo.com the homepage, rather than http://www.yahoo.com. Why? Because clicking on the logo takes the user to http://answers.yahoo.com.
In addition, http://answers.yahoo.com has information about the Yahoo Answers website. It is very difficult to find specific information about http://answers.yahoo.com on the http://www.yahoo.com homepage.

This “YAHOO ANSWERS” logo in the upper left part of the page is clickable and takes users to the homepage of the website.

Harvard Medical School Facts and Figures
Page

http://hms.harvard.edu

http://hms.harvard.edu/ about-hms/facts-figures Specific Yahoo Answers Page

In this case, we will consider the Harvard Medical
School page at http://hms.harvard.edu to be the homepage, rather than http://www.harvard.edu
(which is the homepage of Harvard University).
Clicking the logo at the top of http://hms.harvard.edu/about-hms/facts-figures takes users to http://hms.harvard.edu, not to http://www.harvard.edu. Copyright 2016

This “Harvard Medical School” logo in the upper left part of the page is clickable and takes users to the homepage of the Harvard
Medical School website.

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2.5.2 Finding Who is Responsible for the Website and Who Created the Content on the Page
Every page belongs to a website, and it should be clear:



Who (what individual, company, business, foundation, etc.) is responsible for the website.
Who (what individual, company, business, foundation, etc.) created the content on the page you are evaluating. Websites are usually very clear about who created the content on the page. There are many reasons for this:






Commercial websites may have copyrighted material they want to protect.
Businesses want users to know who they are.
Artists, authors, musicians, and other original content creators usually want to be known and appreciated.
Foundations often want support and even volunteers.
High quality stores want users to feel comfortable buying online.

Most websites have “contact us” or “about us” or “about” pages which provide information about who owns the site.
Many companies have an entire website or blog devoted to who they are and what they are doing, what jobs are available, etc. Google and Marriott are both examples of this, and there are many others:





Google Official Blog
Marriott Blog
Southwest Airlines Blog
Dell Blog

Often a business or organization is responsible for the content of a website, not an individual person. The IBM
Corporation is responsible for the content on ibm.com. The Cleveland Clinic is responsible for the content on clevelandclinic.org. An individual is not responsible for the content on these websites, even though many individuals contributed to creating and maintaining the content. In these cases, we will view the business or organization as responsible for the content on every single page, as well as maintenance of the website.
On some websites, users create the MC of many pages, while the business or organization itself maintains the website. The company Facebook is responsible for the Facebook website, but individuals create the content on their personal Facebook pages. The company Wikipedia is responsible for the Wikipedia website, but individuals create article content. Other websites with user-generated content include YouTube, Twitter, other social networking websites, other article publishing websites, Q&A websites, forums, etc. For these websites, you must look at each page to determine the author(s) or creator(s) of the content on that page.
Finally, there are some websites which show licensed or syndicated content. This means that the website has paid money or has some business relationship with the creator of the content. In these cases, we will consider the website itself to be responsible for the licensed or syndicated content, even if it wasn’t created by the website.
2.5.3 Finding About Us, Contact Information, and Customer Service Information
Many websites are interested in communicating with their users. There are many reasons that users might have for contacting a website, from reporting problems such as broken pages, to asking for content removal. Many websites offer multiple ways for users to contact the website: email addresses, phone numbers, physical addresses, web contact forms, etc. Sometimes, this contact information is even organized by department and provides the names of individuals to contact.

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The types and amount of contact information needed depend on the type of website. Contact information and customer service information are extremely important for websites that handle money, such as stores, banks, credit card companies, etc. Users need a way to ask questions or get help when a problem occurs.
For shopping websites, we'll ask you to do some special checks. Look for contact information—including the store’s policies on payment, exchanges, and returns. Sometimes this information is listed under “customer service.”
Some kinds of websites need fewer details and a smaller amount of contact information for their purpose. For example, humor websites may not need the level of detailed contact information we would expect from online banking websites. Occasionally, you may encounter a website with a legitimate reason for anonymity. For example, personal websites may not include personal contact information such as an individual’s home address or phone number. Similarly, websites with user-generated content may allow the author to identify him/herself with an alias or username only.
To find contact or customer service information for a website, start with the homepage. Look for a “contact us” or
“customer service” link. Explore the website if you cannot find a “contact us” page. Sometimes you will find the contact information on a “corporate site” link or even on the company’s Facebook page. Be a detective!
Note that different locales may have their own specific standards and requirements for what information should be available on the website.
2.6

Website Reputation

A website's reputation is based on the experience of real users, as well as the opinion of people who are experts in the topic of the website. Keep in mind that websites often represent real companies, organizations, and other entities.
Therefore, reputation research applies to both the website and the actual company, organization, or entity that the website is representing.
Many websites are eager to tell users how great they are. Some webmasters have read these rating guidelines and write “reviews” on various review websites. But for Page Quality rating, you must also look for outside, independent reputation information about the website. When the website says one thing about itself, but reputable external sources disagree with what the website says, trust the external sources.
Your job is to truly evaluate the Page Quality of the site, not just blindly accept information on one or two pages of the website. Be skeptical of claims that websites make about themselves.

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2.6.1 Reputation Research
Use reputation research to find out what real users, as well as experts, think about a website. Look for reviews, references, recommendations by experts, news articles, and other credible information created/written by individuals about the website.
Stores frequently have user ratings, which can help you understand a store’s reputation based on the reports of people who actually shop there. We consider a large number of positive user reviews as evidence of positive reputation.
Many other kinds of websites have reputations as well. For example, you might find that a newspaper website has won journalistic awards. Prestigious awards, such as the Pulitzer Prize award, are strong evidence of positive reputation. When a high level of authoritativeness or expertise is needed, the reputation of a website should be judged on what expert opinions have to say. Recommendations from expert sources, such as professional societies, are strong evidence of very positive reputation.
Reputation research is necessary for all websites you encounter. Do not just assume websites you personally use have a good reputation. Please do research! You might be surprised at what you find.
2.6.2 Sources of Reputation Information
Look for information written by a person, not statistics or other machine-compiled information. News articles,
Wikipedia articles, blog posts, magazine articles, forum discussions, and ratings from independent organizations can all be sources of reputation information. Look for independent, credible sources of information.
Sometimes, you will find information about a website which is not related to its reputation. For example, pages like
Alexa have information about Internet traffic to the website, but do not provide evidence of positive or negative reputation. You can ignore this information since it's not helpful for Page Quality rating.
2.6.3 Customer Reviews of Stores/Businesses
Customer reviews can be helpful for assessing the reputation of a store or business. However, you should interpret these reviews with care, particularly if there are only a few. Be skeptical of both positive and negative user reviews.
Anyone can write them, including the creator of the website or someone the store or business hires for this purpose.
See here for a New York Times article on fake reviews and here for a Guardian article on fake reviews.
When interpreting customer reviews, try to find as many as possible. Any store or website can get a few negative reviews. This is completely normal and expected. Large stores and companies have thousands of reviews and most receive some negative ones.
It is also important to read the reviews because the content of the reviews matter, not just the number. Credible, convincing reports of fraud and financial wrongdoing is evidence of extremely negative reputation. A single encounter with a rude clerk or the delayed receipt of a single package should not be considered negative reputation information.
Please use your judgment.
2.6.4 How to Search for Reputation Information
Here is how to research the reputation of the website:
1. Identify the “homepage” of the website. For example, for the IBM website, ibm.com is the homepage.
2. Using ibm.com as an example, try one or more of the following searches on Google:





[ibm -site:ibm.com]: A search for IBM which excludes pages on ibm.com.
[“ibm.com” -site:ibm.com]: A search for “ibm.com” which excludes pages on ibm.com.
[ibm reviews -site:ibm.com] A search for reviews of IBM which excludes pages on ibm.com.
[“ibm.com” reviews -site:ibm.com]: A search for reviews of “ibm.com” which excludes pages on ibm.com. Copyright 2016

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3. Look for articles, reviews, forum posts, discussions, etc. written by people about the website. For businesses, there are many sources of reputation information and reviews. Here are some examples: Yelp, Better
Business Bureau (a nonprofit organization that focuses on the trustworthiness of businesses and charities),
Amazon, and Google Shopping. You can try searching on specific sites to find reviews. For example, you can try [ibm site:bbb.org] or [“ibm.com” site:bbb.org].
Note: You will sometimes find high ratings on the Better Business Bureau (BBB) website because there is very little data on the business, not because the business has a positive reputation. However, very low ratings on
BBB are usually the result of multiple unresolved complaints. Please consider very low ratings on the BBB site to be evidence for a negative reputation.
4. See if there is a Wikipedia article or news article from a well-known news site. Wikipedia can be a good source of information about companies and organizations. For example, try [ibm site:en.wikipedia.org] or
[“ibm.com” site:en.wikipedia.org]. News articles and Wikipedia articles can help you learn about a company and may include information specific to reputation, such as awards and other forms of recognition, or also controversies and issues. Note that some Wikipedia articles include a message warning users that there are disagreements on some of the content, or that the content may be outdated. This may be an indication that additional research is necessary.
Here are some examples of reputation information:
Website

Reputation Information About the Site
Search results for [annualcreditreport.com
-site:annualcreditreport.com]

annualcreditreport.com

Wikipedia article about annualcreditreport.com Description
Positive reputation information: Users in the U.S. can obtain free credit reports on this website by providing their
Social Security Number. Note that the Wikipedia article tells us that “AnnualCreditReport.com is the only federally mandated and authorized source for obtaining a free credit report.” Wall Street Journal article about annualcreditreport.com Search results for [clevelandclinic.org] clevelandclinic.org Note: Almost every website will have complains about customer service, so it is important to look at various sources and reviews in your reputation research.
Positive reputation information: According to Wikipedia, the Cleveland Clinic “is currently regarded as one of the top
4 hospitals in the United States as rated by U.S. News &
World Report,” which you will also find in the article on the best hospitals in the U.S. Users can trust medical information on this website.

Wikipedia article about clevelandclinic.org
US News & World Report article about the best hospitals in the U.S.

Search results for [csmonitor.com site:csmonitor.com] csmonitor.com Wikipedia article about The Christian
Science Monitor

Positive reputation information: Notice the highlighted section in the Wikipedia article about The Christian Science
Monitor newspaper, which tells us that the newspaper has won seven Pulitzer Prize awards. From this information, we can infer that the csmonitor.com website has a positive reputation. Copyright 2016

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Website

kernel.org

Reputation Information About the Site

Search results for [kernel.org – site:kernel.org] Wikipedia article about kernel.org

Description
Positive reputation information: We learn in the Wikipedia article that “Kernel.org is a main repository of source code for the Linux kernel, the base of the popular Linux operating system. It makes all versions of the source code available to all users. It also hosts various other projects, like Google
Android. The main purpose of the site is to host a repository for Linux kernel developers and maintainers of Linux distributions.” Search to find reputation information
Extremely negative reputation information: This business has a BBB rating of F (i.e., lowest rating given by BBB).
There is a news article about financial fraud. There are many reviews on websites describing users sending money and not receiving anything from various sources.

Search to find reviews
Site selling children’s jungle gym

BBB negative review
TrustLink negative reviews
Negative news article
Search to find reputation information

Site selling products related to eyewear

Extremely negative/malicious reputation information:
This website engaged in criminal behavior such as physically threatening users.

BBB page
Wikipedia article
New York Times article
Search to find scams related this organization Organization serving the hospitalized veteran community

Negative review 1
Negative review 2

Extremely negative reputation information: There are many detailed negative articles on news sites and charity watchdog sites about this organization describing fraud and financial mishandling.

Negative review 3
Negative review 4

2.6.5 What to Do When You Find No Reputation Information
You should expect to find reputation information for large businesses and websites of large organizations.
Frequently, you will find little or no information about the reputation of a website for a small organization. This is not indicative of positive or negative reputation. Many small, local businesses or community organizations have a small
“web presence” and rely on word of mouth, not online reviews. For these smaller businesses and organizations, lack of reputation should not be considered an indication of low page quality.

3.0

Overall Page Quality Rating Scale

The overall Page Quality rating scale offers five rating options: Lowest, Low, Medium, High, and Highest.
On Page Quality rating tasks, you will use the Page Quality sliding scale (slider) to assign the overall PQ rating. The slider looks like this:

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You may also use the in-between ratings of Lowest+, Low+, Medium+, and High+. Please interpret the “+” as “+ ½,” meaning that the Lowest+ rating is halfway between Lowest and Low, the Low+ rating is halfway between Low and
Medium, etc.
In the following sections, you will learn about characteristics of Lowest, Low, Medium, High, and Highest quality pages. 3.1

Page Quality Rating: Most Important Factors

Here are the most important factors to consider when selecting an overall Page Quality rating:





Main Content Quality and Amount: The rating should be based on the landing page of the task URL.
Website Information/information about who is responsible for the website: Links to help with website information research will be provided.
Website Reputation: Links to help with reputation research will be provided.
Expertise, Authoritativeness, Trustworthiness: This is an important quality characteristic. Use your research on the areas above to inform your rating.

Note: some tasks may ask you to view the page on your phone, but to do research (e.g., finding website information and reputation) on your desktop. Other tasks may ask you to do everything on your desktop. Please follow the instructions in the task.

3.2

More about Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trustworthiness (E-A-T)

The amount of expertise, authoritativeness, and trustworthiness (E-A-T) that a webpage/website has is very important.
MC quality and amount, website information, and website reputation all inform the E-A-T of a website.
Keep in mind that there are “expert” websites of all types, even gossip websites, fashion websites, humor websites, forum and Q&A pages, etc. In fact, some types of information are found almost exclusively on forums and discussions, where a community of experts can provide valuable perspectives on specific topics.





High quality medical advice should come from people or organizations with appropriate medical expertise or accreditation. High quality medical advice or information should be written or produced in a professional style and should be edited, reviewed, and updated on a regular basis.
High quality financial advice, legal advice, tax advice, etc., should come from expert sources and be maintained and updated regularly.
High quality advice pages on topics such as home remodeling (which can cost thousands of dollars and impact your living situation) or advice on parenting issues (which can impact the future happiness of a family) should also come from “expert” or experienced sources which users can trust.
High quality pages on hobbies, such as photography or learning to play a guitar, also require expertise.

Some topics require less formal expertise. Many people write extremely detailed, helpful reviews of products or restaurants. Many people share tips and life experiences on forums, blogs, etc. These ordinary people may be considered experts in topics where they have life experience. If it seems as if the person creating the content has the type and amount of life experience to make him or her an “expert” on the topic, we will value this “everyday expertise” and not penalize the person/webpage/website for not having “formal” education or training in the field.
It’s even possible to have everyday expertise in YMYL topics. For example, there are forums and support pages for people with specific diseases. Sharing personal experience is a form of everyday expertise. Consider this example.
Here, forum participants are telling how long their loved ones lived with liver cancer. This is an example of sharing personal experiences (in which they are experts), not medical advice. Specific medical information and advice (rather than descriptions of life experiences) should come from doctors or other health professionals.
Think about the topic of the page. What kind of expertise is required for the page to achieve its purpose well? The standard for expertise depends on the topic of the page.

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4.0

High Quality Pages

In this section, we will describe characteristics of High quality pages and give many examples. Examples help calibrate your ratings, so please review each one.

4.1

Characteristics of High Quality Pages

High quality pages are satisfying and achieve their purpose well. High quality pages exist for almost any purpose, from giving information to making you laugh.
What makes a High quality page? A High quality page may have the following characteristics:





4.2

High level of Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trustworthiness (E-A-T)
A satisfying amount of high quality MC.
Satisfying website information and/or information about who is responsible for the website or satisfying customer service information, if the page is primarily for shopping or includes financial transactions.
Positive website reputation for a website that is responsible for the MC on the page.

A Satisfying Amount of High Quality Main Content

The quality of the MC is one of the most important criteria in Page Quality rating, and informs the E-A-T of the page.
For all types of webpages, creating high quality MC takes a significant amount of at least one of the following: time, effort, expertise, and talent/skill.
For each page you evaluate, spend a few minutes examining the MC before drawing a conclusion about it. Read the article, watch the video, examine the pictures, use the calculator, play the online game, etc. Remember that MC also includes page features and functionality, so test the page out. For example, if the page is a product page on a store website, put at least one product in the cart to make sure the shopping cart is functioning. If the page is an online game, spend a few minutes playing it.
The purpose of the page will help you determine what high quality content means for that page. For example, High quality encyclopedia articles should be factual, accurate, clearly written, and comprehensive. High quality shopping content should allow you to find the products you want and to purchase the products easily. High quality humor content should be entertaining.
The amount of content necessary for the page to be satisfying depends on the topic and purpose of the page. A High quality page on a broad topic with a lot of available information will have more content than a High quality page on a more narrow topic. Here are some examples of pages with a satisfying amount of high quality MC.
Webpage

Discussion

Siberian Husky
Information Page

The Siberian Husky (a breed of dog) is a narrow topic. Although this encyclopedia landing page has less MC than some encyclopedia pages on broader topics, it has a satisfying amount of clearly written, high quality
MC.

Kitchen Stand
Mixer Shopping
Page

This shopping page on a reputable shopping website has a satisfying amount of high quality MC. The page provides the manufacturer’s product specs, as well as original product information, over 90 user reviews, shipping and returns information, multiple images of the product, etc. Note: Some of the MC is behind links on the page (“item details,” “item specifications,” “guest reviews,” etc.). Even though you have to click these links to see the content, it is still considered MC.

Movie Review
Page

This movie review written by a movie critic has a satisfying amount of high quality MC. Time, effort, and talent/skill went into writing this movie review.

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4.3

Clear and Satisfying Website Information: Who is Responsible and Customer Service

Understanding who is responsible for a website is a critical part of assessing E-A-T for most types of websites. High quality pages should have clear information about the website so that users feel comfortable trusting the site.
The amount of information needed for E-A-T assessment depends on the type of website. For example, YMYL websites demand a high degree of trust, so they generally need satisfying information about who is responsible for the content of the site. In addition, High quality stores and financial transaction websites also need clear and satisfying customer service information to help users resolve issues.
Other websites that are not YMYL websites may need less website information, depending on the purpose of the website. For example, an email address may be sufficient for some non-YMYL websites.

4.4

Positive Reputation

Reputation is an important criteria when using the High rating, and informs the E-A-T of the page. While a page can merit the High rating with no reputation, the High rating cannot be used for any website that has a convincing negative reputation. Remember that when doing research, make sure to consider the reasons behind a negative rating and not just the rating itself.

4.5

A High Level of Expertise/Authoritativeness/Trustworthiness (E-A-T)

High quality pages and websites need enough expertise to be authoritative and trustworthy on their topic. Remember that there are “expert” websites of all types, even gossip websites, fashion websites, humor websites, forum and Q&A pages, etc. In fact, some types of information are found almost exclusively on forums and discussions, where a community of experts can provide valuable perspectives on specific topics.
Think about the topic of the page. What kind of expertise is required for the page to achieve its purpose well? The standard for expertise depends on the topic of the page.

4.6

Examples of High Quality Pages

Webpage/Type of Content

High Quality Characteristics/PQ Rating

PQ Rating and Explanation

High: Government agency
US Naval Observatory
Master Clock page

High: Humor
Article on a humor website

• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page

• High quality humorous MC
• Positive reputation (website)
• Expertise as a farcical humor website

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The purpose of this page is to display the official
US Naval Observatory Master Clock time in 7 different time zones. The page displays the clock information in a clear, easy-to-read format. The
Naval Observatory is highly trustworthy and authoritative for this type of information.

This website is well known for its humorous, satirical articles. This is a cute example of a satisfying and funny article.

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Webpage/Type of Content

High Quality Characteristics/PQ Rating

High: Small business 1
Local fish & chips restaurant High: Small business 2
Local preservation center

• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page

• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC

PQ Rating and Explanation

This is an “about us” page on a restaurant website. This page provides information on when the restaurant opened and what visitors can expect. Other pages on the website provide information about the restaurant including the address, menu, other contact information, etc.
This website is highly authoritative because it is about itself.

This is the News and Updates section of a local preservation center selling poultry, vegetables, and more.
Note: this example was added in 2014 so the
“News and Updates” were timely.

High: News 1
Homepage of a newspaper

High: News 2
Article on a newspaper website High: Blog post
Parenting article about strollers • A satisfying amount of high quality MC
• Positive reputation (website)

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC
• Positive reputation (website)

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC
• Very positive reputation (website)
• Specifically, high E-A-T and positive reputation for this specific blog and author

This newspaper has won seven Pulitzer Prize awards. This is an article on a newspaper website which has won nine Pulitzer Prize awards. There is a satisfying amount of high quality MC. While there are Ads on the page, the MC is easy to find and the Ads are clearly labeled as Ads.

This is a blog post on a newspaper which has won over 100 Pulitzer Prize awards. The author of this blog post has become known as an expert on parenting issues. She is a regular contributor to this and other media websites.

High: Shopping 1
Backpack shopping page on a popular store website
(YMYL)

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC
• Positive reputation (website)

The purpose of this page is to allow users to buy a school backpack. The page provides a lot of different backpack options, and some of them have user reviews.
This is a well-known, reputable merchant, with detailed Customer Service information on the site.

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Webpage/Type of Content

High: Shopping 2
Bathroom décor page on a store website (YMYL)

High: Shopping 3
TomTom GPS page on an electronics website (YMYL)

High: Video 1
Saturday Night Live video on a video website

High: Video 2
“An Engineer’s Guide to
Cats” video

High: Game
Online game

High: Q&A
How long do cancer patients live

High Quality Characteristics/PQ Rating

• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Positive reputation (website)

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Positive reputation (website)

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC
• High E-A-T (everyday expertise) on the topic of cat ownership

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Positive reputation (website) as an educational tool for kids

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC in the form of personal narratives

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PQ Rating and Explanation

This company sells its own line of high end, fashionable baby and children’s furniture and accessories. It has a positive reputation as well as expertise in these specific types of goods.
Many products sold on the site are unique to this company. There is a very large quantity of MC on this page.
Note that the tabs on the page lead to even more information, including many customer reviews.
The tabs should be considered part of the MC.

The MC of this video page is an episode of
Saturday Night Live, a very popular television show. This is a humorous, high quality, well produced video with more than 6.5 million views (and counting), illustrating the proper care and practical benefits of cats. The two engineers in the video have everyday expertise on cat ownership. For a humorous video like this one, expertise does not have to be in the form of a trained veterinarian.

Highly engaging game with multiple levels that could entertain a child for hours. This website has a positive reputation for educating children about animals. The question on the page asks how long people live with cancer. There are many responses describing how long a loved one lived after diagnosis. There is very little medical advice and the focus of the page is sharing personal experience. Many responses are heartfelt and well written.

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Webpage/Type of Content

High: Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia article about the American Civil War

High: Forum 1
Authenticating a luxury designer purse

High Quality Characteristics/PQ Rating

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of high quality MC
• Positive reputation (website)
• High E-A-T for the article

• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC

PQ Rating and Explanation

This is a detailed article about the American Civil
War. The citations support the E-A-T of this article. Note: Although much of the content is visible on the mobile page, we consider the content under the headings (which you need to expand) to be part of the MC. (To see the screenshot, you will need to zoom in to the image.)

This forum is well known for discussions on luxury designer purses. On this particular forum page, members are consulting forum experts who have expertise authenticating bags from this brand.
These experts can tell if a particular bag is authentic or fake. While there is an ad at the top and a few ads within the forum message, it does not distract from the MC, which is easy to find.
(To see the screenshot, you will need to zoom in to the image.)

High: Forum 2
Landscaping an aquarium

5.0

• High E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC

This discussion focuses on the landscaping for a particular paludarium (an aquarium with terrestrial and aquatic elements). There is a lot of discussion and interaction between forum members about the types of materials and species used in the aquarium. The posts show expertise in a niche topic aquarium landscaping.

Highest Quality Pages

Highest pages are very satisfying pages which achieve their purpose very well. The distinction between High and
Highest is based on the quality of MC as well as the level of E-A-T and reputation of the website.
What makes a page Highest quality? A Highest quality page may have the following characteristics:





Very high level of Expertise, highly Authoritative, and highly Trustworthy for the purpose of the page (E-A-T).
A satisfying amount of high quality MC.
Highly satisfying website information and/or information about who is responsible for the website or for stores and pages involving financial transactions, highly satisfying customer service reputation is very important
Very positive website reputation for a website that is responsible for the MC on the page.

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5.1

Very High Quality MC

We will consider the MC of the page to be very high or highest quality when it is created with a high degree of time and effort, and in particular, expertise, talent, and skill—this may provide evidence for the E-A-T of the page. Very high quality MC may be created by experts, hobbyists, or even people with everyday expertise. Our standards depend on the purpose of the page and the type of content. The Highest rating may be justified for pages with a satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC.

5.2

Very Positive Reputation

Reputation research is important when giving Highest ratings, and is evidence of the E-A-T of the page. Very positive reputation is often based on prestigious awards or recommendations from known experts or professional societies on the topic of the website. Wikipedia and other informational sources can be a good starting point for reputation research. For some topics, such as humor or recipes, less formal expertise is OK. For these topics, popularity, user engagement, and user reviews can be considered evidence of reputation. For topics which need less formal expertise, websites can be considered to have a positive reputation if they are highly popular and well-loved for their topic or content type, and are focused on helping users.

5.3

Very High Level of E-A-T

Highest quality pages and websites have a very high level of expertise or are highly authoritative or highly trustworthy.
Formal expertise is important for topics such as medical, financial, or legal advice. Expertise may be less formal for topics such as recipes or humor. An expert page on cooking may be a page on a professional chef’s website, or it may be a someone who posts popular cooking videos on YouTube. Please value life experience and “everyday expertise.” For some topics, the most expert sources of information are ordinary people sharing their life experiences on personal blogs, forums, reviews, discussions, etc.
Think about what expertise, authoritativeness, and trustworthiness mean for the topic of the page. Who are the experts? What makes a source trustworthy for the topic? What makes a website highly authoritative for the topic?

5.4

Examples of Highest Quality Pages

Webpage/Type of Content

Highest: Technical 1
Software tips

Highest: Technical 2
Linux Kernel archives

Highest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of high quality MC

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of high quality MC

PQ Rating and Explanation

This page offers a satisfying amount of helpful and very high quality MC for the purpose of the page.
Because the page is on the official website of the company that produces the software, it is highly authoritative. From this Wikipedia article, we learn that
“Kernel.org is a main repository of source code for the Linux kernel, the base of the popular Linux operating system. It makes all versions of the source code available to all users... The main purpose of the site is to host a repository for Linux kernel developers and maintainers of Linux distributions.” This website is the most authoritative source for information about Linux.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Highest: Financial 1
Credit report information website (YMYL)

Highest: Financial 2
Tax forms page (YMYL)

Highest: Government agency Yosemite National Park information Highest: Medical 1
BMI calculator (YMYL)

Highest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation (website)

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC for the purpose of the page • Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC for the purpose of the page • Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation (website)

PQ Rating and Explanation

Users in the U.S. can obtain free credit reports on this website by providing their Social Security
Number. This Wikipedia article tells us that this website is “the only federally mandated and authorized source for obtaining a free credit report.”

The purpose of the page is to provide income tax forms and publications. The website represents an agency of the U.S. federal government that handles taxes, so the page and forms are uniquely authoritative and trustworthy.

This page has a highly satisfying amount of helpful information about Yosemite National Park, including traffic alerts and links to other parts of the website with additional information. Since the page is on the official national park website, it is uniquely authoritative. The purpose of this page is to provide an online
BMI (Body Mass Index) calculator. The calculator is functional and easy to use.
The website represents an institute that is part of the National Institutes of Health. It has an extremely good reputation and is an expert in medical topics.

Highest: Medical 2
Page about meningitis
(YMYL)

Highest: Medical 3
Page about seasonal flu
(YMYL)

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation (website)

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation (website)

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This is a meningitis reference page on a trustworthy and authoritative website for a nonprofit medical research group. This website has a reputation of being one of the best web resources for medical information.

This is an influenza reference page on a trustworthy and authoritative medical website. This website has a reputation of being one of the best web resources for medical information of this type.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Highest: Medical 4
Health information on a hospital page (YMYL)

Highest: Entertainment
Humor website

Highest: Shopping
Backpack shopping page
(YMYL)

Highest: Login
Online banking login page
(YMYL)

Highest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very positive reputation (website)

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation (website)
• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of high quality MC

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC for its purpose (login page)
• Positive reputation (website)
• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page

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PQ Rating and Explanation

According to this Wikipedia article, this hospital is
“currently regarded as one of the top 4 hospitals in the United States as rated by U.S. News & World
Report.” Users can trust medical information on this website.

This comedian has won multiple prestigious awards for his TV show (on the air when the example was written), and this is the homepage of his official website.
Keep in mind that for any type of page, including humor websites, there may be a range of highest quality to lowest quality pages. Therefore, it’s important to evaluate the page using the same criteria as all other pages, regardless of what type of page it is.

The purpose of this page is to provide information about, and allow users to buy, a specific type of school backpack. The page provides a lot of helpful product information, as well as 600 user reviews. Since the store produces this backpack, they are experts on the product, making the page on their own website authoritative. In addition, this store has a reputation for producing one of the highest quality and most popular school backpacks on the market. This page has login functionality, as well as clear information about what the user is logging into.
This is a large, popular bank with a good reputation. 26

Webpage/Type of Content

Highest: Page with Error
Message
“Custom 404” page

Highest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC for its purpose (error page)
• Very positive reputation (website)
• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page

PQ Rating and Explanation

This is an example of a “custom 404” page. These pages are designed to alert users that the URL they are trying to visit no longer exists. The MC of this page is the cartoon, the caption, and the search functionality, which is specific to the content of the website. It is clear that time, effort, and talent was involved in the creation of the MC.
This publication has a very positive reputation and is specifically known for its cartoons.
Keep in mind that for any type of page, including pages with error messages, there may be a range of highest quality to lowest quality pages.
Therefore, it’s important to evaluate the page using the same criteria as all other pages, regardless of what type of page it is.

Highest: Recipes 1
Pumpkin pie recipe

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC and features The website is one of the most popular recipe websites and the author of the recipe is a wellknown celebrity chef who specializes in southern cooking. This page has a large number of user reviews of the recipe, detailed preparation time information, a
“recipe box” feature, etc.

Highest: Recipes 2
Chocolate chip cookie recipe on a recipe blog

Highest: Video 1
The band OK Go’s music video for the song “This
Too Shall Pass”

Highest: Video 2
“Henri 2, Paw de Deux” video • Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC and features • A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very positive reputation for the content of this particular video

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Even though this user does not seem to be a wellknown professional chef, recipes are an example of everyday expertise. The author of this blog has documented her extensive experimentation with a chocolate chip cookie recipe, and her expertise is demonstrated in the large quantity of high or highest quality MC.

This is a high quality, professionally produced video on the band’s official channel.

This is a high quality, popular video. It won the
“Golden Kitty Award” for “Best Cat Video On The
Internet” at the Walker Art Center's Internet Cat
Video Film Festival.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Highest: Video 3
Saturday Night Live video on the TV network’s website Highest: Charity
Homepage of a charity
(YMYL)

Highest: Q&A
Q&A page on abbreviations

Highest: Informational
Ball gown wedding dress page Highest: Magazine
Article titled “Secret Fears of the Super-Rich”

Highest: PDF File
Campus map

Highest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation (website)

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation (website)

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Positive reputation (website)

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very positive reputation (website)

• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page

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PQ Rating and Explanation

The MC of this video page is an episode of
Saturday Night Live on the TV network’s official website, making it highly authoritative and trustworthy. Below the main video, there are many other videos that users may be interested in.

This is a highly reputable charity according to multiple charity rating organizations.

The purpose of the page is to answer questions about the usage of abbreviations. This website has a very good reputation as a reference for information on writing, publishing, etc. It is considered highly authoritative and trustworthy for the topic of the page.

This page has a very satisfying amount of MC for users interested in ball gown wedding dresses. An abundance of pictures, plus options to view by price range, style, etc., are part of what makes this page so satisfying. This page is on a popular wedding planning website.

This is a very high quality and in-depth article on an award winning magazine website.

This PDF file is a detailed campus map of a major univeristy, which is hosted on the official university website. This is a highly authoritative source for this information. The map includes a listing of the all the buildings, parking structures, parking lots, construction areas, etc.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Highest: Article
Interview with musical artist

Highest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• A satisfying or comprehensive amount of very high quality MC
• Very positive reputation (website)

PQ Rating and Explanation

This magazine is very well known and well regarded for content about artists and bands, and specifically has a positive reputation for interviews with musicians. There is a large quantity of high quality MC.

6.0 Low Quality Pages
Low quality pages are unsatisfying or lacking in some element that prevents them from achieving their purpose well.
These pages lack expertise or are not very trustworthy/authoritative for the purpose of the page.
If a page has one of the following characteristics, the Low rating is usually appropriate:







6.1

The author of the page or website does not have enough expertise for the topic of the page and/or the website is not trustworthy or authoritative for the topic. In other words, the page/website is lacking E-A-T.
The quality of the MC is low.
There is an unsatisfying amount of MC for the purpose of the page.
MC is present, but difficult to use due to Ads, other content/features, etc.
There is an unsatisfying amount of website information for the purpose of the website (no good reason for anonymity). The website has a negative reputation.

Low Quality Main Content

One of the most important criteria in PQ rating is the quality of the MC, which is determined by how much time, effort, expertise, and talent/skill have gone into the creation of the page, and also informs the E-A-T of the page.
Consider this example: Most students have to write papers for high school or college. Many students take shortcuts to save time and effort by doing one or more of the following:








Buying papers online or getting someone else to write for them.
Making things up.
Writing quickly with no drafts or editing.
Filling the report with large pictures or other distracting content.
Copying the entire report from an encyclopedia, or paraphrasing content by changing words or sentence structure here and there.
Using commonly known facts, for example, “Argentina is a country. People live in Argentina. Argentina has borders.” Using a lot of words to communicate only basic ideas or facts, for example, “Pandas eat bamboo. Pandas eat a lot of bamboo. Bamboo is the best food for a Panda bear.”

Unfortunately, the content of some webpages is similarly created. We will consider content to be Low quality if it is created without adequate time, effort, expertise, or talent/skill. Pages with low quality MC do not achieve their purpose well. Keep in mind that we have very different standards for pages on large, professionally-produced business websites than we have for small amateur, hobbyist, or personal websites. The quality of MC we expect for a large online store is very different than what we might expect for a small local business website.
All PQ rating should be done in the context of the purpose of the page and the type of website.
Important: Low quality MC is a sufficient reason to give a page a Low quality rating.
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6.2

Unsatisfying Amount of Main Content

Some Low quality pages are unsatisfying because they have a small amount of MC for the purpose of the page. For example, imagine an encyclopedia article on a very broad topic such as World War II that has just a few paragraphs.
Important: An unsatisfying amount of MC is a sufficient reason to give a page a Low quality rating.

6.3

Distracting/Disrupting/Misleading Ads and Supplementary Content

Some Low quality pages have adequate MC present, but it is difficult to use the MC due to disruptive, highly distracting, or misleading Ads/SC.
6.3.1

Ads or SC which disrupt the usage of MC

While we expect Ads and SC to be visible, some Ads, SC or interstitial pages (i.e., pages displayed before or after the content you are expecting) make it extremely difficult to use the MC. Pages which disrupt the use of the MC should be given a Low rating. A single pop-over Ad with a clear close button is not terribly disruptive, though may not be a great user experience. Here are two examples of situations we consider to be disruptive:


6.3.2

Ads that actively float over the MC as you scroll down the page and are difficult to close. It can be very hard to use MC when it is actively covered by moving, difficult-to-close Ads.
An interstitial page which redirects the user away from the MC without offering a path back to the MC.
Prominent presence of distracting SC or Ads

Users come to webpages to use the MC. Helpful SC and Ads can be part of a positive user experience, but distracting
SC and Ads make it difficult for users to focus on and use the MC. Here are some examples of prominent and distracting SC or Ads:




6.3.3

Some webpages are designed to encourage users to click on SC that is not helpful for the purpose of the page. This type of SC is often distracting or prominently placed in order to lure users to highly monetized pages. Here is an example of a page with highly distracting SC in the right-hand column under the label “Top
Posts & Pages.” Here is another example with some very prominent and distracting SC images and Ads.
Either porn SC or Ads containing porn on non-Porn pages can be very distracting or even upsetting to users. Please refresh the page a few times to see the range of Ads that appear, and use your knowledge of the locale and cultural sensitivities to make your rating. For example, an ad for a model in a revealing bikini is probably acceptable on a site that sells bathing suits. However, an extremely graphic porn ad may warrant a
Low (or even Lowest) rating.
Misleading Ads or SC

It should be clear what parts of the page are MC, SC and Ads. It should also be clear what will happen when users interact with content and links on the webpage. If users are misled into clicking on Ads or SC, or if clicks on Ads or SC leave users feeling surprised, tricked or confused, a Low rating is justified.
Here are some examples of misleading Ads or SC:




At first glance, the Ads or SC appear to be MC. Some users may interact with Ads or SC, believing that the
Ads or SC is the MC. Here is an example.
Ads appear to be SC (links) where the user would expect that clicking the link will take them to another page within the same website, but actually take them to a different website. Some users may feel surprised or confused when clicking SC or links that go to a page on a completely different website.
Ads or SC which entice users to click with shocking or exaggerated images and/or text. These can leave users feeling disappointed or annoyed when they click and see the actual and far less interesting content.

Summary: The Low rating should be used for disruptive or highly distracting Ads and SC. Misleading Ads or SC may also justify a Low rating. Use your judgment when evaluating pages. User expectations will differ based on the purpose of the page and cultural norms.
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6.4

Negative Reputation

Reputation research is required for all PQ rating tasks unless you have previously researched the reputation of the website. Extremely negative, malicious, or financially fraudulent reputation information should result in a Lowest rating. Credible negative (though not malicious or financially fraudulent) reputation is a reason for a Low rating, especially for a YMYL page.
Please exercise care when researching the reputation of businesses. Most businesses have some negative reviews, especially for customer service. Try to find as many reviews and ratings as possible and read the details of negative reviews and low ratings before inferring that the business has a negative reputation.
Important: Negative reputation is sufficient reason to give a page a Low quality rating. Evidence of truly malicious or fraudulent behavior warrants the Lowest rating.

6.5

Lacking Expertise, Authoritativeness, or Trustworthiness (E-A-T)

Some topics demand expertise for the content to be considered trustworthy. YMYL topics such as medical advice, legal advice, financial advice, etc. should come from authoritative sources in those fields. Even everyday topics, such as recipes and housecleaning, should come from those with experience and everyday expertise in order for the page to be trustworthy.
You should consider who is responsible for the content of the website or content of the page you are evaluating. Does the person or organization have sufficient expertise for the topic? If expertise, authoritativeness, or trustworthiness is lacking, use the Low rating.
User-generated websites span the Page Quality rating spectrum. Note that in some cases, contributors choose their own topics with no oversight and may have very poor writing skills or no expertise in the topic of the page.
Contributors may be paid per article or word, and may even be eligible for bonuses based on the traffic to their pages.
Depending on the topic, pages on these websites may not be trustworthy.
Important: Lacking appropriate E-A-T is sufficient reason to give a page a Low quality rating.
6.5.1

Unsatisfying Amount of Information about the Website

We expect some form of website information for many or most websites. However, the amount of website information needed depends on the purpose of the website. For personal websites, an email address alone may be sufficient.
Stores and websites which process financial transactions require a high level of user trust. If a store or financial transaction website has just an email address and physical address, it may be difficult to get help if there are issues with the transaction. Likewise, many other types of YMYL websites also require a high degree of user trust.
Important: For YMYL pages and other pages which require a high level of user trust, an unsatisfying amount of any of the following is a reason to give a page a Low quality rating: customer service information, contact information, or information about who is responsible for the website. For other types of websites, use your judgment.

6.6

Examples of Low Quality Pages

Type of Webpage/Content

Low: Informational 1
40th birthday party food ideas Low Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Low quality MC
• Disruptive Ads

Explanation

This page and website have many of characteristics of Low quality pages. Close observation shows MC which contains mostly commonly known information and poor quality writing. The MC is broken up by large Ads which disrupt the user experience.

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Type of Webpage/Content

Low: Informational 2
Q&A unanswered question

Low: Article 1
Article with tips for dressing for the office

Low: Article 2
Using ginger for your health

Low: Recipes 1
Apple pie recipe

Low Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Unsatisfying amount of MC for the purpose of the page

• Low or Lowest quality MC
• Lacking E-A-T

• Low or Lowest quality MC
• Lacking E-A-T

• Low quality and unsatisfying amount of
MC

Explanation

Some websites rely on users to create virtually all of their MC. In this case, the MC is the user’s question. If there are no answers, the amount of
MC on the page is unsatisfying.

This content has many problems: inaccurate/meaningless information and complete lack of editing with poor spelling and grammar—both of these characteristics in combination justify the
Lowest+ to Low rating.

This content has many problems: garbled information and a lack of editing. Both of these characteristics in combination justify the Lowest+ to
Low rating. In addition, lacking E-A-T on this topic is concerning.

This page and website have many of characteristics of Low quality pages. The MC is low quality and lacks important information. For example, it gives no indication of how to make a crust and doesn’t list a pre-made crust as an ingredient. It would be very difficult to actually make an apple pie using this recipe. This page is lacking the kind of helpful content we expect in recipe pages, such as user reviews or comments. Without such information, it’s hard to tell if the recipe is any good. The small pink text at the top is not helpful for users.

Low: Recipes 2
Gluten-free New York cheesecake recipe

• Very distracting SC or Ads (not clear) in the right column
• Disruptive Ads in the middle column

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This is an example of distracting and disruptive
Ads/SC: there are large Ads in the main column pushing down the MC as well as highly distracting content on the right that are labeled “Top Posts &
Pages.” It is unclear whether these are SC or Ads.

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Type of Webpage/Content

Low Quality Characteristics of the Page

Explanation

Low: Q&A1
Page about Native
American customs

Low: Q&A 2
Page about a 2002 Volvo part • Lacking E-A-T

There are 94 answers to this question with a few results that seem helpful. Many of the posts are deliberately incorrect or misleading, including the top answer, which is labeled the “best answer.”

• Misleading Ads
• Unsatisfying amount of MC for the purpose of the page

Please read the MC (areas with red boxes around it), including the completely unhelpful "answer."
This answer is so unhelpful, we can consider this question to be unanswered. This page has an unsatisfying amount of MC.
In addition to a very unhelpful “answer,” the page design makes it difficult to distinguish the MC from
Ads. For example, below the answer, we see a
"sponsored answer," which has the same format as the real answer, but is actually an Ad and not an answer to the question—this is misleading to users.

Low: Q&A 3
Page about water and soil

• Misleading Ads/SC
• Unsatisfying amount of MC for the purpose of the page

This is a page from a Q&A site with an unanswered question. Q&A pages exist to answer user questions. Pages with unanswered questions should generally be rated Low because they have little MC (just a question and no answer) and don’t achieve their purpose well.
In addition to having no answer, this page has Ads and links to other questions (misleadingly labeled as
“Relevant answers”) displayed prominently, which users may mistake for answers to the question. It takes a moment to notice that this page actually has no answer.

Low: Financial
Page with advice on picking a quality stock for investment (YMYL)

• Lacking E-A-T on a YMYL topic

There is no evidence that the author has financial expertise. Because this is a YMYL financial article, lacking expertise is a reason for a Low rating.

Low: Medical
Page with information about how long the flu lasts
(YMYL)

• Lacking E-A-T on a YMYL topic
There is no evidence that the author has medical expertise. Because this is a YMYL medical article, lacking expertise is a reason for a Low rating.

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Type of Webpage/Content

Low Quality Characteristics of the Page

Explanation

This is a YMYL topic. However, the steps listed here are merely commonly-known information which would be of little benefit to someone interested in adopting a child from Iraq.
Low: Article 3
How to adopt children from
Iraq (YMYL)

• Low quality MC (commonly known information only)
• Lacking E-A-T on a YMYL topic

For example, step 1 says “Choose an adoption agency” and suggests looking in a phone book.
There is almost no information specific to Iraq.
There is no evidence of expertise on adoption from the description about the author.
Note that some Ads have the same format as links to other articles on this website, potentially making a a bit harder for users to visually distinguish some of the Ads from the MC and SC.

7.0 Lowest Quality Pages
This section describes Lowest quality pages. The examples at the end in Section 7.9 are critical for understanding these concepts, so please review those carefully.
Remember that websites and pages should be created to be helpful for users.
Important: Websites and pages which are created to harm users, deceive users, or only make money with no attempt to help users should be rated Lowest.
Here are some types of pages or websites that are highly untrustworthy, unreliable, unauthoritative, inaccurate or misleading—these pages should always receive the Lowest rating:











Harmful or malicious pages or websites.
True lack of purpose pages or websites.
Deceptive pages or websites.
Pages or websites which are created to make money with little to no attempt to help users.
Pages with extremely low or lowest quality MC.
Pages on YMYL websites that are so lacking in website information that it feels untrustworthy.
Hacked, defaced, or spammed pages.
Pages or websites created with no expertise or pages which are highly untrustworthy, unreliable, unauthoritative, inaccurate, or misleading.
Websites which have extremely negative or malicious reputations.
Violations of the Google Webmaster Quality Guidelines.

Finally, Lowest+ may be used both for pages with many/all low quality characteristics. Lowest+ may also be used for pages whose lack of a single Page Quality characteristic makes you question the true purpose of the page.

7.1

Harmful or Malicious Pages

Some pages are harmful or malicious. For example, pages designed to "phish" for the user’s government-issued identification number (such as a Social Security Number in the United States; other examples here), bank account information, or credit card information are harmful because the purpose is to steal private information. Malicious download pages are another type of harmful page.
Harmful or malicious pages should be rated Lowest.
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7.2

Lack of Purpose Pages

Sometimes it is impossible to figure out the purpose of the page. Such pages serve no real purpose for users. For example, some pages are deliberately created with gibberish or meaningless (nonsense) text.
No matter how they are created, true lack of purpose pages should be rated Lowest quality.

7.3

Deceptive Pages

We will consider a page to be “deceptive” if it is designed to deceive users or trick search engines, rather than to help users. The following sections in 7.3 describe several types of deceptive pages. Note that some pages may use a variety of these techniques. All deceptive pages should be rated Lowest.
For more information on deceptive pages, see the Google Webmaster Quality Guidelines.
7.3.1 Deceptive Page Purpose
Deceptive webpages appear to have a helpful purpose (the stated purpose), but are actually created for some other reason. Use the Lowest rating if a webpage page is deliberately created to deceive and potentially harm users in order to benefit the website.
Here are some examples of Lowest websites or webpages with deceptive page purpose:







A website pretends to be or mimics the look of a well-known store, bank, online service, or social network, but instead exists to “phish” or steal passwords or personal information (for example, government ID number, bank account information, personal medical data, etc.). We also consider this type of website to have a malicious purpose.
A webpage claims to be a survey, perhaps offering money or a prize, but instead exists to steal passwords or personal information (for example, government ID number, bank account information, personal medical data, etc.). We also consider this type of website to have a malicious purpose.
A webpage claims to offer an independent review or share other information about a product, but is in fact created to make money for the owner of the website without attempting to help users. For example, the MC may contain intentionally misleading or inaccurate information created with the sole purpose of getting users to click on monetized links or buy the product.
A website claims to be the personal website of a celebrity, but the website is actually created to make money for the owner of the website without the permission of the celebrity. For example, the page may have false testimonials for a product and is created for the sole purpose of getting users to click on monetized links or buy the product.

Sometimes it is difficult to determine the real purpose of a page. Look carefully and use your judgment. If you believe the webpage or website was created deliberately to deceive users for the benefit of the website, and with the potential to cause harm to the user, use the Lowest rating.
7.3.2 Deceptive Webpages
Some pages are deliberately designed to manipulate users to take an action which will benefit the owner of the website rather than help the user.
We consider the following kinds of pages to be deceptive webpages because users did not get what they expected. Use the Lowest rating if the page is deliberately designed to manipulate users with little or no effort to provide helpful MC. Here are some common types of deceptive pages:


Pages which disguise Ads as MC. Actual MC may be minimal or created to encourage users to click on the
Ads. For example, fake search pages (example) that have a list of links that look like a page of search results. If you click on a few of the links, you will see that the page is just a collection of Ads disguised as search engine results. A “search box” is present, but submitting a new query just gives you a different page of
Ads disguised as search results.

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Pages which disguise Ads as website navigation links. For example, fake directory pages (example) that look like a personally curated set of helpful links, possibly with unique descriptions. In reality, the links are Ads or links to other similar pages on the site. Sometimes the descriptions of the links are unrelated to the landing page. Pages where the MC is not usable or visible. For example, a page that has such a large amount of Ads at the top of the page (before the MC), so that most users will not see the MC, or a page where the MC is invisible text.

Take a good look at the page and use your judgment. If you believe the page was deliberately created to manipulate users to click on Ads, monetized links, questionable download links, etc., rather than help users, the page should be rated Lowest.

7.4

Lowest Quality Main Content

In this guideline, we’ll judge the quality of the MC by thinking about how much time, effort, expertise, and talent/skill was involved in content creation.
If very little or no time, effort, expertise, or talent/skill has gone into creating the MC, use the Lowest quality rating.
All of the following should be considered either lowest quality MC or no MC:






No helpful MC at all or so little MC that the page effectively has no MC.
MC which consists almost entirely of “keyword stuffing.”
Gibberish or meaningless MC.
“Auto-generated” MC, created with little to no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users.
MC which consists almost entirely of content copied from another source with little time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users.

Finally, the distinction between low and lowest quality MC is often human effort and manual curation. If you are struggling between “low quality MC” and “lowest quality MC,” please consider how much human effort and attention the page has received.
Pages with lowest quality MC should be rated Lowest.
7.4.1 No Main Content
If a page is deliberately created with no MC, use the Lowest rating. Why would a page exist without MC? Pages with no MC are usually lack of purpose pages or deceptive pages.
Webpages that are deliberately created with a bare minimum of MC, or with MC which is completely unhelpful for the purpose of the page, should be considered to have no MC.
Pages deliberately created with no MC should be rated Lowest.
7.4.2 “Keyword Stuffed” Main Content
Pages may be created to lure search engines and users by repeating keywords over and over again, sometimes in unnatural and unhelpful ways. Such pages are created using words likely to be contained in queries issued by users.
Keyword stuffing can range from mildly annoying to users, to complete gibberish.
Pages created with the intent of luring search engines and users, rather than providing meaningful MC to help users, should be rated Lowest.

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7.4.3 Automatically-Generated Main Content
Entire websites may be created by designing a basic template from which hundreds or thousands of pages are created, sometimes using content from freely available sources (such as an RSS feed or API). These pages are created with no or very little time, effort, or expertise, and also have no editing or manual curation.
Pages and websites made up of auto-generated content with no editing or manual curation, and no original content or value added for users, should be rated Lowest.
7.4.4 Copied Main Content
Every page needs MC. One way to create MC with no time, effort, or expertise is to copy it from another source.
Important: We do not consider legitimately licensed or syndicated content to be “copied” (see here for more on web syndication). Examples of syndicated content in the U.S. include news articles by AP or Reuters.
The word “copied” refers to the practice of “scraping” content, or copying content from other non-affiliated websites without adding any original content or value to users (see here for more information on copied or scraped content).
If all or most of the MC on the page is copied, think about the purpose of the page. Why does the page exist? What value does the page have for users? Why should users look at the page with copied content instead of the original source? Important: The Lowest rating is appropriate if all or almost all of the MC on the page is copied with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users. Such pages should be rated Lowest, even if the page assigns credit for the content to another source.
7.4.5 More About Copied Content
All of the following are considered copied content:


Content copied exactly from an identifiable source. Sometimes an entire page is copied, and sometimes just parts of the page are copied. Sometimes multiple pages are copied and then pasted together into a single page. Text that has been copied exactly is usually the easiest type of copied content to identify.



Content which is copied, but changed slightly from the original. This type of copying makes it difficult to find the exact matching original source. Sometimes just a few words are changed, or whole sentences are changed, or a “find and replace” modification is made, where one word is replaced with another throughout the text. These types of changes are deliberately done to make it difficult to find the original source of the content.
We call this kind of content “copied with minimal alteration.”



Content copied from a changing source, such as a search results page or news feed. You often will not be able to find an exact matching original source if it is a copy of “dynamic” content (content which changes frequently). However, we will still consider this to be copied content.

Important: The Lowest rating is appropriate if all or almost all of the MC on the page is copied with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users. Such pages should be rated Lowest, even if the page assigns credit for the content to another source.
7.4.6 How to Determine if Content is Copied
How do you determine whether all or most of the MC is copied? How do you identify the original source of the content? These things can be difficult to determine, but the following steps may help.

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1. Copy a sentence or a series of several words in the text. It may be necessary to try a few sentences or phrases from the page just to be sure. When deciding what sentence or phrase to copy, try to find a sentence or series of several words without punctuation, unusual characters, or suspicious words that may have replaced the original text.
2. Search on Google by pasting the sentence or phrase (surrounded by quotation marks) inside the Google search box. Try a few sentences from the page.

Here are some sentences and phrases from this page about “The Wizard of Oz” film and how to search for them. Sentence or Phrase From a Sentence

A sentence on the page:
All are convinced by Dorothy that the
Wizard can help them too

A phrase on the page:
Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys

A different phrase on the page: revealing an old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon

Query to Find the Sentence or Phrase

Try the query both with and without quotation marks around the sentence:
[ “All are convinced by Dorothy that the Wizard can help them too” ]
[ All are convinced by Dorothy that the Wizard can help them too ]

Try the query both with and without quotation marks around the sentence:
[ “Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys” ]
[ Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys ]

Try the query both with and without quotation marks around the sentence:
[ “revealing an old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon” ]
[revealing an old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon ]

3. Compare the pages you find that match the sentence or phrase. Is most of their MC the same? If so, does one clearly come from a highly authoritative source which is known for original content creation (newspaper, magazine, medical foundation, etc.)? Does one source seem to reasonably be the original? Does one source appear to have the earliest publication date, verified by sources like the Wayback Machine?
Use your best judgment. Sometimes it is clear that the content is copied from somewhere, but you cannot tell what the original source is. Other times the content found on the original source has changed enough that searches for sentences or phrases may no longer match the original source. For example, Wikipedia articles can change dramatically over time. Text copied from old copies may not match the current content. If you strongly suspect the page you are evaluating is not the original source, consider it likely to be copied.

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We have confirmed that the above text (the text in the sentence and phrases in the table) comes from an older version of a Wikipedia article about “The Wizard of Oz,” which can be found using the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
Please note that searching for the above sentence and phrases will not lead you to a current Wikipedia article about
“The Wizard of Oz,” which demonstrates how confirming that the MC of a page contains copied content can sometimes be difficult.
Important: The Lowest rating is appropriate if all or almost all of the MC on the page is copied with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users. Such pages should be rated Lowest, even if the page assigns credit for the content to another source.

7.5

No Website Information

As discussed in Section 2.5.3, we expect most websites to have some information about who is responsible for the website, as well as some contact information. For websites with YMYL pages, such as online banks, we expect to find a lot of information about the site, including extensive customer service information.
Think about the purpose of the website and the type of website information users would expect or demand.
YMYL pages with absolutely no website information, or other pages where the available information is completely inadequate for the purpose of the website (for example, an online bank with only an email address), should be rated
Lowest.

7.6

Highly Untrustworthy, Unreliable, Unauthoritative, Inaccurate, or Misleading

Sometimes, pages just don’t “feel” trustworthy. Use the Lowest rating for any of the following:





Pages or websites which you strongly suspect are scams (see these links for more information about Internet scams: Avoid Scams 1, Avoid Scams 2, Internet Fraud).
Pages which ask for personal information without a legitimate reason (for example, pages which ask for name, birthdate, address, bank account, government ID number, etc.).
Websites which “phish” for passwords to Facebook, Gmail, or other popular online services. See here for information about “phishing” fraud.
Pages with suspicious download links, which may be malware.

If you suspect a link is malicious, please do not click on it. You do not need to personally experience a malicious download in order to confirm that a website is harmful. Likewise, if you feel strongly a website is a scam, you do not need to engage with it to get proof.
Pages which appear highly untrustworthy should be rated Lowest, even if you’re not able to completely confirm their lack of trustworthiness. Please exercise caution and practice good Internet safety skills.

7.7

Hacked, Defaced, or Spammed Pages on a Website

Some websites are not maintained or cared for at all by their webmaster. These “abandoned” websites, especially websites which have become hacked, defaced, or spammed with a large amount of distracting and unhelpful content, should be rated Lowest.
A hacked or defaced website is a site which has been modified without permission from the website owner(s).
Responsible webmasters should regularly check their websites for suspicious behavior and take steps to protect their users. We’ll consider a comment or forum discussion to be “spammed” if someone posts unrelated comments which are not intended to help other users, but rather to advertise a product or create a link to a website. Frequently these comments are posted by a “bot” rather than a real person. Spammed comments are easy to recognize and may include Ads, download, or other links. Webmasters should find and remove this content because it is a bad user experience. Copyright 2016

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While a specific page on a website may have a large amount of spammed forum discussions or spammed user comments, it does not mean that the entire website contains only spam.

7.8

Extremely Negative or Malicious Reputation

Use the Lowest rating for websites with extremely negative reputations. Here are some examples originally shown in
Section 2.7.4. All pages on these websites should be rated Lowest because of the extremely negative or malicious reputation of these websites.
Website

Description

Site selling children’s jungle gym

Extremely negative reputation information: This business has a BBB rating of F. There is a news article about financial fraud. There are many reviews on websites describing how users sent money and did not receive anything in return.

Site selling products related to eyewear

Extremely negative/malicious reputation information: This website engaged in criminal behavior such as physically threatening users.

Organization serving the hospitalized veteran community

Extremely negative reputation information: There are many detailed negative articles on news sites and charity watchdog sites describing fraud and financial mishandling about this organization. 7.9

Examples of Lowest Quality Pages

Type of Webpage/Content

Lowest: Keyword Stuffing –
Forum page: Watch
RoboCop online

Lowest: Copied content –
Wizard of Oz

Lowest Quality Characteristics of the Page



Lowest quality MC: large amount of
“Keyword Stuffed” MC

• Lowest quality MC: copied content with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users
• No evidence of E-A-T

Explanation

This is an example of a spammed forum page, where the goal is to try and get users to watch a movie online, which has nothing to do with the purpose of the site. For a forum page, the user comments are the MC, and much of the content is not helpful for users. Here is an example of some of the “keyword stuffing” on this page that is not meant to be read by a human, found near the bottom of the page. All MC is a copy of an old Wikipedia article, which you can see here by researching it on the Internet
Archive Wayback Machine.
The current Wikipedia page offers much more content, links, references, etc. This page doesn’t add much value for users.

Lowest: Unsatisfying amount of MC – Wedding dresses • An unsatisfying amount of MC for the topic of the page
• Very low quality MC
• No evidence of E-A-T
• True purpose of the page and website is questionable Copyright 2016

This page has so many low quality characteristics that the Lowest+ rating is appropriate. There is a question about what the true purpose of the page is—Lowest is appropriate if you feel this page was created with little attempt to help users.

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Type of Webpage/Content

Lowest: Malicious, harmful, or deceptive – Asks for personal information
(YMYL)

Lowest Quality Characteristics of the Page

Explanation

• Malicious, harmful, or deceptive
This is a shopping checkout page, but it asks for the user’s government ID number, driver’s license number, ATM pin number, bank account information, etc.

Lowest: Auto-generated with Little Attempt to Help
Users – Engine Code
(YMYL)

• Auto-generated MC, created with little to no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users
• No evidence of E-A-T

Lowest: Fraudulent –
Charity (YMYL)

• Extremely negative or malicious reputation Lowest: No website information – About dry sockets (YMYL)

• No website information for YMYL website
• No evidence of E-A-T

The first sentence is incomplete, and doesn’t provide an explanation for the code, and therefore fails the purpose of the page. Other pages on the website have inaccurate, misleading, and/or incomplete information. In fact, some pages seem borderline gibberish, with contradicting information.
It appears the page exists only to make money, with no attempt to help users.

There are many claims of fraud and financial problems about this organization on reputable news sites and charity watchdog sites: Negative review 1,
Negative review 2, Negative review 3, and Negative review 4.

There is no information about who created this website, no contact information, and no authorship information. Medical pages require a high degree of user trust. Because there is no information about who owns this website and who created this content, we will consider this an untrustworthy website.

Lowest: Fake directory page - Mesothelioma
(YMYL)

• Deceptive purpose (fake directory page)
• No website information for YMYL topic
• No evidence of E-A-T

Lowest: Fake search page
– Chicken recipes

• Deceptive purpose (fake search page)

The links on the page appear to link to helpful articles, but in fact the links are Ads that do not go to articles. This is a YMYL topic, but there is no indication about who is responsible for this content or website.

Advertising should never disguise itself as the MC of the page. Pages with Ads that are designed to look like MC should be considered deceptive.

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Type of Webpage/Content

Lowest: Fake search page
– Chairs

Lowest Quality Characteristics of the Page

Explanation

• Deceptive purpose (fake search page)
This page was created to make money from clicks on Ads rather than to help users.

Lowest: Deceptive purpose
– Viagra
(YMYL)

• Lowest quality MC (copied content with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users)
• No website information for YMYL website
• No evidence of E-A-T

This looks like an information website for a drug.
The real purpose of this page is to get users to this website, and then get them to click on the “order now” link, which takes users to another website.
All MC on this page is copied with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users. Here is the original source.

Lowest: Deceptive page purpose and design –
Washing machine reviews

Lowest: Deceptive page purpose – Fake survey page • Purpose of the page to make money with very little or no attempt to help users
• Lowest quality MC (copied content with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users)

This page is titled “Washing Machine Reviews,” but there are no reviews on the page and the content is copied from another website. The links all go to a single Internet retailer selling washing machines.
This is a deceptive page because it is designed to get users to click on the prominent links.

This page contains a fake survey, which appears to promise users the opportunity to win an Apple
MacBook Air, an iPhone 5c, or a Galaxy S4.
However, after completing some survey questions and selecting the product the user would like to win, the user is redirected to website after website to complete more and more survey questions, while being asked to supply more and more personal information, including medical information and bank account information.

• Deceptive purpose
• Highly untrustworthy

There is no information about who is responsible, even though this website asks for highly personal information such as bank account numbers. Despite appearances, there is no affiliation with Google.

Lowest: Deceptive page design – Javascript alert box • Deceptive or misleading page design
Some users might not even notice the MC because it is under a long list of Ads. Users may mistake the
Ads for MC.

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Type of Webpage/Content

Lowest: Deceptive page purpose – Rachael Ray diet blog Lowest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Deceptive purpose and deceptive content

Explanation

The title of this page is “Rachael Ray Diet Blog,” but the page has nothing to do with Rachael Ray or her diet or her products. This page exists to sell products using Rachael Ray’s name and image. In fact, there is a brown-text-on-brown-background section at the bottom of the page (which we consider to be hidden text) that says “Disclaimer:
Rachael Ray is not affiliated with nor does she sponsor or endorse this blog.” This page is deceptive in spite of the disclaimer!
This example has been annotated with red text at the top to point out deceptive aspects of this page.

Lowest: Keyword stuffing and gibberish– Imodium for dogs • Lacking in purpose
• Lowest quality MC (gibberish, keyword stuffing) Lowest: Malicious website –
Site selling products related to eyewear

• Very negative, malicious, or financially fraudulent reputation

Lowest: Gibberish –
Celebrity site

• Lacking in purpose
• Lowest quality MC (gibberish)

Lowest: Gibberish – PDF file Lowest: Lack of purpose –
Free credit report
(YMYL)

• Lowest quality MC (gibberish)
• Lack of purpose

• Lowest quality MC (gibberish)
• Highly untrustworthy

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This page has no helpful MC and no helpful purpose. This website took users’ money and physically threatened users who complained. These articles on Wikipedia and the New York Times describe the deceptive techniques used by this website and provide other negative information about the website and its owner.

This page has no helpful MC and no helpful purpose. This is a gibberish PDF file. We don’t have any idea why this was created. There are no links or Ads.
This page has no purpose and no reason to exist.

This page has deceptive features, such as a friend request, a prize alert, and a download button.

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Type of Webpage/Content

Lowest: Lack of purpose –
Las Vegas gambling terms

Lowest: Highly untrustworthy – Article about how to cure stomach flu (YMYL)

Lowest: Highly untrustworthy – Download page Lowest Quality Characteristics of the Page
• Lacking in purpose
• Lowest quality MC (gibberish, keyword stuffing) • No evidence of E-A-T
• Inaccurate or misleading
• No website information for YMYL topic

• Highly untrustworthy (suspect download)

Explanation

This page has no MC and no helpful purpose.

This content is poorly written and uses a lot of words to say very little. There is no information about who is responsible for the content and no contact information for this YMYL medical topic.

This is a download website with only one page – this page. There is a lot of text (with grammar and spelling errors) promising that users will make money from this free download. The purpose of the page seems to be to entice users into clicking on the links with the promise of making money.
Remember that you are not required to click on any links that are suspicious.

Lowest: Deliberately created with no MC

• Large amount of prominent Ads and no attempt to help users

This is an example of a page with no MC. You might think that the MC is “missing” due to a problem with this particular page, but in fact, this website has hundreds of pages that look the same way—no MC, just Ads. This website shows Ads with little or no attempt to help users, and should be rated Lowest quality.

Lowest: Low quality MC –
Article about popping pimples • Lowest quality MC
• No evidence of E-A-T

This content has many problems: poor grammar, and sentences which are meaningless or state something obvious. For example: "Popping pimples could be or could be not the new trend of getting rid of them." In addition, the “About the Author” section of the page has an Ad, but no information about the author. Copyright 2016

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Type of Webpage/Content

Lowest: Low quality MC –
Article about getting a mortgage in Texas
(YMYL)

Lowest: YMYL page with inaccurate information –
Chest pains and smoking
(YMYL)

Lowest: YMYL page with bad information – Paying off loans (YMYL)

Lowest: Potentially untrustworthy shopping page with insufficient contact info – (YMYL)

Lowest Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Lowest quality MC
• No evidence of E-A-T

Explanation

The level of expertise of the author of this content is not clearly communicated. Providing this background information is particularly important for medical, financial, or other topics for which expertise is needed. This is a YMYL page.

• YMYL page with inaccurate potentially dangerous medical advice
• Lowest quality MC

• YMYL page with potentially damaging financial advice
• No evidence of E-A-T
• Inaccurate or misleading

• Completely inadequate or untrustworthy customer service information for a shopping website
• No evidence of E-A-T
• Inaccurate or misleading

We must evaluate this page from the point of view of a user visiting this page from a search engine, rather than a participant. The question is poorly worded and difficult to understand. The answers are poorly worded and have incorrect and potentially dangerous medical advice. The MC is low quality.

This page gives loan advice which can be potentially damaging, for example, instructing people not to pay back their loans. The article has grammar and spelling errors, and the page is highly untrustworthy.

This page is selling Nike Air Jordan shoes. When you look at the “Contact Us” page, it does not give the name of a company or a physical adress, which also cannot be found anywhere else on the website.
This amount of contact information is not sufficient enough for a shopping website.
In addition, the “Shipping and Returns” page has the name of another company that seems to be unrelated. There are also official looking logos at the bottom of the homepage, including the Better
Business Bureau logo and Google Checkout logo, that don’t appear to be affiliated with the website.

8.0 Medium Quality Pages
In this section, we will describe pages that should get the Medium quality rating. Medium pages achieve their purpose and have neither high nor low expertise, authoritativeness, and trustworthiness. However, Medium pages lack the characteristics which would support a higher quality rating. Occasionally, you will find a page with a mix of high and low quality characteristics. In those cases, the best page quality rating may be Medium.

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Type of Medium Page

Discussion

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

The page achieves its purpose, however, it does not merit a High quality rating, nor is there anything to indicate that a Low quality rating is appropriate.

Mixed, but has some
E-A-T

The page or website has some characteristics of both High and Low quality pages, but the low quality characteristics are mild enough that the convincing high quality aspects make it difficult to rate the page
Low.

8.1

Examples of Medium Quality Pages

Webpage/Type of Content

Medium Quality Characteristics of the Page

Explanation

Medium: Encyclopedia
Wikipedia article about baroque pearls

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

This is a short Wikipedia article about baroque pearls, a fairly narrow topic. This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating.

Medium: Humor
Page from a humorous site

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

This page is from a humorous site that encourages users to post photos with mouths drawn on them. This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating.

Medium: Entertainment 1
Article about “Keeping Up with the Kardashians” show

Medium: Entertainment 2

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

Article about Miley Cyrus

This page is on a website dedicated to entertainment news. This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating.

This page is from a news/entertainment website.
This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating. Medium: Q&A
Q&A page where a user is looking for advice on where to buy high-quality women's clothing online

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

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This Q&A page has a discussion of different online merchants. There is some everyday expertise, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Medium: Page with Error
Message

Medium Quality Characteristics of the Page

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

“Custom 404” page

Explanation

This is an example of a “custom 404” page.
These pages are designed to alert users that the
URL they are trying to visit no longer exists.
Some websites do a nice job of not only alerting users about a problem, but also giving them help.
This page is on a well-known merchant website with a good reputation. However, this particular page displays the bare minimum of content needed to explain the problem to users, and the only help offered is a link to the homepage.

Medium: Informational
Page about propulsion on the “Quality Reasoning
Group” section of a university’s website

• Mixed, but has some E-A-T
• Website has a good reputation
• Content is likely to be accurate and trustworthy because of the website, though no reference links are provided

Although this is a well-known, highly-respected university with a high quality site, this page is on a very specialized section of the university website.
No author is listed and the page may have been a one-time project, possibly from a student, which is no longer maintained.

Medium: Lyrics
Song lyrics for the song
“Never You/Fear Love”

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

There are many lyrics websites which have similar content. This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a
High rating.

Medium: Recipe 1
Mexi-Chicken Casserole on a newspaper website

Medium: Recipe 2

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

This recipe was contributed by an author of cookbooks. However, the page has no SC related to the purpose of the page, such as reviews or links to other recipes, etc. This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating.

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

This website is known for high quality content about animals and the environment. This particular page has a recipe for kids. There isn’t much MC or SC. This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Medium Quality Characteristics of the Page

Explanation

Medium: Video
Video of a kitten meowing a lot • Nothing wrong, but nothing special

This is a professionally-created video of a cute kitten meowing. This page is OK for its purpose, but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating.

Medium: Forum 1
Forum page on an online auction website. A user is looking for help choosing a product category.

• Mixed, but with some redeeming qualities
The relative lack of MC is balanced a bit by the expertise of this forum. This forum is dedicated to this kind of question.

Medium: Forum 2
Forum page on a dance website. A user is looking for advice on how to wash ballet shoes.

• Mixed, but with some redeeming qualities

This forum is about dance topics, and many pages have expertise from a community of ballet dancers. On this particular page, participants have everyday experience washing ballet shoes and make recommendations based on their own experiences. This page is “mixed” because there is some distracting content which makes it hard to read the
MC. However, this is not a beauty contest! Even though the page may be cluttered, there is some valuable everyday expertise and helpful MC, making Medium a good rating for this page.

9.0 Page Quality Rating Tasks
At first, PQ rating may seem difficult. There are several aspects of the page and the website to look at and think about. This type of rating takes practice. Rereading sections of these guidelines and thinking about the examples may help when you encounter difficult rating tasks.
Important: Do not struggle with each PQ rating. Please give your best rating and move on. If you are having trouble deciding between two ratings, please use the lower rating. If you are torn between three ratings, choose the one in the middle. Do not consider the country or location of the page or website for PQ rating. For example, English (US) raters should use the same PQ standards when rating pages from other English language websites (UK websites, Canadian websites, etc.) as they use when rating pages from U.S. websites. In other words, English (US) raters should not lower the PQ rating because the page location (UK, Canada) does not match the task location.
These guidelines are specific to “regular” webpages. Occasionally, you may be asked to rate a landing page which is not a webpage. For example, you may be asked to rate a PDF file, a PNG or JPEG image file, etc. When the landing page of the URL is not a webpage, some of the criteria in these guidelines may not apply. In this case, please use your judgment.
Finally, this Page Quality Rating Guideline does not completely cover every aspect of page quality. If you find pages which you truly believe to be High or Low quality, please rate them as such, even if the reason is based on something not covered in this document. Please use the comment section to explain your reasoning. As always, we ask you to use your judgment.
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9.1

Instructions for Rating Page Quality Tasks

The Page Quality task page is broken up into several parts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Some initial questions about the task landing page.
A “PQ grid” to record your observations about PQ characteristics of the landing page.
The Overall PQ rating slider which records your Overall PQ rating.
A comment box to explain your rating.

Some results to the initial questions will end the task early. If the page is Porn, Foreign Language, or Didn’t Load, you will not fill in the PQ grid or assign an overall rating. Didn’t Load should be used for pages where there is absolutely no content on the page created by the website. There is no MC, SC, or Ads on the page. You can see this Wikipedia article for descriptions of different types of error messages.
Similarly, if you respond that the page is malicious, harmful, deceptive, or lacking in purpose, you will also not fill in the
PQ grid or assign an overall rating.
The PQ grid is designed to be your "note pad." It allows you to record your observations about the landing page and the website it belongs to.
9.1.1 Rating on Your Phone
You should open the task landing page on your phone using the standard Send to Device feature, unless otherwise instructured. However, more intensive analysis on the website can be done on your computer. For example, you should open and explore the links that are provided to help you do research on website information and reputation on your computer.
Important: Clicking on the task URL may bring up an interstitial page. You can ignore this page in your rating criteria if you can easily get to the MC. However, if the interstitial page makes it extremely hard (or impossible) to get to the
MC, that should factor into your Page Quality rating.

9.2

E-A-T: Page or Website?

The quality of the MC is evaluated by looking at the landing page of the link in the PQ rating task. The reputation of the website is based on the website which the landing page belongs to. Depending on the page, E-A-T may be based on the page alone, may be based on the website, or may be based on both the page and website.
Landing page E-A-T is important when a website has different authors on different pages. This is the case for article websites or websites like YouTube, which have user-generated content. E-A-T for pages on these websites may differ drastically based on the E-A-T of the creator of the content on the page.
Website E-A-T is important in the following situations:




All content on the website is produced by the same person or organization. An example is a medical website which is produced by a reputable physician group.
The content of the website is produced by different authors or organizations, but the website has very active editorial standards. An example of this is a science journal with very high standards for publication.
The website has an extremely positive reputation from experts in the topic of the website, i.e., the website is acknowledged to be one of the most expert, authoritative, or trustworthy sources on the topic.

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10.0

Page Quality Criteria for Specific Types of Pages

10.1

Ratings for Encyclopedia Pages

There are many encyclopedia-type websites. Some are highly-respected publications which are standard references, while some are websites with content created and edited by anonymous users, with no editorial oversight or fact checking. We may not always know the author of the specific encyclopedia article, and therefore must rely on website reputation research to determine the E-A-T of the article. High and Highest quality ratings should only be used for encyclopedias with very good reputations for accuracy and expertise, where the article itself is well-researched with appropriate references cited.
A note about Wikipedia: in general, the website has a good reputation and is a very popular resource that is generally valued for accuracy. However, there is no single author or organization that vouches for the accuracy of Wikipedia articles, and the quality of pages varies. You should perform page-level checks on individual articles.
A Wikipedia article (example) with a lot of detailed, information-rich MC, and external references can usually be rated in the High range. Some Wikipedia articles may even be rated as high as Highest, although this rating is usually considered too high for an article on a medical, financial, or legal topic, which requires an extremely high level of expertise. A PQ rating in the Medium range is often appropriate. Naturally, Wikipedia articles with very little, inaccurate, etc., MC should get lower PQ ratings.

10.2

Ratings for Pages with Error Messages or No MC

Some pages are temporarily broken pages on otherwise functioning websites, while some pages have an explicit error
(or custom 404) message. In some cases, pages are missing MC as well. Please think about whether the page offers help for users--did the webmaster spend time, effort, and care on the page?
Here are some examples.
Webpage/Type of Content

Characteristics of the Page

Deliberately created with no
MC

• Large amount of prominent Ads and no attempt to help users

Page didn't fully load and has no MC

• No MC (probably due to a temporary technical error)
• Sufficient SC
• Positive reputation

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Discussion

This is an example of a page with no MC. You might think that the MC is “missing” due to a problem with this particular page, but in fact, this website has hundreds of pages that look the same way—no MC, just Ads. This website shows Ads with little or no attempt to help users, and should be rated Lowest quality.

This page has no MC and no error message. It is an isolated example of a page with no MC or error message on a website for a reputable newspaper for a town in Michigan. All of the navigation links work, and the page was later fixed.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Error page with custom 404 message 1

Characteristics of the Page

• Nothing wrong, but nothing special

Discussion

This is an example of a “custom 404” page, alerting users that the URL they are trying to visit no longer exists. Some websites do a nice job of alerting users about a problem and providing helpful tips.
This page is on a well-known merchant website with a good reputation. However, this particular page displays the bare minimum of content needed to explain the problem to users, and the only helpful content is a link to the homepage.

Error page with custom 404 message 2

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC for its purpose
• Helpful SC which improves the user experience • Positive reputation

Error page with custom 404 message 3

• A satisfying amount of high quality MC for its purpose
• Helpful SC which improves the user experience • Very positive reputation

This is an example of a “custom 404” page, alerting users that the URL they are trying to visit no longer exists. This website does a nice job of explaining the issue and providing helpful tips, including a search box.

This is an example of a “custom 404” page.
These pages are designed to alert users that the
URL they are trying to visit no longer exists. The
MC of this page is the cartoon, the caption, and the search functionality, which is specific to the content of the website. It is clear that time, effort, and talent was involved in the creation of the MC.
This publication has a very positive reputation and is specifically known for its cartoons, which allows us to go as high as High+ to Highest.

10.3

Ratings for Forums and Q&A pages

Ratings for forum and Q&A pages can be challenging. The most important aspect is the E-A-T of the participants in the discussion, which can be difficult to judge. Keep in mind the following:




The Main Content on forum and Q&A pages includes both the question as well as the answers/responses and resulting discussions.
Rate forum and Q&A pages from the point of view of a user who visits the page, rather than a participant involved in the discussion.

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Here are some examples.
Webpage/Type of Content

Characteristics of the Page

Q&A page about chest pains and smoking (YMYL)

• YMYL page with inaccurate potentially dangerous medical advice

Q&A page with unanswered question • Misleading page design
• Unsatisfying amount of MC for the purpose of the page

Q&A page about a 2002
Volvo part

• Misleading page design
• Unsatisfying amount of MC for the purpose of the page

Explanation

We must evaluate this page from the point of view of a user visiting this page from a search engine, rather than a participant. The question is poorly worded and difficult to understand. The answers are poorly worded and have incorrect and potentially dangerous medical advice, making it lowest quality MC.

In addition to having no answer, this page has
Ads and links to other questions (misleadingly labeled as “Relevant answers”) displayed prominently, which users may mistake for answers to the question. It takes a moment to notice that this page actually has no answer. Deceptive design and lack of an answer make this page a frustratingly poor user experience and cause this page to completely fail to achieve its purpose.

In this example, the MC is boxed in red. Please read the MC, including the completely unhelpful
"answer" to the question in the red box. This answer is so unhelpful, we can consider this question to be unanswered. This page has an unsatisfying amount of MC.
In addition to a very unhelpful “answer,” the page design makes it difficult to distinguish the MC from
Ads. For example, below the answer, we see a
"sponsored answer," which has the same format as the real answer, but is actually an Ad and not an answer to the question. This page design is somewhat misleading.

Q&A page about a game console issue

• Unsatisfying amount of MC for the purpose of the page

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Some websites rely on users to create virtually all of their MC. In this case, the MC is the user’s question. If there are no answers, the amount of
MC on the page is unsatisfying.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Q&A page about Native
American customs

Forum page on how to wash ballet shoes

Characteristics of the Page

• Lacking E-A-T for the purpose of the page

• Mixed, but with some redeeming qualities

Explanation

There are 94 answers to this question with a few results that seem helpful. Many of the posts are wrong or misleading, including the top answer, which is labeled the “best answer.”

This forum is about dance topics, and many pages have expertise from a community of ballet dancers. On this particular page, participants have everyday experience washing ballet shoes and make recommendations based on their own experiences. This page is “mixed” because there is some distracting content which makes it hard to read the
MC. However, this is not a beauty contest! Even though the page may be cluttered, there is some valuable everyday expertise and helpful MC, making Medium a good rating for this page.

Q&A page about whether a
Roomba will work

• Everyday expertise for the purpose of the page Q&A page about interviewing at Build-A-Bear

• Everyday expertise for the purpose of the page Many participants share their personal experiences with these products, giving details such as how well certain models work with pet hair. There are many descriptions of participants’ own experiences with this product and how well it works for them.

The answer on this page is written by an employee of Build-A-Bear, so it offers a somewhat unique and presumably somewhat expert answer.
The page design allows users to read the MC as the Ads are clearly labeled, as well as both the question and answer.

Forum post on the magic loop technique in knitting

• High level of E-A-T for the topic and purpose of the page

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The person who posted the first message on this forum page provides a helpful resource on how to master the magic loop technique in knitting. She also shares pictures of her own version using an old pair of blue jeans. With over 20 years of experience knitting socks, we would consider her to be an expert on the topic.

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Webpage/Type of Content

Characteristics of the Page

Q&A page about how long most cancer patients live

• Everyday expertise
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC

Forum page on authenticating a purse

• High level of E-A-T for the topic and purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC

Forum page on KPIs to track • High level of E-A-T for the topic and purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC

Forum page on landscaping an aquarium

• High level of E-A-T for the topic and purpose of the page
• A satisfying amount of high quality MC

Q&A page on abbreviations

• Very high level of E-A-T for the purpose of the page
• Very positive reputation, and the website is responsible for all content on the website

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Explanation

The question on the page asks how long people live with cancer. There are many results describing how long a loved one lived after diagnosis. There is very little medical advice and the focus of the page is sharing personal experience. Many results are heartfelt and well written. This forum is well known for discussions on luxury designer purses. On this particular forum page, members are consulting forum experts who have expertise authenticating bags from this brand.
These experts can tell if a particular bag is authentic or fake. While there is an ad at the top and a few ads within the forum message, it does not distract from the MC, which is easy to find.

This forum is well known for its community of experts on quailty assurance. The responses are authoritative and trustworthy for the purpose of the page. While there are Ads on the page, it is easy to find the MC and they are clearly labeled as “Sponsored Link.”

This discussion focuses on the landscaping for a particular paludarium (an aquarium with terrestrial and aquatic elements). There is a lot of discussion and interaction between forum members about the types of materials and species used in the aquarium. The posts show expertise in a niche topic aquarium landscaping.

The purpose of the page is to answer questions about the usage of abbreviations. This website has a very good reputation as a reference for information on writing, publishing, etc. It is considered highly authoritative and trustworthy for the topic of the page.

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11.0

Page Quality Rating FAQs

Question

Answer

Why do we have to do all these steps? This takes a long time!

With practice, the amount of time needed for accurate PQ ratings will decrease. The steps are important and are designed to help you assess many different aspects of PQ. You may be surprised by what you find. Pages which initially look Low quality may turn out to be Medium or High quality with careful inspection. The reverse may happen as well. We want your most informed, thoughtful opinion. Are we just giving High quality ratings to pages that “look” good?

No! The goal is to do the exact opposite. These steps are designed to help you analyze the page without using a superficial “does it look good?” approach.

You talked about expertise when rating
MC. Does expertise matter for all topics?
Aren't there some topics for which there are no experts? Aren't there some types of pages that always have Low quality content? Remember that we are not just talking about formal expertise. High quality pages involve time, effort, expertise, and talent/skill. Sharing personal experience is a form of everyday expertise.
Pretty much any topic has some form of expert, but E-A-T is especially important for YMYL pages.
For most page purposes and topics, you can find experts even when the field itself is niche or nonmainstream. For example, there are expert alternative medicine websites with leading practitioners of acupuncture, herbal therapies, etc. There are also pages about alternative medicine written by people with no expertise or experience. E-A-T should distinguish between these two scenarios.
For almost any type of page, there is a range of content quality. Remember that high quality content is defined as content that takes time, effort, expertise, and talent/skill.
For example, there are both High and Low quality celebrity gossip pages. Often, the purpose of these pages is to share scandalous, but potentially true personal information about celebrities. We can consider the MC of a gossip page to be high quality if it is interesting information from a somewhat plausible source.

I've never seen a High quality page of type X. If there are no high quality pages of this type, why are we giving existing pages a Low quality rating? For some topics or types of pages, there may not be many (or any!) High quality pages now, but there may be in the future. We need a uniform set of standards that apply to all pages, even for pages that have not yet been created.

Some of these criteria seem unfair. For example, some art pages do not have a purpose.
Are these pages Low quality? Art pages do have a purpose: artistic expression. Pages created for artistic expression do not deserve the Low quality rating simply because they have no other purpose. Artistic expression, humor, entertainment, etc. are all valid and valued page purposes.

If I have to open the task
URL on my phone, can I check for E-A-T on my desktop/laptop? Yes! More intensive analysis on the website (e.g., researching E-A-T) can be done on your computer.
Any time that using your computer will help you complete the task, feel free to use it. Also, tasks should provide some links to help you do website research, and there is a note directing you to do it on your desktop/laptop.

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Part 2: Understanding Mobile User Needs
12.0

Understanding Mobile Users, Mobile Queries, and Mobile Results

What do you do on your mobile smartphone?

People rely on their phones for many different tasks in different environments. Users may want to search the web or may want to tell the phone to do something specific. Keep in mind that tasks can be simple or complex, and may take multiple steps to complete. For example, a simple task may be to find the director of a movie. A complex task may be to find a movie’s showtimes nearby, purchase tickets, get directions, and then use the phone’s navigation to go to the theater. We expect our phones to do a lot. At the same time, phones can be challenging to use, especially compared to a desktop computer or laptop:





Entering data may be cumbersome: typing is difficult on mobile smartphones, and when users speak to their phones instead of typing, voice recognition may not always be accurate.
Small screen sizes make it difficult to use some phone features, apps, and webpages.
Some webpages are difficult to use on a mobile phone. Website navigation can be difficult as menus and navigation links may be small. Webpages may require left-to-right scrolling to read text. Images may not fit on the screen. In addition, many mobile devices cannot access webpages with Flash or other similar features.
Internet connectivity can be slow and inconsistent for mobile users going in and out of networks. App opening, recognition of voice commands, and webpage load times can be very slow on a mobile phone.

Important: Mobile smartphones should make tasks easy, even for mobile users with a small screen device
(i.e., size of smartphone, not a tablet). Users want results right away, at that moment, and may not be able to spend a lot of time to find what they are looking for.
In order to do mobile rating tasks, you must have experience using a mobile smartphone, which we’ll also refer to as a mobile phone in these guidelines. If you are not familiar with voice commands, device actions, or phone features, please take some time to experiment on a mobile smartphone. For example, you can try some of these voice commands: •


iPhone Siri voice commands
Android voice commands, or say “OK Google” and then “Help” on an Android device
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12.1

Important Rating Definitions and Ideas

Query: This refers to the word(s) and/or number(s) that a user types or speaks into a mobile phone. In these guidelines, queries have square brackets around them. If a user says “navigate home,” we display: [navigate home].
If a user types “iPhone” in the search box, we display: [iphone].
There are many different types of queries because users ask their phones to do many things, from opening an app to calling a friend to searching the web.
User: The user is the person trying to accomplish something by typing or speaking into a mobile phone with a small screen (i.e., size of a smartphone, not a tablet).
User Intent: When a user types or speaks a query, he or she is trying to accomplish something. We refer to this goal as the user intent.
Locale: All queries have a locale, which is the language and location for the task. Locales are represented by a twoletter country code. For a current list of country codes, click here. We sometimes refer to the locale as the task location. User Location: This tells us where the user is located.
Search Engine Results Page (SERP): The page a search engine shows after a user enters a query in the search box. The SERP is made up of result blocks.
Result: We will use the word result to refer to the result block and the landing page.


Result Block: This is an individual “block” which appears on the user’s phone in response to the query. The result block may display information in the block itself or contain links, or may do both.



The Landing Page (LP) is the page you see after you click a link in the result block.

Device Actions: Mobile phones and other devices can respond to voice commands to perform many actions, such as setting an alarm or opening an app. This is a specific type of query which we’ll refer to as a Device Action query.


Device Action query: Specific type of query where users ask their phone to perform an action. These are frequently spoken commands used to complete actions which would normally require interaction with the screen or the device's controls.



Device Action result: The phone may respond to a Device Action query by performing an action, such as calling a phone number, etc.

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12.2

Understanding the Query
Understanding the query is the first step in evaluating the task. Remember, a query is what a user types or speaks into a mobile phone.
If you don’t understand the query or user intent, do web research using the Google search engine or an online dictionary or encyclopedia. If you still don’t understand the query or user intent, please release the task. Important: If you research the query on Google, please do not rely on the top results on the SERP. A query may have other meanings not represented on Google’s search results pages. Do not assign a high rating to a webpage just because it appears at the top of a list of search results on Google.
Think about users in your locale typing or speaking the following queries into their phone.
Query
[population of paris], English (US)

Likely User Intent
Find the current population of Paris, France.

[starbucks near me], English (US)

Find the nearest Starbucks location.

[weather], English (US)

Find weather information in the user location right now.

[call mom], English (US)

Call/dial the number stored for the contact “Mom” on the device.

12.3

Task Location (Locale) and User Location

All queries have a task language and task location (locale). The locale is important for understanding the query and user intent. Users in different locations may have different expectations for the same query. Each rating task will show you the User Location information: some tasks have an approximate user location area and some tasks have a very specific user location.

For many or most queries, the user location does not change our understanding of the query and user intent. Here are some examples: [facebook.com], [pictures of kittens], [distance between the earth and the moon], [call mom]. If the task does not display a user location, please evaluate it as a query where the location does not matter and use your judgment. When is the user location important in understanding query interpretation and user intent? Please use both web research and your personal judgment to answer this question. Ask yourself, “Would users in one city or country be looking for something different than users in another city or country?”

12.4

Queries with an Explicit Location

Sometimes users tell search engines exactly what kinds of results they are looking for by adding the desired location in the query, regardless of their user location. We'll call this location inside the query the “explicit location.” The explicit location makes queries much easier to understand and interpret.
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Sometimes the explicit location matches the user location or locale, and sometimes it doesn't.
When there is an explicit location in the query, pay attention to it! Users use explicit locations to indicate exactly what they are looking for.

12.5

Queries with Multiple Meanings

Many queries have more than one meaning. For example, the query [apple] might refer to the computer brand or the fruit. We will call these possible meanings query interpretations.
Dominant Interpretation: The dominant interpretation of a query is what most users mean when they type the query.
Not all queries have a dominant interpretation. The dominant interpretation should be clear to you, especially after doing a little web research.
Common Interpretation: A common interpretation of a query is what many or some users mean when they type a query. A query can have multiple common interpretations.
Minor Interpretations: Sometimes you will find less common interpretations. These are interpretations that few users have in mind. We will call these minor interpretations.

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Query: [apple]
Locale: English (US)

Query: [mercury]
Locale: English (US)

12.6

Query Meanings Can Change Over Time

Remember to think about the query and its current meaning as you are rating. We will assume users are looking for current information about a topic, the most recent product model, the most recent occurrence of a recurring event, etc., unless otherwise specified by the query.

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The interpretation of the query [iphone], English (US) has changed over time as new iPhone models are released. The first iPhone was introduced in 2007. Users searching for [iphone], English (US) at that time were looking for the new
(at the time) first iPhone model. Most users now are looking for the most recent or upcoming iPhone model. In the future, new models will come out and the dominant interpretation will change again.

12.7

Understanding User Intent

It can be helpful to think of queries as having one or more of the following intents.





12.7.1

Know query, some of which are Know Simple queries
Do query, some of which are Device Action queries
Website query, when the user is looking for a specific website or webpage
Visit-in-person query, some of which are looking for a specific business or organization, some of which are looking for a category of businesses
Know and Know Simple Queries

The intent of a Know query is to find information on a topic. Users want to Know more about something.
Know Simple queries are a special type of Know query. Know Simple queries seek a very specific answer, like a fact, diagram, etc. This answer has to be correct and complete, and can be displayed in a relatively small amount of space: the size of a mobile phone screen. As a rule of thumb, if most people would agree on a correct answer, and it would fit in 1-2 sentences or a short list of items, the query can be called a Know Simple query.
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Know Simple queries may be questions such as [how tall is barack obama]. Frequently, Know Simple queries do not have question words. For example, [barack obama height] has the same user intent as [how tall is barack obama], but is not in a question format.
Most queries are not Know Simple queries, such as:






Broad, complex, and/or in-depth informational queries that do not have a short answer
Ambiguous or unclear informational queries
Informational queries on controversial topics
Informational queries with no definitive “right answer”
Queries where different users may want different types of information, or different sources of information

Here are some examples where the Know Simple query asks for a simple fact, which can be answered correctly and completely in a small amount of space, and the Know query answer is more complex.
Know Simple Query

Know Query

Explanation

[barack obama height]
[how tall is obama]

[barack obama]

The Know query is a broad information query and different users may be looking for different things (e.g., biography, books, social media posts, etc.).

[new york city population 2013]

[new york city]

The Know query is a broad information query and different users may be looking for different things (e.g., tourist and trip planning information, facts, photographs, history).

[who is graves disease named after]

[graves disease]

The Know query is a broad query for medical information and different users may have different needs. There is no single “answer” for this query.

[macy’s store hours]

[macy’s gift wrap options]

The Know query is a broad query for a particular service offered by a department store, and does not have a short answer.

[what is the symbol for the element nickel]

[what nickel is used for]

[who won the 2014 bcs national championship game] [who is going to win the bcs national championship game]

The Know query asks for an opinion and there is no definitive answer.

[what is starbucks stock price]

[should i invest in starbucks stock]

Even though the Know query is theoretically a yes/no question, there is not a single answer that everyone would agree on.

The Know query is a broad query and there is no short, complete answer.

Raters must think about mobile users when deciding if queries are Know Simple. Use your judgment here.
Important Rating Example: The query [weather] may seem like a broad information query, but most mobile users likely have a fairly simple informational need: to find the current or upcoming temperature, and the chance of local weather events, such as rain or snow. Therefore, we will consider queries like [weather], [weather today], [weather tomorrow], [weather this week] to be Know Simple queries for mobile phone users.
12.7.2

Do and Device Action Queries

The intent of a Do query is to accomplish a goal or engage in an activity on a phone. The goal or activity may be to download, to buy, to obtain, to be entertained by, or to interact with a website or app. Users want to Do something.

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Here are some examples.
Query

Likely User Intent

[get candy crush game]

Install the Candy Crush game.

[online personality test]
[what is my bmi?]
[buy citizen kane dvd]

Take an online personality test.
Calculate BMI (body mass index).
Purchase this DVD.

[bubble spinner]

Play Bubble Spinner online or download/open the app.

Device Action queries are a special kind of Do query. Users are asking their phone to do something for them. Users giving Device Action queries may be using phones in the hands-free mode, for example, while in a car. It’s very important for mobile phones to accommodate Device Action queries, and we have a high standard for rating these results. A Device Action query usually has a clear action word and intent. The verb or action word is often at the beginning of the query, but a query might start with “OK Google” or “Google” or “Siri” or “I want to.” Use your judgment.
Here are some examples of Device Action queries.
Type of Action

Device Action Query Examples (verb or action shown in bold)

Call someone

[call mom’s mobile phone], [place a call to anne jones], [ok google, could you please call my mom] Send a message

[send a text to john smith], [text john smith], [sms john smith]

Get map information (e.g., directions, traffic, etc.)

[navigate to central park], [show me traffic], [show me a map]

Open an app or webpage, or install an app

[go to amazon.com], [open facebook app], [open facebook.com], [open the business section of the new york times], [siri, would you open facebook for me], [get candy crush app]

Play or view media

[play me songs from the white album], [watch the life of pi], [show me cute kittens], [i want to look at cute kittens], [i want to listen to imagine dragons radioactive]

Schedule a meeting

[schedule a meeting for 9am]

Set an alarm or timer

[set an alarm for 6am], [alarm for 6am], [countdown timer for 30 secs]

Here are some examples of queries that are not Device Action queries.
Query

Query is NOT a Device Action Query: Explanation

[phone number empire state building] There is no action word. The user may be looking for the phone number without the intention of calling the number. We’ll consider this a Know Simple query.

[facebook.com]

There is no action word, such as “open.” We will consider this a Website query.

[amazon.com]

There is no action word, such as “open.” We will consider this a Website query.

[anne jones]

There is no action word, such as “call” or “text.” We will consider this a Know query for information. 12.7.3

Website Queries

The intent of a Website query is to locate a specific website or webpage which users have requested. This single webpage is called the target of the query.

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One type of Website query is a URL Query, which can be:



Exact, perfectly-formed, working URLs, such as [http://www.ibm.com] or [www.ibm.com] or [ibm.com].
Imperfect URL queries: Queries that look like URL queries, but are not “working URL” queries. These URLs do not load if you type or paste them into your browser address bar. Even so, we believe users have a specific page in mind.

Here are some examples.
Query
[kayak], English (US)

Likely User Intent
View the Kayak website.

[youtube], English (US)

View the YouTube website.

[ebay], Italian (IT)

View the Italian eBay website.

[new york time health section], English (US)

View the Health section of the New York Times website.

[canon.com eos digital camera], English (US)

View the EOS digital cameras page on the Canon website.

12.7.4

Visit-in-Person Queries and User Location

Users carry mobile phones with them throughout the day, for example, at work, to school, to restaurants, or running errands. One reason to carry a mobile phone is to have help with Visit-in-Person queries, such as finding coffee shops, gas stations, ATMs, restaurants, etc. Because mobile phones are often used for Visit-in-Person queries, make sure to consider visit-in-person intent as a possibility for mobile phone users.
Some queries clearly “ask” for nearby information or nearby results (e.g., businesses, organizations, other nearby places). Some queries are not asking for nearby information or nearby results. Here are some examples.
Queries with Visit-in-Person Intent

Query with Non-Visit-in-Person Intent

More examples: [pizza], [yoga class], [coffee shops], [movie showtimes], [car repair], [dentists], [bank of america atm locations], [starbucks near me]

More examples: [boston red sox], [washington post], [scrabble cheat], [definition of sedentary], [aapl], [beyonce], [angry birds],
[small dog breeds], [dance videos], [oscars 2012], [pick up lines],
[bank of america login]

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And some queries could go either way. Some users may want nearby results and others may not.

Here are some examples of queries with both visit-in-person and non-visit-in-person intent:











[hotels]
[post office]
[apple store]
[citibank]
[best buy]
[office depot]
[target]
[library]
[bank of america]
[the gap]

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Sometimes, the user location can change our understanding of the query. For users close to Sunnyvale, California, the query [turmeric] could have two different interpretations: a popular restaurant named Turmeric or the spice turmeric. In most other user locations, there is no restaurant (or anything else) named Turmeric and there is just one interpretation of the query [turmeric]: the spice. The Sunnyvale restaurant is not well known outside of Sunnyvale,
California.

Use your common sense when thinking about queries and whether they have possible visit-in-person intent.

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12.7.5

Queries with Multiple User Intents

Many queries have more than one likely user intent. Please use your judgment when trying to decide if one intent is more likely than another intent.
Query

Likely User Intent

[harvard]

Depending on the user need and location, users may want to visit the official homepage (Website), get directions (Visit-in-Person), or learn more about the school (Know).

[walmart]

Most users want to go to a nearby Walmart (Visit-in-Person) or view the homepage to shop online
(Website). Some or few users may want to learn more information about the company (Know).

12.8

Understanding Result Blocks
The following sections contain examples of different types of queries and results. In these guidelines, please assume that the result blocks and pages are easy to use on the phone, unless otherwise noted.

12.8.1

Web Search Result Block Examples

Web Search Result Blocks typically have a title link, a URL and a “snippet” of text describing the page. For many queries, Web Search Result Blocks are the most helpful type of result.
Query, User Location, User Intent

Web Search Result Block

Query: [cuisinart food processor reviews]
User Location: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
User Intent: This is a Know query. The user wants to find recent reviews of Cuisinart food processors. Result: This is a Web Search Result Block which has a link to a landing page with Cuisinart reviews.

Query: [broadway tickets]
User Location: New York City, New York
User Intent: This is a Know query or Do query.
The user wants to search prices and/or purchase tickets to a Broadway show in New York City.

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12.8.2

Special Content Result Block Examples

Special Content Result Blocks (SCRBs) appear in the search results page, along with Web Search Result Blocks.
They are frequently, but not always, the first result on the search results page.
Special Content Result Blocks are designed to show content directly to users on the search results page. From working calculators to playable videos to interactive weather information, these results help users immediately get information or content, and may not require additional “clicks” or page loads.
Because mobile phones can be difficult to use, SCRBs can help mobile phone users accomplish their tasks very quickly, especially for certain Know Simple, Visit-in-Person, and Do queries.
Important: Please assume that any interactive features work and function properly. Some notes:


All result blocks are “screenshots” or images of search results with prominent links enabled. Unfortunately, a screenshot or image of an interactive result block will not function as it would for a real user. For the purpose of rating, please assume that interactive result blocks do function as intended, even though you are unable to use the buttons, tabs, or other features in the result block.



There may be a delay between when the rating task is created and when you actually rate the block, causing some information in special content result blocks to be a few hours or even days out of date. Stock price or weather informational blocks are designed to give users extremely current and timely information. However, due to a delay in rating time, the information may no longer be accurate. Don’t penalize a special content result block for being out of date. Assume that the blocks show current information for users, unless instructed otherwise.

Query, User Location, User Intent

Special Content Result Block

Query: [weather]
User Location: Chicago, Illinois
User Intent: This is a Know Simple query since mobile users have a fairly simple informational need: find the current temperature and chance of rain or snow. The user wants to know the weather for the User Location.
Note: Assume the block shows current information for users.

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Query, User Location, User Intent

Special Content Result Block

Query: [emma stone movies]
User Intent: This is a Know query. The user wants to get information on movies with Emma
Stone.
User Location: Des Moines, Iowa
Result: In this result block, users can immediately see some popular movies starring Emma Stone, with an option to click on the links to learn more about each movie. Users can also swipe to see a list of more movies.

Query: [calories in a banana]
User Location: Oakland, California
User Intent: This is a Know Simple query. The user wants to find out how many calories are in a banana. Query: [baseball scores]
User Location: Wichita, Kansas
User Intent: This is a Know query. The user wants to find the most recent Major League
Baseball scores.

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Query, User Location, User Intent

Special Content Result Block

Query: [coldplay fix you]
User Location: New Orleans, Louisiana
User Intent: This is a Do query. The user probably wants to listen to the song by Coldplay called “Fix You.”
Note: In this result block, users can immediately play the song on their phone, or click the links to learn more about the artist or album.

Query: [what is the tallest tree]
User Location: Boise, Idaho
User Intent: This is a Know Simple query. The user wants to know what type of tree is the tallest.

12.8.3

Device Action Result Block Examples

A mobile phone should respond to a Device Action query and do what the user is asking. If the block is a Device
Action query to open an app, please assume that the user has the app installed on their phone. If the query is to download the app, please assume that the user does not have the app installed on their phone.
Query, User Location, User Intent, Result

Device Action Result Block

Query: [open angry birds]
User Location: Little Rock, Arkansas
User Intent: This is a Device Action query. The user wants the device to open the Angry Birds app so he/she can play the game.
Result: In this result block, users can click the link to open the app.

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Query, User Location, User Intent, Result

Device Action Result Block

Query: [go to amazon.com]
User Location: Glendale California
User Intent: This is a Device Action query. The user wants to go to amazon.com to interact with the website. Result: In this result block, users can click the links to go directly to the website.

Query: [set alarm for 5 o’clock am]
User Location: Tacoma, Washington
User Intent: This is a Device Action query. The user wants to set the device’s alarm to go off at
5:00 AM.
Result: In this result block, the query has initiated the alarm on the phone to be set for 5:00 AM.

Query: [send text to mom]
User Location: Tacoma, Washington
User Intent: This is a Device Action query. The user wants to send a text message to a contact nicknamed “Mom.”
Result: In this Device Action Result Block, the query has initiated a text to the contact nicknamed
“Mom,” with an option to text either the work or mobile number.

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Query, User Location, User Intent, Result

Device Action Result Block

Query: [call best buy]
User Location: Mountain View, California
User Intent: This is a Device Action query. The user wants to call the nearest Best Buy store.
Result: In this Device Action Result Block, the query has initiated a call to the nearest Best Buy location. 12.8.4

How Device Action Results are Displayed in Rating Tasks

Important note: Users issuing queries actually experience the phone’s response to the query, while raters are given a description of it. If an iPhone user says “Siri, call Mom,” the iPhone displays a visual prompt to show that it’s dialing a phone number. In these rating tasks, you will see a description of this action.
Please also assume that the phone successfully performs the action in a fully satisfying way.
Below are some additional examples of Device Action queries, along with the corresponding “action text” displayed in the rating task.
This is what the user sees on his or her phone for the Device
Action query

This is what you (the rater) might see in the rating task

The left side shows what the user sees on the phone for the query [set alarm for 30 mins], while the right side shows the “action text” that you (the rater) might see in the rating task. The text on the right indicates that the user issued the query at 1:48 PM (13:48:00), and the device has set its alarm to go off 30 minutes later at 2:18 PM (14:18:00).

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This is what the user sees on his or her phone for the Device
Action query

This is what you (the rater) might see in the rating task

The left side shows what the user sees on the phone for the query [open facebook app]. In this case, the phone shows an “Opening app” message and then opens the app. The right side shows the “action text” that you (the rater) might see in the rating task. The text indicates that the device responded by opening the Facebook app on the user’s phone.

The left side shows what the user sees on the phone for the query [call dan], while the right side shows the “action text” that you (the rater) might see in the rating task. The user wants to dial the number stored for the contact “Dan” on the device. This text indicates that the device responded by displaying the contact’s phone number and dialing the number.

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This is what the user sees on his or her phone for the Device
Action query

This is what you (the rater) might see in the rating task

For some Device Action queries, the device displays a list of options to choose from before it can respond to the Device Action query. Here is an example for the query [call target]. The user is shown a list of Target stores in the area to choose from. This example shows that the Device Action result taken by the device will be to call the desired Target store after the user makes his/her selection. Here is an example for the query [play adele]. The user is shown a "Play media" type of result. In this case, since the user wants to play music, the Device Action result shown is a "Play Music" button to click. Clicking this button will play the specified song if the user has the song on his/her device. If not, clicking the result box will give the user options to hear the specified song online.

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12.9

Rating on Your Phone Issues

We understand that raters using different phones, operating systems, and browsers may have different experiences.
In general, do what you would do naturally, and rate based on your experience. Here are some additional points to keep in mind when you are rating on your phone:


If you see one of these messages when you open a landing page on your phone: o o

Asks whether you want to open the page in the browser or the website’s app: select and evaluate the webpage. However, if the result automatically opens an app by default based on your phone’s settings (e.g. some users have set all YouTube pages to automatically open the result in the YouTube app), you should rate your natural app experience—you do not have to change your phone’s default settings. Asks whether you want to visit the mobile page or desktop page: it is fine to select the mobile page as long as the landing page is the same. Sometimes, the mobile option will bring you to the mobile homepage instead of the specific URL in the task. You may need to check that the mobile page is in fact the same URL as the desktop page.



Please open and look at PDF files. Your experience may be easier or harder than other users depending on your phone and browser, but you should still open the PDF file and look at it.



Occasionally, you may be assigned some of these rating tasks on a desktop computer, but please rate from the perspective of a mobile user unless otherwise instructed.



When rating Device Action queries and Device Action Result Blocks, including queries for installing or opening apps, please assume that queries were issued on an Android device unless explicitly stated otherwise in the instructions. Copyright 2016

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Part 3: Needs Met Rating Guideline
13.0

Rating Using the Needs Met Scale

There are many different kinds of queries and results, but the process of rating is the same: Needs Met rating tasks ask you to focus on mobile user needs and think about how helpful and satisfying the result is for the mobile users. This is what the Needs Met rating slider looks like:

Rating

Description

Fully Meets (FullyM)

A special rating category, which only applies to certain queries and results. All or almost all mobile users would be immediately and fully satisfied by the result and would not need to view other results to satisfy their need.

Highly Meets (HM)

Very helpful for many or most mobile users. Some users may wish to see additional results.

Moderately Meets (MM)

Helpful for many users OR very helpful for some mobile users. Some or many users may wish to see additional results.

Slightly Meets (SM)

Helpful for fewer mobile users. There is a connection between the query and the result, but not a strong or satisfying connection. Many or most users would wish to see additional results.

Fails to Meet (FailsM)

Completely fails to meet the needs of the mobile users. All users would wish to see additional results.

Please note that you may assign in-between ratings. Use in-between ratings if you think the rating of a result falls between two labels. You can either drag the slider or click on the point that you want the slider to land on.

13.1

Rating Result Blocks: Block Content and Landing Pages

For Needs Met rating, you will assign a rating to each result. Each result includes the content inside the result block and landing pages associated with the result.
Which part of the result do you rate? It depends on both the query and the result block:
Type of Block

What to Rate
The content inside this type of block should always play a large role in your rating.

Special Content Result Block
(SCRB)
Note: assume that interactive result blocks function as intended, even though you are unable to use the buttons, tab, or other features in your rating task.

In addition, think about whether a user would click on the link(s) if available, in order to satisfy their user need.




If most users would not click, rate the Special Content Result Block based on the block content alone.
If some or many users would click, you may consider the helpfulness of the landing page(s) in addition to the content in the block. In this case, both need to be helpful to justify a high rating. If either the content in the block or on the landing page is unhelpful, give a low rating.

Web Search Result Block

In most cases, a click is required and you should evaluate the landing page.

Device Action Result Block

Base your rating on the helpfulness of the action itself.

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For example, think about the query [what does love mean].
Result Block

Query: [what does love mean]

Rating

Most users would probably not click on the
Special Content Result Block, because the block contains a large amount of helpful content and has no obvious landing page link associated with it.

Special Content Result Block

Therefore, base your rating on the content inside the block itself.

In this case, users would have to click on the web search result in order to get an answer to the question.

Web Search Result Block

Therefore, base your rating on the content of the landing page.

While the block content may be helpful, this question may require a more in depth answer for some users. Some or many users might click on the link, in addition to looking at the content in the block itself.

Special Content Result Block

Therefore, base your rating on both the block and the landing page.

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Here are some examples of Special Content Result Blocks where the block should be rated primarily on the content inside the block itself. As always, please use your judgment.
Query and Special Content Result Block
Query: [utopia animal hospital]

Query: [chicago weather]

Query: [calories in a banana]

Query: [how to find security code on visa]

Query: [how did Lincoln die]

Query: [movies san francisco]

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13.2

Fully Meets (FullyM)

Fully Meets is a special rating category, which can be used in the following situations:




The query and user need must be specific, clear, and unambiguous.
The result must be fully satisfying for mobile users, requiring minimal effort for users to immediately get or use what they are looking for.
All or almost all users would be completely satisfied by the result—users issuing that query would not need additional results to fully satisfy the user intent.

In other words, the Fully Meets rating should be reserved for results that are the “complete and perfect response or answer” so that no other results are necessary for all or almost all users to be fully satisfied.
You will need to use your judgment to decide whether a result block can Fully Meet the user need. Here are some scenarios when the Fully Meets rating is appropriate:




The user is clearly looking for a specific webpage or website and the result block is the specific result the user is looking for.
The user is trying to complete a device action and the result block accomplishes the desired request.
The user is looking for a very specific fact or piece of information and the result block provides the information immediately, thoroughly, and clearly. No other results would be needed.

Fully Meets may apply in other situations as well. Ask yourself whether the result block alone is the perfect and complete result that would fully satisfy all or almost all users. Be conservative when using the Fully Meets rating. When in doubt, consider a lower rating.
Note: If a result block is very close to being fully satisfying, but the block alone may not be sufficient in order to fully satisfy all or almost all users, a rating of Highly Meets+ may be appropriate.
Sometimes you have to think about how specific the user need is and will need to make a judgment call on whether it is specific enough to possibly have a Fully Meets rating.

13.2.1

Examples of Fully Meets (FullyM) Result Blocks

Query, User Location,
User Intent

Query: [amazon.com]
User Location:
Austin, Texas
User Intent: Go to amazon.com. Result

Rating

What you might see in the rating task:
Action: Open a specific webpage

Fully Meets Explanation

The query has clear intent to go to amazon.com and the phone is opening the specified website.

URL: http://www.amazon.com/
Website Name: Amazon.com:
Online Shopping for Electronics,
Apparel, Computers ...

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [amazon]

Fully Meets Explanation

The query has clear intent to go to the amazon.com website.
While there may be other interpretations for the query, the dominant one is by far the website. User Location:
Austin, Texas
User Intent: Go to the
Amazon website.

Query: [target website]
User Location:
Jacksonville, Florida

The query has clear intent to go to target.com.

User Intent: Go to the
Target website.

Query: [shop nordstrom online] User Location:
Monterey, California

The query has clear intent to go to the Nordstrom website.

User Intent: Go to the
Nordstrom website for online shopping.

Query: [titanic imdb]
User Location:
Lexington, Kentucky

The query has clear intent to go to the IMDb page for Titanic.

User Intent: Go to the
IMDb page for Titanic.

Query: [www.yahoo.c0m]
Even though this is an imperfect
URL query, it’s clear the user wants to go to the Yahoo website. User Location: Denver,
Colorado
User Intent: Go to the
Yahoo website.

Query: [cnn health]
User Location:
Annapolis, Maryland

The query has clear intent to go to the Health section of the cnn.com webpage.

User Intent: Go to the
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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [cnn]

Fully Meets Explanation
The query has clear intent to access CNN news and content.
It is not clear whether the user has the app installed, but the website has the content the user is searching for, and fully satisfies the user intent.

User Location:
Annapolis, Maryland
User Intent: Go to the
CNN website.

This result Fully Meets the user need whether they want the Yelp app or the Yelp website, which are both popular.
Note: If you see this kind of result, assume that the user has the app installed on their phone.

Query: [yelp]

Clicking on the Yelp link above the logo opens the app directly, and clicking on the “Open on yelp.com” link gives the option of opening the app or website.

User Location: Raleigh,
North Carolina
User Intent: Open the
Yelp app or go to the website at yelp.com.

Query: [lebron james stats basketballreference.com]
The query has clear intent to go to the player statistics page for
LeBron James on a specific website, basketballreference.com.

User Location:
Miami, Florida
User Intent: Go to the player statistics page for
LeBron James on a specific website.

What the user sees:
Query: [open instagram]
User Location:
Laguna Beach, California

What you might see in the rating task:

User Intent: Open the
Instagram app on the user’s device.

Action: Open an app
App: Instagram

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This Device Action query is clear and specific: the user wants to open the Instagram app. The result block shows the phone in the process of opening the specified app—it Fully Meets the user need.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

The result block shows that the phone has detected that the app is not installed and gives the option of downloading the app.
This result Fully Meets the user need. Query: [open bing search app] User Location: Dallas,
Texas

Note: Remember that you should assume that queries were issued on an Android device when rating Device Action Result
Blocks, unless explicitly stated otherwise in the instructions.
Therefore, the Google Play result for this query is appropriate.

User Intent: Open the
Bing Search app on the user’s device.

Query: [open facebook app] Fully Meets Explanation

What the user sees:

User Location:
Richmond, Virginia

What you might see in the rating task:

User Intent: Open the
Facebook app on the user’s device.

Action: Open an app

This Device Action query is clear and specific: the user wants to open the Facebook app. The result block shows the phone’s confirmation that it is opening the app—it Fully Meets the user need. App: Facebook

What the user sees:
Query: [set alarm for 5 o’clock am]
User Location: Tacoma,
Washington

What you might see in the rating task:

User Intent: Set the device’s alarm to go off at
5:00 AM.

Action: Set alarm
Alarm Time: 5:00 AM

Query: [chef chu phone number] This Device Action query is clear and specific: the user wants to set the phone’s alarm clock for
5:00 AM. The result block shows the phone in the process of setting the alarm at the specified time—it Fully Meets the user need. Chef Chu’s is a Chinese restaurant located in the user location. This result block immediately shows the phone number with the option to call the number directly on the device—it
Fully Meets the user intent.

User Location: Los
Altos, California
User Intent: Find the phone number for the restaurant called Chef
Chu’s.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Fully Meets Explanation

What the user sees:

Query: [call best buy]
What you might see in the rating task:

User Location: Mountain
View, California

Action: Make a call

User Intent: Call the nearest Best Buy store.
Note that there is only one Best Buy store located in Mountain View.

Business Name: Best Buy
Location: 2460 E Charleston Rd,
Mountain View, CA 94043

This Device Action query is clear and specific: the user wants to call the nearest Best Buy store. The result block shows the phone in the process of calling the store—it Fully Meets the user need.

Phone number: (650) 903-0591

What the user sees:

Query: [open map of italy] User Location:
Baltimore, Maryland

What you might see in the rating task:

User Intent: Open a map of Italy on the user’s device. Action: Open map

This Device Action query is clear and specific: the user wants to see a map of Italy. The result block shows a map with a link to open it in Google Maps—it Fully
Meets the user need.

Location: Italy

What the user sees:

Query: [navigate to yosemite national park]
User Location: Seattle,
Washington
User Intent: Navigate to
Yosemite National Park from the user’s location.

What you might see in the rating task:
Action: Navigation
Destination: Yosemite National
Park
Destination Address: Yosemite
Village, CA 95389

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This Device Action query is clear and specific: the user wants to navigate to Yosemite National
Park. The result block shows the phone in the process of opening up the Navigation app, which will give the user turn-by-turn directions from the user’s location—it Fully Meets the user need. 83

Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [how to find security code on visa]

Fully Meets Explanation

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read. The block also includes an image showing users exactly where to find the code, and the block Fully
Meets the user need.

User Location: Chicago,
Illinois
User Intent: Find out how to locate the security code on a Visa card.

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read—it Fully
Meets the user need.

Query: [starbucks stock price] User Location:
Alexandria, Virginia
User Intent: Find the current stock price for
Starbucks.

Note: Assume that the result shows current information for users. Query: [new york city population 2012]

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read—it Fully
Meets the user need.

User Location:
Pasadena, California
User Intent: Find the population of New York
City back in 2012.

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read—it Fully
Meets the user need.

Query: [what is the weather forecast for today] User Location:
Mountain View, California

Remember that we consider weather queries, like this one, to be a Know Simple query for mobile phone users.

User Intent: Find weather forecast information for the current day in Mountain
View, California.

Note: Assume the result shows current information for users.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Fully Meets Explanation

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read—it Fully
Meets the user need.

Query: [london time]
User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Find the current time in London.

Note: Assume that the result shows current information for users. Query: [who is the chancellor of germany]

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read—it Fully
Meets the user need.

User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Find the name of the current
Chancellor of Germany.

This query can be considered a
Know query with a specific intent or a Do query—regardless of the query type, the user is asking for a very specific thing: the trailer for Argo. The result has exactly what the user wants, displaying the trailer clearly and prominently inside the result block. The video is immediately presented and the user can click on the video to show the exact information that was requested.

Query: [argo trailer]
User Location: Madison,
Wisconsin
User Intent: Watch the trailer for Argo.

Query: [chevron at shoreline and middlefield]
The intent is to visit the specific gas station specified by the user.
This result block is for the specified Chevron location, with information to visit this location in person. User Location: Mountain
View, California
User Intent: Find the specific gas station specified by the user in order to visit the location in person.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [decemberists crane wife 3 lyrics]

Fully Meets Explanation

The result has exactly what the user wants, displaying the lyrics to the specified song clearly and prominently inside the result block. User Location: Long
Beach, California
User Intent: See the lyrics to The
Decemberists song called “Crane Wife 3.”

Note: The lyrics posted on
Google Play are licensed.

The intent is to find gas stations near the specific user location, represented by the blue dot on the map.
This result block has a very satisfying list of nearby, popular, and prominent options within one mile of the specific location. This kind of block is especially helpful for users who want to visit the business in person.

Query: [gas stations near me] User Location: Mountain
View, California

This result would be very convenient for mobile users who need gas immediately, especially for those who are driving and cannot easily use their phone.

User Intent: Find gas stations near the user location. Note that this may be an urgent query.

Note: A range is included because some users would be fully satisfied with these selections, while some users would want more information
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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Fully Meets Explanation

The intent is to find coffee shops near the specific user location, represented by the blue dot on the map.
This result block has a very satisfying list of nearby, popular, and prominent options within a few miles of the specific location.
This kind of block is especially helpful for users who want to visit the business in person. Note that these blocks are interactive—clicking on a coffee shop will give options to call the business, get directions, read reviews, etc.

Query: [nearby coffee shops] User Location: Mountain
View, California
User Intent: Find coffee shops near the user location. Note: A range is included because some users would be fully satisfied with these selections, while some users would want more information
(e.g., hours, distance from location, longer list of options).

This block contains a map with the queried address, link to get directions, and specifies the landmark at the well-known address on the map (“The White
House”).
Query: [1600 pennsylvania ave washington dc]

It’s not unusual to search for an address (or business) that is far from the user location. Here, the user has explicitly asked for a specific address in a far away place, and this result is very satisfying. For a query this specific, the user location does not change the rating.

User Location:
Bakersville, California
User Intent: Find a map, directions, information about what is located at this address, etc.

Note: A range is included because some users would be fully satisfied with this result, while some users would want more information (e.g., photos, a brief description).

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13.2.2

Examples of Result Blocks that Cannot be Fully Meets

There are some queries which cannot have a Fully Meets result. Here are some examples.
Type of Query

No Fully Meets Result: Explanation

[knitting]
Broad queries where no single result could fully satisfy all users Example

This is a broad informational query. Knitting is an activity anyone can do and that anyone can create a website for. Different users may want different types of content: videos, instructions, patterns, etc. There is no one official source for knitting information and no one result could satisfy most users. Therefore, no Fully Meets result is possible for this query.

Famous names
e.g., [barack obama] [ada]
Ambiguous queries without a clear user intent or dominant interpretation Non-famous people names
e.g., [sam wen]

13.3

This is a broad informational query and it is impossible to know exactly what the user is looking for.

There is no dominant interpretation for this query. The following entities are all common interpretations: Americans with Disabilities Act, American Dental
Association, and American Diabetes Association. While each interpretation has an official homepage, none is Fully Meets since there is no dominant interpretation.
Queries for people’s names can be tricky. Many or most people queries do not have a dominant interpretation. Even unusual sounding name queries may not have a dominant interpretation. For example, the queries [sam wen], [tran nguyen], and
[david mease] can have no Fully Meets result because there are multiple people with each of these names, and it is not clear that most users are looking for any one particular individual.

Highly Meets (HM)

A rating of Highly Meets is assigned to results that meet the need of many or most users. Highly Meets results are highly satisfying and a good “fit” for the query. In addition, they often have some or all of the following characteristics: high quality, authoritative, entertaining, and/or recent (e.g., breaking news on a topic).
A query can have many Highly Meets results.
Have high standards for using the Highly Meets rating. This is especially important for queries with many, many ontopic results.

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13.3.1

Examples of Highly Meets (HM) Result Blocks

Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation

User Location:
Charlotte, North
Carolina

This result shows a complete list of all three locations in the
Charlotte area, with information that is especially helpful for users who want to visit the store.

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby location or go to the website.

Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets because users who want to go to the website to see coupons, promotions, etc. would have to see additional results.

Query: [trader joes]

This is the official website for
Trader Joe’s, which has highly authoritative information on the businesses’ stores, promotions, recipes, news, etc. Query: [trader joes]
User Location:
Charlotte, North
Carolina
User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby location or go to the website.

Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets because users who want information to visit the store have to do a bit of work to find that information— it is not immediately available.

Query: [museum of modern art]
User Location:
Manhattan, New York

The result block shows information about the museum, and is especially helpful for users who want to visit the museum.

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit the museum (note that the user is located in
NYC where the museum is located) or go to the website.

Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets— even though there is a website link, it is not very satisfying for users who want to go to the website because it is not as informative as a web search result block with a title, snippet, and URL.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [museum of modern art]

Explanation

This is the museum’s official website and has very helpful information about exhibits, membership, the store, etc.

User Location:
Manhattan, New York
User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit the museum (note that the user is located in
NYC where the museum is located) or go to the website. Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets because users who want information to visit the museum have to do a bit of work to find that information—it is not immediately available.

The query is the name of a car dealership in New Jersey, which is the only dealership with that name in the user location (Ramsey, New
Jersey). The result block shows information about the dealership, and is especially helpful for users who want to visit the business.

Query: [prestige bmw]
User Location:
Ramsey, New Jersey
User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit the car dealership or go to the website.

Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets— even though there is a website link, it is not very satisfying for users who want to go to the website because it is not as informative as a web search result block with a title, snippet, and URL.
This is the car dealership’s official website and has very helpful information about inventory, financing, etc.

Query: [prestige bmw]
User Location:
Ramsey, New Jersey

Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets because users who want information to visit the dealership have to do a bit of work to find that information—it is not immediately available.

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit the car dealership or go to the website.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation

There is only one library in the user location (Belmont,
Massachusetts). The result block shows information about the library, and is especially helpful for users who want to visit the location.

Query: [belmont library]
User Location:
Belmont, Massachusetts

Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets— even though there is a website link, it is not very satisfying for users who want to go to the website because it is not as informative as a web search result block with a title, snippet, and URL.

User Intent: Find information about this library or go to the website. There is only one library in the user location (Belmont,
California). The result block shows information about the library, and is especially helpful for users who want to visit the location.

Query: [belmont library]
User Location:
Belmont, California

Note: This result block is not
Fully Meets— even though there is a website link, it is not very satisfying for users who want to go to the website because it is not as informative as a web search result block with a title, snippet, and URL.

User Intent: Find information about this library or go to the website. The user intent is too broad to have a Fully Meets result.
However, this is The
Decemberists’ official website and has a lot of content including tour dates, music videos, the latest album, etc.
The result is uniquely authoritative and most users would be very satisfied by this website. Query: [decemberists]
User Location: Long
Beach, California
User Intent: Learn more about the band,
The Decemberists.

The user intent is too broad to have a Fully Meets result.
However, this is Celine Dion's official website and has a lot of content including recent news, show information, music, photos, videos, etc.
The result is uniquely authoritative and most users would be very satisfied by this website. Query: [celine dion]
User Location:
Bellevue, Washington
User Intent: Learn more about the singer
Celine Dion.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [shaun the sheep movie]

Explanation

The user intent is too broad to have a Fully Meets result.
However, this interactive block has a large amount of helpful content, showing a summary of the movie, nearby showtimes, ratings, cast information, etc.—most users would be very satisfied by this result.

User Location:
Mountain View,
California
User Intent:
Find a movie summary, showtimes, cast information, etc.

Query: [manresa reviews] The LP for this web result has
127 reviews for the restaurant, and is easy to use on a mobile phone. The first three reviews show automatically, and then you can click to see more. This result would be very helpful for many or most users.

User Location: San
Jose, California
User Intent: Find reviews for this restaurant located in
Los Gatos, California.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [broadway tickets] Explanation
The LP for this web result offers many Broadway tickets for sale, from a highly trustworthy source. While you have to zoom in and scroll to navigate the site, this result would be very helpful for many or most users because it is so highly trustworthy. User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Research prices and/or purchase tickets to a Broadway show. The LP for this mobile-friendly web result offers many kids backpacks for sale. The company is well known for manufacturing and selling high quality backpacks for kids of different ages. There is a lot of product information and many user reviews for each backpack, in addition to filter options that are easy to use on a phone. This result would be very helpful for many or most users.

Query: [kids backpacks]
User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Research prices and/or purchase backpacks for kids.

Query: [poison ivy]

The LP for this mobile-friendly web result is part of an authoritative government website and provides a lot of helpful information about poison ivy. This result would be very helpful for many or most users. A few or some users may wish to see additional results.

User Location: Atlanta,
Georgia
User Intent: Find pictures of poison ivy plants, information about how to treat poison ivy, etc.
Query: [michael jordan]
User Location: Boston,
Massachusetts

The LP of this web result is a mobile-friendly Wikipedia article about Michael Jordan.
This result would be helpful for many or most users.

User Intent: Find information, news, images, etc. about
Michael Jordan.

Query: [who is the chancellor of germany]

This is a specific Know
Simple query for the name of the current Chancellor of
Germany. While the answer is in the description of the web result, it is not displayed prominently in a way that is very easy for mobile users to read. User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: The user wants to find the name of the current
Chancellor of Germany.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation
Users are looking for good or entertaining dance videos and there are many options online. Query: [dance video]
User Location: New
York, New York

There are many on-topic results for this query and this is one very popular video of a comedian demonstrating dance styles from previous decades. User Intent: Find a dance video to watch.

Query: [purple coneflowers] This block contains many helpful images, and the landing page shows even more images—it Highly
Meets the user intent.

User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Find images of or information about purple coneflowers. This is a broad query for a city. Different users may be looking for different things.
Query: [seattle, washington] The result contains a wide variety of helpful information such as a map, weather information, several points of interest, and has an option to see more information containing nearby events and facts about the city.
Moderately Meets+ to
Highly Meets is an appropriate rating for this result. User Location:
Arlington, Texas
User Intent: Find information, news, maps, etc. related to
Seattle, Washington.

Query: [invasive species] The result block has a good summary of what invasive species are, but some users would probably want to see more information like examples, impact, etc.

User Location: St.
Louis, Missouri
User Intent: Find more information about invasive species.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation
For users in Sunnyvale,
California, the query
[turmeric] could have two different interpretations: a popular restaurant named
Turmeric or the spice turmeric. Because the user location for this query is in
Sunnyvale, many mobile users are probably looking for the restaurant. However, it is not completely clear because some users may want to find information about the spice.
This result about the restaurant has satisfying information for users who want to visit —it Highly
Meets the most likely user need. Query: [turmeric]
User Location:
Sunnyvale, California
User Intent: Find information about the spice or the restaurant in Sunnyvale.

Query: [kristen wiig]

This is a fan site dedicated to
Kristen Wiig. The website has comprehensive info including over 50,000 pictures and 300 video clips, interviews, articles, and more.
This website Highly Meets the need of many or most users. User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Find more information about the actress, comedian, writer, and producer.
Query: [greek alphabet]

This is a broad query.
Different users may be looking for different things.

User Location: Albany,
New York

This result shows multiple tables of images with the letters in the Greek alphabet.
This result would be helpful for many users. Some users may wish to see additional results. User Intent: Find historical information about the Greek alphabet, the names of the letters in the Greek alphabet, images of the letters, etc.

This is a broad query for an actress. Different users may be looking for different things.
Query: [jennifer aniston]
This result shows recent news about Jennifer
Anniston. The articles are timely (at the time this was written) and relatively interesting, and not just common everyday news about the actress. Many users would be satisfied with the result and some users may wish to see more results.

User Location: Dover,
Delaware
User Intent: Find images, recent news, gossip, information, etc. about Jennifer Aniston.

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13.4

Moderately Meets (MM)

A rating of Moderately Meets is assigned to results that are helpful and satisfying for many users or very satisfying for some users.
Moderately Meets results have fewer valuable attributes than Highly Meets results. Moderately Meets results should still “fit” the query, but they might be less comprehensive, less up-to-date, come from a less authoritative source, etc.
Moderately Meets results generally are not clearly low quality, out-of-date, or inaccurate. Moderately Meets results are generally average to good.
13.4.1

Examples of Moderately Meets (MM) Result Blocks

Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation
The LP for this web result is a high-quality page on crunchbase.com—a member site on the TechCrunch network—with a profile of
Shutterfly. The MC has a lot of helpful information about the company and is easy to read on a mobile device.
This result would be helpful for many users or very helpful for some users.

Query: [shutterfly]
User Location: Boise,
Idaho
User Intent: Go to the
Shutterfly website or find information about the company. The LP for this web result contains information about
Tom Cruise, which would be helpful for many users or very helpful for some users. The photos and main links can easily be accessed on a phone. Query: [tom cruise]
User Location: Scottsdale,
Arizona
User Intent: Find biographical information or current news/celebrity gossip about Tom Cruise.

Note that there are many, many pages about Tom
Cruise and this result is not helpful enough for a rating of
Highly Meets.

Query: [seattle, washington] This is a broad query for a city. Different users may be looking for different things.

User Location: Denver,
Colorado

The result shows a map of
Seattle, Washington and clicking on the map brings up a more detailed map. This result may be helpful for some users.

User Intent: Find information, news, maps, etc. related to Seattle,
Washington.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [city of angels]

Explanation

This result reflects one of several possible user intents, as the query is also the name of a movie, song, musical, and more. However, since the user location is near the school, this result would be very helpful for some users— specifically, users who are looking for the school.

User Location:
Los Angeles, California
User Intent: Find information about the movie, song, musical, school, or some other entity by this name.

This result displays the name of Nicaraguan currency.
Some users may have their need met by learning the name of the currency, but many users may want images, know the exchange rate, etc. This result would be helpful for many users or very helpful for some users.

Query: [nicaraguan money]
User Location: Miami,
Florida
User Intent: Find out what
Nicaraguan currency is called, what it looks like, the exchange rate, etc.

Query: [where is virginia in the us]

The description in this result block may be helpful for users who are already familiar with this area in the United States.
Many or most users would probably want to see a map or a clearer description.

User Location: Louisville,
Kentucky
User Intent: Find where the state of Virginia is located in the United
States.

This block contains a brief description of different interpretations for mercury.
Clicking on the links will take the user to the search results page for that interpretation.
The links may save users from doing follow-up searches to clarify the correct interpretation, but this can be difficult on a mobile phone.

Query: [mercury]
User Location: New
Haven, Connecticut
User Intent: Find information on the chemical element, the planet, or the automobile company.

While the descriptions are brief, the links are a helpful feature, so the result
Moderately Meets the user intent. Copyright 2016

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [every breath you take lyrics]

The LP for this lyrics website page has the requested lyrics. There are many lyrics websites on the web and many pages are not 100% accurate. Moderately Meets is an appropriate rating for average pages with the requested lyrics.

User Location: Fort Davis,
Texas
User Intent: Find the lyrics to the song “Every Breath
You Take,” which was written by Sting.
Query: [kristen wiig]

This is Kristen Wiig’s official website, but the only content is links to her talent and PR agencies, along with a note that says she is not on any social networking sites.
While this information is helpful, many users would want to see more.

User Location: New York,
New York
User Intent: Find more information about the actress, comedian, writer, and producer.

13.5

Explanation

Slightly Meets (SM)

A rating of Slightly Meets is assigned to results that are helpful and satisfying for some or few users. Slightly Meets results may serve a minor interpretation, be low quality, have stale or outdated information, be too specific, too broad, etc. to receive a higher rating.
13.5.1

Examples of Slightly Meets (SM) Result Blocks

Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation

Query: [britney spears]
The LP of this mobile-friendly web result has a 2006 article about Britney Spears filing for divorce. This is very old, stale news, making the result helpful for few users.

User Location:
Baltimore, Maryland
User Intent: Find information about
Britney Spears (e.g., current news, pictures).
Query: [honda odyssey]

Although the LP has comprehensive information from a reputable source, and is easy to use on a mobile device, the information is about the 2010 Honda
Odyssey. This information would be considered stale for the query today, making this result helpful for some or few users. User Location: Miami,
Florida
User Intent: We will assume that users are interested in the current
Honda Odyssey model, unless specified otherwise. Copyright 2016

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation
The LP of this web result is about the movie “Hot Dog,” which came out in 1984 and is a minor interpretation of this query. Because this is an unlikely interpretation, this web result would be helpful for few users, even though the landing page has good content from a reputable source, and is easy to use on a mobile device.

Query: [hot dog]
User Location:
Sunnyvale, California
User Intent: Find information about hot dogs, such as recipes or nutrition information.

This result provides contact information for one of the two motorcycle shops in
Potsdam, New York. It is possible this would be helpful for some users, but many users would be looking for information. Additionally, there is a distracting information (a listing for an insurance agent).

Query: [motorcycles]
User Location:
Potsdam, New York
User Intent: Find information about motorcycles. This is a Wikipedia page that has birthdays for all U.S. presidents, including
Abraham Lincoln. However, his birthday is not prominently displayed and it is not obvious that the answer is there—users have to do some work and search around on the page to find the answer, making SM to
SM+ an appropriate rating.

Query: [abe lincoln’s birthday] User Location: Fort
Davis, Texas
User Intent: Find this specific piece of information. Query: [lack of sex and problems with my marriage] The quality of writing in this article, which was created by a person without expertise in marriage or relationship counseling, is poor. Even though the article is about the query, the page is low quality and untrustworthy. It would be helpful for few users.

User Location: Waco,
Texas
User Intent: Find help for marital issues.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [nail spa]

Explanation

Burke Williams is a day spa that offers many treatments like massage therapy, skin care, etc. While it does have nail care options, it is not a dedicated nail spa.

User Location: San
Jose, California
User Intent: Find a nail spa in or near San Jose.

Query: [what type of sharks live in rivers]
This result block does not contain enough information to be fully satisfying and mentions only one type of shark. Most users would need to do further research.

User Location: Tucson,
Arizona
User Intent: Find information about what types of sharks live in rivers. The answer in this result block is really confusing.
Even if users can figure it out, they would likely still have to click on the link, or go to another website, to confirm the information.

Query: [210 area code]
User Location: Austin,
Texas
User Intent: Find what area uses the 210 area code for phone numbers. While there is a map, you would have to expand or click on it to see the details, so it is not that helpful.

Query: [ibm]
User Location:
Rockville, Maryland

This block contains images of the logo for IBM, but these images are not particularly helpful for this query.

User Intent: Go to the
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13.6

Fails to Meet (FailsM)

A rating of Fails to Meet should be assigned to results that are helpful and satisfying for no or very few users. Fails to
Meet results are unrelated to the query, factually incorrect (please check for factual accuracy of answers), and/or all users would want to see additional results. These results completely fail to meet the user intent, such as a lack of attention to an aspect of the query (or user location) that is important for satisfying user intent. Fails to Meet may also be used for results which are extremely low quality, have very stale or outdated information, be nearly impossible to use on a mobile device, etc.
13.6.1

Examples of Fails to Meet (FailsM) Result Blocks

Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation

Query: [dogs]
This is a broad informational query for an animal. Different users may be looking for different things.

User Location: Pittsfield
Charter Township,
Michigan
User Intent: Find information (e.g., pictures, breeds, training details, etc.) related to dogs. This result block shows visitin-person information for three different dog care providers near the user location. However, the query is very broad and it is unlikely users want to go anywhere in person. Note: For this query, it is very unlikely users want to go anywhere in person. Query: [mike]

This is a broad query and it is unclear exactly what the user is looking for.

User Location: Eustis,
Florida

This result block shows visitin-person information for two businesses which contain the name Mike. However, the query is very broad and it is very unlikely these businesses are what users seek given the query.

User Intent: Find information about something related to
Mike.
Note: For this query, it is unlikely users want to go anywhere in person.
Query: [tampa rays]

This result block shows information to visit a sports card store in person, which happens to have the baseball team in the name. However, remember that for this query, it is unlikely users want to go anywhere in person.

User Location: Tampa,
Florida
User Intent: Find information (e.g., scores, roster, recent news) about a professional baseball team in Florida called Tampa Bay Rays.

Note: this business was fabricated for the purposes of this example, and does not exist in real life.

Note: For this query, it is unlikely users want to go anywhere in person.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation
WRAL is a television news station in North Carolina.
Users want to go to the website or find information about the station.

Query: [wral]
User Location: Wake
County, North Carolina

In this example, clicking on the blocks show information about the businesses’ corporate headquarters.
Note that television stations
(like radio stations, newspapers, etc.) usually have special contact information for the public that is different than their corporate headquarter information. Also, with the query just being the name of the station, it is very unlikely that users want this kind of information. User Intent: Go to the
WRAL website or find other information about the news station in North
Carolina.
Note: Users generally would not go to a news station in person.

Query: [texas farm fertilizer] This result block shows the
Texas Farm corporate office, which is not helpful given the user intent—users could not physically go to the company’s corporate office to buy or learn about the product. Fertilizer is the kind of product that you would have to buy at a store.

User Location: Dallas,
Texas
User Intent: Find information about, or where to buy, fertilizer from the company Texas
Farm.

Query: [united 656]
This result shows information for a church, an event venue, and the closest airport.
However, users clearly want to know details about a specific flight, and there is absolutely no information in the block about the flight.
This result Fails to Meet the user intent.

User Location: Skokie,
Illinois
User Intent: Find information about flight
656 operated by United
Airlines (e.g., whether the flight is on time, what gate it is departing from).

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [german cars]

Explanation

This LP is the homepage of
Subaru, a Japanese car company, not a German car company. User Location: Toledo,
Ohio
User Intent: Find information about
German cars or go to the official homepage of a
German automaker

The page completely Fails to
Meet the user intent and would be helpful for no or very few users.

Query: [company to get rid of the possum in my attic] This LP is the homepage of a pest control company in
Australia. U.S. users would need a U.S. company to take care of this problem. There is a mismatch between the page and the locale that makes this result helpful for no users—it completely
Fails to Meet the user intent.

User Location:
Naperville, Illinois
User Intent: Find a company to trap and remove a possum from the attic.
Query: [starting jets quarterback 2001]

Although this is a trustworthy website for information about
NFL football, this LP does not contain the information requested by the user. This result completely Fails to
Meet the user intent.

User Location: Chicago,
Illinois
User Intent: Find the name of the starting quarterback for the New
York Jets football team in
2001.
Query: [navigate to yellowstone national park] This web result (the official homepage of Yellowstone
National Park) completely fails to respond to the specific
Device Action query: to navigate to the park.

User Location: Denver,
Colorado
User Intent: Navigate to
Yellowstone National
Park from the user’s location. Query: [symptoms of cancer] This result block does not provide any useful information and the landing page is a parked domain with low page quality.

User Location: Miami,
FL
User Intent: Find out about the symptoms of cancer. Copyright 2016

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation

Query: [doctor salary]
The answer in this block is about the cost of education, not salary, which is misleading and doesn’t answer the user’s query.

User Location: San
Francisco, California
User Intent: Find information about doctor salaries. Query: [stony child development center west point phone number]

The answer in this block provides the phone number for the West Point Club, not the Stony Child Development
Center located in West Point,
New York. This result Fails to Meet the user intent.

User Location: West
Point, New York
User Intent: Find the telephone number for the
Stony Child Development
Center in West Point,
New York.
Query: [send text message to john that i’m running late]
Action: Send an email
User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Send a text message to a contact named John with the message “I’m running late.” The user clearly wants to send a text message. The
Device Action result to
“Send an email” is incorrect and completely Fails to Meet user intent.

Subject:
Recipient: John
Body: I'm running late

Query: [weather]
User Location:
Mountain View, California
User Intent: Find current weather information for
Mountain View,
California.

Query Time: 2013-4-23 6:00:12
Action: Set alarm
Alarm Time: 22:43:00

Copyright 2016

The user clearly wants weather information. The
Device Action result to set an alarm is inappropriate (and even absurd) for this information query. This result completely Fails to Meet the user intent.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation

Query: [batman]
It is extremely unlikely
(potentially a no-chance interpretation) that this query is looking for information on a city in Turkey called Batman, given that the user is located in the United States. No or almost no users would be satisfied with this result.

User Location:
Anaheim, California
User Intent: Find information about the fictional superhero that appears in American comic books, movies, and television shows.

It is extremely unlikely
(potentially a no-chance interpretation) that this query is looking for information on a city in Japan called Obama, given that the user is located in the United States. No or almost no users would be satisfied with this result.

Query: [obama]
User Location: Austin,
Texas
User Intent: Find information about Barack
Obama.

Query: [weather paris, texas] This result completely fails to satisfy the user intent, which is to find weather information for Paris, Texas, and not
Paris, France. No users would be satisfied with this result. User Location: Paris,
Texas
User Intent: Find current weather information for
Paris, Texas.

Query: [what is the third quarter earnings for ge]
This result does not answer the user’s question to show third quarter earnings for GE.
No users would be satisfied with this result.

User Location: New
York, New York
User Intent: Find this most recent third quarter earnings information for
General Electric.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation
This result reflects one of several possible user intents, as the query is also the name of a movie, song, musical, and more.

Query: [city of angels]
User Location:
Chicago, Illinois

Since the user location is in
Chicago, very few or no users would be interested in seeing information about a school by this name in Los Angeles that is not well known outside of this city. It is very unlikely that people outside of Los
Angeles would use this query to search for this school.

User Intent: Find information about the school, a movie by this name, or some other entity by this name.

This result block shows a go kart arcade in Warrington,
Pennsylvania, and two other go kart arcades in the surrounding area. These arcades are places to go ride go karts, not purchase them, so the result completely
Fails to Meet the user intent.
No users would be satisfied with this result.

Query: [go kart for sale]
User Location:
Warrington, Pennsylvania
User Intent: Find go karts for sale in the
Warrington, Pennsylvania area. Query: [ralphs]
Ralphs is a nationwide supermarket chain. These locations are all in San Diego,
California, which is a major city south of the user location
(about 60 miles away).
These results are too far to be helpful.

User Location: San
Clemente, California
User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby Ralphs location or go to the website. Copyright 2016

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation
Users issuing this query want to go to the Amazon website.
Showing information about how to visit or call the corporate office for an online company would not be helpful. Very, very few people ever go to an Amazon corporate office, which is not open to the public. If someone needed to go to the office for an interview or business visit, they would need to get that information from someone at the company or would use a more specific query.

Query: [amazon]
User Location: Austin,
Texas
User Intent: Go to the
Amazon website.

Query: [what is the closest large city]
User Location: Myrtle
Beach, South Carolina

A news result is inappropriate and completely unhelpful for this query. No users would be satisfied with this result.

User Intent: Find the closest large city to
Myrtle Beach, South
Carolina.
Query: [australian open mens singles result 2008]

This LP is about the 2004
Australian Open, not the 2008
Australian Open. It does not pay attention to an aspect of the query that is important for satisfying user intent (i.e.,
2008). The result Fails to
Meet the user intent.

User Location: Kent,
Washington
User Intent: Find a page that displays the 2008 men’s singles result for this tennis tournament.
Query: [tooth loss five years old]

This LP has information about tooth loss in pike fish and has the words “five years old” on the page. This result Fails to
Meet the user intent because it has keyword matches only and would be helpful for no users. User Location: Denton,
Texas
User Intent: Find information about tooth loss in a five-year-old child. Query: [what is wedding in spanish]

The translation in the result block is completely wrong and inaccurate.

User Location: Denton,
Texas

Mañana means “tomorrow,” not “wedding.”

User Intent: Find how to say the word “wedding” in
Spanish.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Explanation

Query: [american express] The LP is a humorous blog post about a wife helping her husband to buy a suit. The page mentions “American
Express,” but is insufficiently related to the query to be helpful for users, so it Fails to
Meet the user intent.

User Location: Denton,
Texas
User Intent: Go to the
American Express card website or get information about the company and its products and services.

This LP on about.com has a short article about the
Louisville Zoo. The page has a link in the SC titled “Visit
Zoo Atlanta On The Cheap
Atlanta.”

Query: [zoo atlanta]
User Location: Denton,
Texas

The MC of this page is not about Zoo Atlanta. The link to an article about Zoo
Atlanta is in the SC and many users would never notice this link. This result should not be rated above Fails to Meet.

User Intent: Go to the
Zoo Atlanta website.

Query: [how to quit smoking] This LP has gibberish text.
Read this sentence: “How do you make a cigarette symbol on the keyboard? In.” The quality of the landing page is so low that the page Fails to
Meet the user intent.

User Location: Denton,
Texas
User Intent: Find information on ways to quit smoking.

This is the official website of the movie American Beauty.
However, the landing page is extremely difficult to use
(even seems broken on a mobile phone) and there is no satisfying or helpful content on the page—it Fails to Meet the user intent.

Query: [american beauty] User Location: Mountain
View, California

QR Code to view the page:
User Intent: Learn more about the movie called
American Beauty.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result

Rating

Query: [starting order for today’s nascar race]

Explanation

This result shows a NASCAR schedule, but does not have the starting order. The content is not what the user is looking for and Fails to Meet the user intent.

User Location: Denton,
Texas
User Intent: Find information about the starting order of the
Nascar race that day.

Remember that you should check for the factual accuracy of answers. For this result, go to the company’s page at www.aircanada.com/en/custo mercare/int/ and select USA to check the number shown here. According to the airline’s website, the correct phone number is 1-888-2472262. Because this answer is factually incorrect, it should be rated Fails to Meet.

Query: [air canada phone number]
User Location: Seattle,
Washington
User Intent: Find the customer service phone number for the airline Air
Canada.

14.0 Rating Porn, Foreign Language, Didn’t Load, and Hard to Use Results
You will assign Porn, Foreign Language, Didn’t Load, and Hard to Use flags to result blocks when appropriate. All flags are query-independent, meaning that they do not depend on the query. Here is a screenshot of what the flags look like:

Click on the flag name to select it. The flag block will turn red and change the “No” to “Yes.” For example, here is a result that shows when the Porn flag should be used.

Query and User Intent

Result Block, Flag, Needs Met Rating

Query: [freeones],
English (US)

Explanation

This LP is the homepage of the
Freeones website, a porn site.

User Location:
Mountain View,
California

This result merits a
FullyM rating and the
Porn flag.

User Intent: Go to the
Freeones website.

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14.1

Porn Flag

Please assign the Porn flag to all porn pages, whether the query is porn-seeking or not. The Porn flag does not depend on the query or user intent.
A page will be considered porn if it has pornographic content, including porn images, links, text, pop-ups, and/or prominent porn ads. An image may be considered porn in one culture or country, but not another. Please use your judgment and knowledge of the locale.
Remember: The Porn flag is used to indicate that the result is porn. It doesn’t matter whether the query “asks for porn” or not.

14.2
14.2.1

Needs Met Rating for Porn Results
Needs Met Rating for Clear Non-Porn Intent Queries

If the user intent behind a query is clearly not porn-seeking, a landing page that has porn for its MC should be rated
Fails to Meet.



When the user intent is clearly not porn, a porn result should be considered unhelpful or useless.
Uninvited porn is a very bad experience for many users.

Remember to assign the Porn flag for all porn pages.
Query

User Intent

Landing Page

Rating

Porn Flag?

[toys], English

Find toys to buy.

Example
Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM

Yes

[how tall is a camel], English (US)

Find the answer to this question about camels.

Example
Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM

Yes

[car pictures], English (US)

Find pictures of cars.

Example
Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM

Yes

Sometimes, the MC of a landing page is helpful for the query, but the page happens to display porn ads or porn links outside the MC, which can be very distracting and potentially provide a poor user experience. The query and the helpfulness of the MC have to be balanced with the user experience of the page. Use your judgment and represent users in your locale.
14.2.2

Needs Met Rating for Possible Porn Intent Queries

Some queries have both non-porn and porn interpretations. For example, all of the following English (US) queries are possible porn intent queries, but they also have a non-porn intent: [girls], [gay], [thong], [breast], [sex], [spanking]. We will call these queries “possible porn intent” queries.
For these queries, please rate as if the non-porn interpretation is dominant, even if you think users are looking for porn.
For example, please rate as if a likely intent of [bikini], English (US) is shopping. Rate the porn interpretation as a minor interpretation, even if you think most users are looking for porn.
Query

User Intent

Landing Page

Rating

[breasts], English (US)

Find anatomy or health information about breasts.

Example

HM

No

[breasts], English (US)

Find anatomy or health information about breasts.

Example
Warning – this page is porn.

SM

Yes

[pictures of girls], English (US)

Find pictures of girls.

Example

HM

No

[pictures of girls], English (US)

Find pictures of girls.

Example
Warning – this page is porn.

SM

Yes

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14.2.3

Needs Met Rating for Clear Porn Intent Queries

For very clear porn queries where no other intent is possible, assign a rating to the porn landing page based on how helpful it is for the user. Even though there is porn intent, the page should still be assigned a Porn flag.
Do not simply rate all porn pages for porn queries as MM or HM. Even though the query is porn and the result is porn, the page must fit the query and be helpful to get a high Needs Met rating.
Pages that provide a poor user experience, such as pages that try to download malicious software, should also receive low ratings, even if they have some images appropriate for the query.
Query

User Intent

Landing Page

Rating

Porn Flag?

[freeones], English (US)

Navigate to the Freeones homepage. Example: http://www.freeones.com Warning – this page is porn.

FullyM

Yes

[freeones], English (US)

Navigate to the Freeones homepage. Example: http://www.baberoad.com Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM

Yes

[anime sex pictures], English (US)

Find anime sex pictures.

Example
Warning – this page is porn.

HM to MM

Yes

[cheerleader porn], English (US)

Find porn pictures of cheerleaders. Example
Warning – this page is porn.

HM to MM

Yes

14.3

Reporting Illegal Images

Child Pornography and Bestiality
When working on rating projects in any task location or locale, you must follow United States federal law, which considers child pornography and bestiality to be illegal.
Definition of Child Pornography
An image is child pornography if it is a visual depiction of someone who appears to be a minor (i.e., under 18 years old) engaged in sexually explicit conduct (e.g., vaginal or anal intercourse, oral sex, bestiality or masturbation as well as lascivious depictions of the genitals), or sadistic or masochistic abuse. The image of sexually explicit conduct can involve a real child; a computer-generated, morphed, composite or otherwise altered image that appears to be a child
(think of images that have been altered using “Photoshop”); or an adult who appears to be a child; and the image can be nonphotographic (e.g., drawings, cartoons, anime, paintings or sculptures) so long as the subject is engaging in sexually explicit conduct that is obscene. If it is indistinguishable from child pornography, it is child pornography.
Even if the image has literary (think of the famous book “Lolita”), artistic, political (think of political cartoons), or scientific (think of images for a medical text book) value, please send the link to your vendor, as instructed below.
Depiction of the genitals does not require the genitals to be uncovered. Thus, for example, a video of underage teenage girls dancing erotically, with multiple close-up shots of their covered genitals, or images of children with opaque underwear that focus on the genitalia could be considered child pornography.
An image of a naked child (e.g., in the bathtub or at a nudist colony) is not considered child pornography as long as the child is not engaging in sexually explicit conduct, or the focus is not on the child’s genitalia. Visual depictions of adults who look like children (e.g., a 35-year-old man play-acting in diapers, or an obvious woman dressed as a school girl) are not child pornography. If you don't think it's a minor, it probably isn’t child pornography. However, if you cannot tell that the person in the image is over 18 (e.g., an under-developed 18-year-old whose body hair has been waxed), that is child pornography.
Definition of Bestiality
Bestiality or zoophilia is defined as human-animal sexual interaction.
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Reporting Instructions
Please report illegal and offensive images as instructed by your vendor.

14.4

Foreign Language Flag

14.4.1 Using the Foreign Language Flag
Please assign a Foreign Language flag when the language on the landing page is not one of the following:




The task language
English
A language which is commonly used by a significant percentage of the population in the task location

For example, most users in Ukraine speak Russian. Therefore, landing pages in the Russian language should not be assigned the Foreign Language flag for rating tasks in Ukrainian (UA).
Here is a screenshot of a result block that shows when the Foreign Language flag would be used.
Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Flag, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

User Location:
Anchorage, Alaska

This LP is the homepage of the Baidu website. The result is the target page of the query, but is in a foreign language
(Chinese).

User Intent: Go to the
Baidu website.

This result merits a
FullyM rating and the

Query: [baidu]

Foreign Language flag. Important:





Please assign the Foreign Language flag even if you personally understand the language, but most users in your locale do not.
Please remember to flag all foreign pages with the Foreign Language flag, even if the query “asks” for a foreign language page.
Assign the Foreign Language flag based on the language of the landing page, not the appearance of the result block.
Sometimes it is difficult to determine what language the landing page is in. The LP may have multiple languages or no words at all. In these cases, try to represent users in your locale. Does it feel like a foreign language page? You may look at MC, SC, Ads, and even the website the page is on. When in doubt, don’t use the Foreign Language flag.

14.4.2 Needs Met Ratings for Foreign Language Results
You must assign a Needs Met rating for all result blocks in your task, even if the result blocks have a foreign language landing page.
In most cases, pages you flag as Foreign Language should be rated FailsM, because they cannot be understood by most users in your locale and are therefore useless. Remember that if users in your locale can read the language, then you shouldn’t be using the Foreign Language flag. Occasionally, you will encounter helpful Foreign Language pages. Copyright 2016

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If the query is clearly “asking” for a foreign language result, then the Needs Met rating of the foreign language page should not be FailsM. For example, please assign the FullyM rating and Foreign Language flag for baidu.com if the query is [baidu.com], English (US).
Videos are often an example where foreign language pages are helpful and desired. Think about user intent and what pages are good for users. If the query “asks” for a foreign language song, band, film, sporting event, etc., then a video of the song, band, film, sporting event, etc. is helpful since it can probably be understood or enjoyed even though it is in a foreign language. For these types of queries, foreign language results are often expected.
If the video is someone talking about the song, band, film, or event, the result probably cannot be understood or enjoyed and should be assigned a FailsM rating and the Foreign Language flag.

Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Query: [video of celine dion singing s’il suffisait d’aimer] This video is just what English (US) users are looking for, even though the video is not in English. The language of the LP is mostly English (even though the video is in
French), so the Foreign Language flag is not needed.

User Location: Lansing,
Michigan
User Intent: Watch a video of Celine Dion singing this song. Link to view the video

The query is for the German composer,
Alex C. The landing page has a video with one of his songs sung by
Y-ass (misspelled as “Yass” in the
YouTube title) in German. It would be helpful for some or many English (US) users who type the query, even though it is not in English. The language of the landing page isn’t clear. Use your judgment when deciding whether to assign the Foreign
Language flag.

Query: [alex c]
User Location: Davenport,
Iowa
User Intent: Watch a video or listen to a song by this
German composer or find information about him.

Explanation

Link to view the video

The query is for “Kasal, Kasali, Kasalo,” a
Filipino film. The LP is a clip from the movie in Filipino (Tagalog), the language spoken in the Philippines. It would be helpful for many English (US) users who type the query, even though it is not in
English. Use your judgment when deciding whether to assign the Foreign
Language flag.

Query: [kasal, kasali, kasalo] User Location: Daly City,
California
Link to view the video

User Intent: Watch a trailer of this Filipino film or find information about it.

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14.4.3 English Language Results
The following rating guidance is for raters in non-English locales. You may stop reading this section if the language spoken in your locale is English!
Your Needs Met ratings need to reflect how helpful the result is for users in your locale. When the query is in the language of your locale, assume that users want results in that language. We know that you can read English (you are reading this document!), but you should only give high Needs Met ratings to English results if users in your locale would expect or want them. Unless requested by the query, English results should be considered useless if most users in the locale can't read them.
However, rating can be more difficult when the query includes English names, words, etc. Please use your locale knowledge and judgment to determine the best rating.
Here are some examples using Hindi (IN) and Korean (KR) as the task languages. In both cases, most users don’t read English. Unless the query “asks for” English results, we will consider them unhelpful or even useless (FailsM).

Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

This Hindi language Wikipedia page on राजा र�व वमार् is very helpful for Hindi (IN) users.

Query: [राजा र�व वमार्]
User Location: Delhi,
India

This English Wikipedia page about राजा र�व वमार् has similar content to the Hindi Wikipedia page. Although there are some helpful images on the page, few
Hindi users would be able to read this page.

User Intent: The user wants to find information about राजा र�व वमार्, an
Indian artist.

Note: this query does not “ask for” English language results.

Although the query was typed in
English, it is a Hindi query typed in Latin script. Most Hindi users would expect to see Hindi results, like this helpful article.

Query: [mahila cricket

sri lanka ka match]
User Location: Delhi,
India
User Intent: The user wants to find information about a women’s cricket match against Sri Lanka on February 17, 2016.

This English language landing page has helpful content for users who can read English, but few Hindi users would be able to read this page.
Note: this query does not “ask for” English language results.

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Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Explanation
Although the query was typed in
English because it is the name of someone famous, most Hindi users would want to see information about this person in
Hindi. This Hindi language
Wikipedia page on Cristiano
Ronaldo is very helpful for Hindi
(IN) users.

Query: [ronaldo]
User Location: Delhi,
India

This English Wikipedia page about Cristiano Ronaldo has similar content to the Hindi
Wikipedia page. Although there are some helpful images on the page, few Hindi users would be able to read this page.

User Intent: The user wants to find information about Cristiano Ronaldo, a famous footballer.

Note: this query does not “ask for” English language results.

This Korean language Wikipedia page on Barack Obama is very helpful for Korean (KR) users.

Query: [버락 오바마]
User Location: Seoul,
Korea

This English Wikipedia page about Barack Obama has similar content to the Korean Wikipedia page. Although there are some helpful images on the page, very few users would be able to read this page.

User Intent: 버락 오바마 is Barack Obama in
Korean, so the user wants to find information about Barack Obama.

Note: this query does not “ask for” English language results.
Although the query was typed in
English, most Korean users would expect to see Korean language reviews or Korean stores for purchasing the movie.

Query: [titanic 1997]

This Korean result on a Korean website is very helpful.

User Location: Seoul,
Korea

This English language landing page has helpful content for users who can read English.
Although there are some helpful images on the page, very few users would be able to read this page. User Intent: The user wants to purchase a
DVD or find information about the movie “Titanic,” released in 1997.

Note: this query does not “ask for” English language results.

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Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

Although the query was typed in
English, most Korean users would expect to see the Korean page on the Samsung website.

Query: [samsung tablet]

This Korean result is very helpful.
User Location: Seoul,
Korea
User Intent: The user wants to purchase, find information, or go to the
Galaxy tablet page on the Samsung website.

This English page on the website of Samsung, the company that makes this tablet, has helpful content. Although there are some helpful images on the page, very few users would be able to read this page.
Note: this query does not “ask for” English language results.

In some locales, English is one of the official languages or a commonly spoken language. In these locales, English websites are easy to use and could be helpful, depending on the query.
For example, the Singapore government recognizes four official languages: English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil, but
English is the first and most dominant language in Singapore.
Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

This Wikipedia page in English about Obama would be very helpful to users in Singapore.

Query: [barack obama]
User Location:
Singapore, Singapore
User Intent: Find information about
Barack Obama.

14.5

This Wikipedia page in
Chinese about Obama would also be very helpful to users in
Singapore.

Didn’t Load Flag

14.5.1 Using the Didn’t Load Flag
Didn’t Load is used to indicate technical problems that prevent you from viewing any LP content.

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Use the Didn’t Load flag when:



The MC of the landing page is a web server or web application error message and there is no other content on the page: no navigation links, no home link, no SC, and no Ads. See here for a Wikipedia page on different types of error messages.
The landing page is completely blank: no MC, no SC, and no Ads.

Assign the Didn’t Load flag based on the landing page, not the result block.
Here is an example of a Didn’t Load landing page. You cannot tell that the landing page doesn’t load by looking at the result block.
Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Flag, Needs Met Rating

Query: [douglas instruments] Explanation

This page displays a generic
404 message. There is no
MC, SC, or Ads on the page.

User Location: South
Bend, Indiana

This result merits a FailsM rating and the Didn’t Load flag. User Intent: Navigate to the homepage of this website. Here are screenshots of other types of landing pages that should be assigned the Didn’t Load flag: D1, D2, D3.
Additionally, use the Didn’t Load flag for



Malware warnings, such as “Warning – visiting this web site may harm your computer!”
Pages that solicit certificate acceptance requests.

Here is an example of a malware warning:

Here is an example of a certificate acceptance request:

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14.5.2 Needs Met Rating for Didn’t Load Results
All result blocks must be given a Needs Met rating. If the landing page truly doesn’t load, assign the Didn’t Load flag and rate the page FailsM. True Didn’t Load pages are useless.
Sometimes the page partially loads or has an error message. Give Needs Met ratings based on how helpful the result is for the query. Error messages can be customized by the webmaster and are part of a well-functioning website.
Sometimes these pages are helpful for the query.
Query and User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Query: [boys pink snow shoes] The MC has an error message, but the LP has a lot of SC. However, the page has no information about boys pink snow shoes and is unhelpful for the query.

User Location: South
Bend, Indiana
User Intent: Find information about or purchase boys’ snow shoes. Do not assign the Didn’t

Load flag.
In spite of the customized “No results found” message on the
LP, it has links to all passages in the bible, organized by book. It would be very helpful for most users.

Query: [bible passages]
User Location: South
Bend, Indiana
User Intent: Find specific passages in the bible. 14.6

Explanation

Do not assign the Didn’t

Load flag.

Hard to Use Flag

14.6.1 Using the Hard to Use Flag
For mobile tasks, you will also have the option of selecting a Hard to Use flag. Please assign this flag for landing pages that are so difficult to use on the small screen of a mobile device that the usefulness of the result is diminished.
Here are some examples of landing pages that are Hard to Use on a mobile device.
Remember that this flag only applies to mobile rating. We encourage you to check out these pages for yourself.
Query

QR Code and Link for the Result

Query: [maryland teachers] Explanation for Hard to Use Flag

This page is very difficult or nearly impossible to read on the phone.

User Location: Silver
Spring, Maryland
Link to view the page

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Query

QR Code and Link for the Result

Query: [american beauty] Explanation for Hard to Use Flag

The landing page is extremely difficult to use and even seems broken on a mobile phone. Some parts of the page do not load and clicking the links is not helpful.

User Location: San
Francisco, California
Link to view the page

15.0

The Relationship between E-A-T and Needs Met

The Needs Met rating is based on both the query and the result. You must carefully think about the query and user intent when assigning a Needs Met rating.

The E-A-T rating slider does not depend on the query. Do not think about the query when assigning a E-A-T rating to the LP.

Some results don’t have a E-A-T slider. If a result block has no E-A-T rating slider, you do not have to give a E-A-T rating. If there is a E-A-T slider, please assign a E-A-T rating based on the landing page. If you are unable to evaluate the E-A-T rating of a Foreign Language or Didn’t Load result, you should assign a Medium rating.
Here is some guidance about assigning Needs Met and E-A-T ratings:


Useless results should always be rated FailsM, even if the landing page has a high E-A-T rating. Useless is useless. •

On-topic, helpful, but low E-A-T results should get lower Needs Met ratings than on-topic, helpful, and high EA-T results. The Needs Met scale encompasses all aspects of “helpfulness,” and many users find low E-A-T results less helpful than high E-A-T results. Your ratings should reflect this.



The HM rating should be given to helpful, high E-A-T pages which are a good fit for the query. The HM rating may also be used for results which are very helpful, medium quality, and have other very desirable characteristics, such as very recent information.



Do not use the HM rating if a page has low E-A-T or has any other undesirable characteristic, such as outdated information, or if it is a poor fit for the query. We have very high standards for the HM rating.



SM is often a good rating for low quality but on-topic pages. However, a page can have such low E-A-T that it is useless for any query. Gibberish pages are a good example of this and should be rated FailsM.



Remember that inaccurate, misleading, wrong, deceptive, or malicious result blocks should be rated Lowest
E-A-T. Highly authoritative, expert, and the most trustworthy result blocks should be rated Highest E-A-T.
Result blocks with “average” or “nothing special” expertise, authoritativeness, or trustworthiness should be rated Medium E-A-T.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation
E-A-T: Read this content out loud. The article on the LP is shallow and unintentionally humorous. There are four paragraphs of text, but it basically says that electric cars use electricity and have to be charged. Query: [how do electric cars work]

Needs Met: This page would be helpful for few users.

User Location: Dallas,
Texas
User Intent: Find information about how electric cars work.

E-A-T: There is a lot of helpful
MC on the landing page on
Wikipedia.org.
Needs Met: The query asks how electric cars work, but the article on the LP is about mobility scooters.

E-A-T: This is a YMYL topic.
The page has many characteristics of a low quality site: no contact information, no indication of who wrote the content, no evidence of medical expertise/authority, and heavy monetization from
Ads which distract from the
MC. Therefore, this page is not trustworthy.

Query: [symptoms of dehydration] Needs Met: Even though the article is topical, the information is not reliable and potentially misleading or dangerous. User Location:
Memphis, Tennessee
User Intent: Find information about the symptoms of dehydration. E-A-T: This is a YMYL topic.
This page is on a highly authoritative medical website and has a lot of reliable and accurate MC. This page is very trustworthy.
Needs Met: This result would be very helpful for most users.

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16.0

Rating Queries with Multiple Interpretations and Intents

Some queries really only have one meaning. Consider the query [iphone], English (US). There may be different user intents for this query (research iPhones, buy an iPhone, go to the iPhone page on Apple’s website), but all users are basically referring to the same thing: the phone made by Apple, Inc.
Some queries truly have different possible meanings. Consider the query [apple], English (US). Some users may want to find more information on the computer brand or the fruit. We refer to these different meanings as query interpretations. When giving Needs Met ratings for results involving different query interpretations, think about how likely the query interpretation is and how helpful the result is.





16.1

A very helpful result for a dominant interpretation should be rated Highly Meets, because it is very helpful for many or most users. Some queries with a dominant interpretation have a FullyM result.
A very helpful result for a common interpretation may be Highly Meets or Moderately Meets, depending on how likely the interpretation is.
A very helpful result for a very minor interpretation may be Slightly Meets or lower because few users may be interested in that interpretation.
There are some interpretations which are so unlikely that results should be rated FailsM. We call these “no chance” interpretations.

Rating Queries with Both Website and Visit-in-Person Intent

Some queries have two possible strong intents:
1. Go to the website intent: in order to, for example, find out information, buy something online, make a reservation, schedule an appointment, interact with customer support, or fulfill some other need that can be satisfied online
2. Visit-in-person intent: user wants to visit the store, business, etc. in person
We know the user intent is to accomplish one or the other, but it is unclear which one the user wants. For these queries, result blocks that only satisfy one intent should NOT get a Fully Meets rating.
Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP

Needs Met Rating and Explanation

Query: [target]
The result block shows three popular
Target locations in Jacksonville, with information that is especially helpful for users who want to visit the store. This fulfills the user intent to find a nearby
Target location.

User Location:
Jacksonville, Florida
User Intent: There are two possible strong user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby Target location or go to the website to shop online, research products, find prices, etc. The result is very satisfying and fulfills the user intent to shop online or otherwise use the website.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP

Needs Met Rating and Explanation

Query: [dmv]
User Location:
Belmont, California

The result block shows two nearby DMV locations, with information that is especially helpful for users who want to visit the locations. This fulfills the user intent to find a nearby DMV location.

User Intent: There are two possible strong user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby DMV location or go to the DMW website to renew a license, pay a fee, find some information, etc.

The result is very satisfying and fulfills the user intent to find information or otherwise use the website (e.g., to review a license, pay a fee).

Query: [citibank]

The result block shows three nearby
Citibank locations in the user location of
Palo Alto. The information is especially helpful for users who want to visit the bank. This fulfills the user intent to find a nearby Citibank location.

User Location: Palo
Alto, California
User Intent: There are two possible strong user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby Citibank location or go to the website to bank online.

The result is very satisfying and fulfills the user intent to do online banking or otherwise use the website.

17.0

Specificity of Queries and Landing Pages

Some queries are very general and some queries are specific. Here are some examples that compare levels of specificity of English (US) queries:
Query

More Specific Query

Even More Specific Query

[chair]

[dining room chair]

[ikea “henriksdal” highback upholstered chair]

[library]

[harvard library]

[harvard anthropology library]

[interview questions]

[interview questions for teachers]

[practice interview questions used for teach for america]

[restaurants]

[chinese restaurants]

[takeout chinese restaurants in downtown Austin]

[coffee shops]

[starbucks]

[red rock coffee mountain view]

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Results for specific queries are easier to rate on the Needs Met scale because we know more about what the user is looking for. Giving a Needs Met rating for results for general queries can be difficult. As always, your rating is based on how helpful the result is for the query, not the specificity fit.
When the query is a broad category, such as [cafes] [restaurants] [hotels] [books] [tourist attractions in paris] etc., popular and prominent examples may be considered very helpful. Please do web research to help you understand what is popular and prominent in different locations.
Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation
Even though there are many options, a page for an individual company that offers different cards could be very helpful. E-A-T: Visa is a well-known credit card company with a good reputation.
Needs Met: This LP is more specific than the query, but it would still be helpful for many or most users because
Visa is a popular credit card company.
Even though there are many options, a page for an individual company that offers different cards could be very helpful. E-A-T: Discover is a well-known company that offers services for credit cards, banking, and loans, and has a good reputation.

Query: [credit cards]
User Location:
Phoenix, Arizona

Needs Met: This LP is more specific than the query, but it would still be helpful for many or most users because
Discover is a popular credit card company. User Intent: Users are probably looking to sign up for a credit card online, or want to research credit cards before signing up.

This page offers a list of top credit cards in a variety of categories.
E-A-T: This website helps consumers make money decisions. It has a good reputation and has been recommended by CNNMoney and The New York
Times.
Needs Met: This LP fits the query. It would be helpful for most users.
This page describes a credit card that requires union membership.
E-A-T: This company is an expert on its own credit card, which is issued by
HSBC Bank, a well-known financial services organization.
Needs Met: Since the credit card requires union membership, the page would be helpful for some users.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation
This is a popular travel aggregator website, and the hotel page on the site can help users find hotels in the U.S.
Users can read reviews, compare hotels, or make a reservation.
E-A-T: Orbitz is a popular website with a good reputation.
Needs Met: This LP fits the query. It would be very helpful for most users.
This is a very popular hotel chain with hotels available in the majority of the
U.S. at many different price points.
Even though the list of possible hotel chains is long, the homepage of an individual chain that offers different prices, features, and location options could be very helpful.

Query: [hotels]

E-A-T: The Marriott website gives information on Marriott hotels, a popular chain of hotels. Marriott is an expert on
Marriott hotels and the information is highly authoritative.

User Location:
Jacksonville, Florida
User Intent: Users are probably planning a trip, but this query is very general and vague.

Needs Met: This LP is more specific than the query, but it would still be helpful for many or most users because the Marriott is a popular chain of hotels.
This is the webpage of the Marriott
Courtyard hotel in Emeryville, California.
E-A-T: The Marriott website gives information on Marriott hotels, a popular chain of hotels. This page is professional, well designed, and functions well. Marriott has a good reputation and is an expert on Marriott hotels, making the information on this page highly authoritative.
Needs Met: The LP is too specific for the query, but this is a well-known brand and users can navigate to other Marriott hotels from this page. Few users would find this page helpful.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

Needs Met: The result block shows three popular Target locations in
Jacksonville, with information that is especially helpful for users who want to visit the store.

No E-A-T rating required for this block
The LP is the Target website.
Query: [target]

E-A-T: The Target website offers many different categories of products to buy online, as well as coupons, store information, and more topics that they are the experts on.

User Location:
Jacksonville, Florida
User Intent: Go to target.com or find a nearby Target store.

Needs Met: The result is very satisfying for mobile users that want to go to the website. The LP is the “store locator” page on the
Target website.
E-A-T: Target is the expert about where its stores are located. This page is the most authoritative page on this topic.
Needs Met: The LP is more specific than the query, but many or most users would be interested in this page.
The LP is the “electronics” page on the
Target website.
E-A-T: Target has a good reputation, but is not an expert or authority on much of what it sells.
Needs Met: The LP is more specific than the query, but many or most users would be interested in this page.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

Needs Met: While this result block has some helpful content, most people searching for Target are not looking for the stock price or the names of the CEO and Founder. A rating of Slightly Meets to Slightly Meets+ is appropriate.

Query: [target]
User Location:
Jacksonville, Florida
User Intent: Go to target.com or find a nearby Target store.
No E-A-T rating required for this block

The LP on the Target website is for a specific type of women’s pants.
E-A-T: Target has a good reputation, but is not an expert or authority on much of what it sells.
Needs Met: The LP is much more specific than the query and would be helpful for very few users.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation
This LP has many chicken recipes (with reviews) on a popular recipe website.
E-A-T: Food Network is a popular website with a good reputation for providing high quality recipes and cooking information.
Needs Met: This LP fits the query. It would be very helpful for most users.
This LP has a single recipe for chicken parmesan. E-A-T: Food Network is a popular website with a good reputation for providing high quality recipes and cooking information.

Query: [chicken recipes] Needs Met: This is a popular type of chicken recipe on a popular website, but the LP is more specific than the query.
Some or few users would find this page helpful. User Location: Austin,
Texas

This LP has over 25 recipes for fried chicken, a popular chicken dish.

User Intent: Users probably want to make a chicken dish and are looking for some recipes to choose from.
Users probably expect and want a list of recipes. E-A-T: Allrecipes.com is a popular website with a good reputation for providing high quality recipes with lots of reviews. Needs Met: Even though there are over
25 different recipes on the LP, they are all for the same basic dish. Therefore, this LP is also more specific than the query. Some or few users would find this page helpful.
This is a fake search page for chicken recipes. E-A-T: Ads should never disguise themselves as the MC of the page.
Pages with Ads that are designed to look like MC should be considered deceptive, making this fake search untrustworthy.
Needs Met: It should be rated FailsM as it would be helpful for no users.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation
This LP is the official website for the museum store.
E-A-T: The museum is the expert on information about the store, including hours, phone numbers, membership information, etc.
Needs Met: The result is very satisfying for mobile users that want to go to the website. Needs Met: While the result is about the museum, the hours, address, and directions are the same as the museum store. This information is helpful for users searching for the store.

Query: [smithsonian air and space museum store] User Location:
Washington, DC
User Intent: Go to the store website or find information, such as opening hours, about the museum’s store in
Washington, DC.

No E-A-T rating required for this block
This LP has information about how to volunteer at the museum.
E-A-T: The museum is the expert on their own volunteer opportunities. This page is the most authoritative page on this topic.
Needs Met: The LP is more specific than the query and would be helpful for few users. Needs Met: This is not the museum requested in the query so the result Fails to Meet the user intent.

No E-A-T rating required for this block

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18.0

Needs Met Rating and Freshness

Some queries demand very recent or “fresh” information. Users may be looking for “breaking news,” such as an important event or natural disaster happening right now. Here are different types of queries demanding current/recent results. Type of Query

Example Queries

Explanation
Assume users need the information right away.

“Breaking news” queries [tornado], [tsunami]

Imagine someone who needs immediate weather information because a big storm is coming. Information about last year's weather would not be helpful.
Assume users are looking for the most recent or current information about the event.

Recurring event queries, such as elections, sports events, TV shows, conferences, etc.

[olympics], [american idol],
[redsox schedule], [tax forms],
[elections]

Current information queries [population of paris], [amount of
u.s. debt], [airfare from ny to sfo],
[next federal holiday]

Assume users are looking for the most current information, such as prices or airfare.

Product queries

[iphone], [toyota camry],
[windows operating system]

Assume users are looking for information about the most recent model/version for these product queries.

For example, if the Olympics are happening right now, users searching [olympics] want information about the current Olympics, not results from years ago. If the next Olympics are a few months away, users are probably interested in the upcoming Olympics.

When a query demands recent content, only pages with current, recent, or updated content should get high Needs Met ratings. For these queries, pages about past events, old product models and prices, outdated information, etc. are not helpful. They should be considered “stale” and given low Needs Met ratings. In some cases, stale results are useless and should be rated FailsM.
For some queries, there may be “newsy” or recent information user intent, as well as more “timeless” information user intent. Users issuing queries for celebrities or politicians may be interested in biographical information, or users may be looking for the latest news or gossip.
Freshness is generally less of a concern for E-A-T rating. “Stale” pages can have high E-A-T ratings. For example, some highly reputable news websites maintain “archival” content. However, unmaintained/abandoned “old” websites or unmaintained and inaccurate/misleading content is a reason for a low E-A-T rating.
Note: The date the page was created may be different from when the content was last updated or modified. When content is updated, the page will sometimes show the date of the update, not the date the page was created. Some websites always show the current date, regardless of when the content was last updated. If you are curious about the content of a page, see here to try the “Wayback Machine” on the Internet Archive. Not all pages are available, but this tool may help you understand how some pages were created and how their content has changed over time.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

This LP has an article about the
“Curiosity” rover landing, published on the same day as the landing, which is the day this example was written.

Query: [nasa mars landing] User Location: San
Francisco, California
User Intent: On the date this example was written,
NASA had just landed the “Curiosity” rover on
Mars. Most users are probably looking for breaking news and pictures about the event.

This LP has an article about the launching of the “Curiosity” rover, published nine months before its landing on Mars. The content on this page would be considered stale for the query.

This LP shows traffic conditions in Los Angeles on August 7,
2012, which is the day this example was written.

Query: [los angeles traffic] User Location: Los
Angeles, California
User Intent: Users are looking for current information about traffic conditions in Los
Angeles. Even pages about traffic conditions the day before would be considered stale for the query. This LP shows traffic conditions in Los Angeles on August 6,
2012. It is stale and useless for the query even though it is only one day old.

This LP on the New York Times website has information about the most recent winner of this prize, based on the date when this example was written.

Query: [nobel peace prize winner]
User Location: San
Diego, California
User Intent: Find the name of the most recent winner of this prize. This is a Know Simple query.
At the time this example was originally written,
2011 was the most recent year that the
Noble Peace Prize was awarded. This LP on the BBC website has information about the 2006 winner of this prize. This page is stale for the query.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

Query: [arthritis]
Medline Plus is an authoritative website that regularly updates its content. User Location:
Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania
User Intent: Users are looking for information about this disease.
Because there is ongoing research done on treatments and cures for most diseases, users are probably looking for authoritative, up-to-date information on arthritis.

This 2006 article would be considered stale for this medical query. Query: [when was franklin d roosevelt born]
This LP has the information users are looking for.

User Location: Chicago,
Illinois
User Intent: Users want to find this well understood fact.
We couldn’t find a stale page for this query.

19.0

Misspelled and Mistyped Queries and Results

19.1 Misspelled and Mistyped Queries
You will notice that some queries are misspelled or mistyped. Here are some examples of queries that are obviously misspelled: Misspelled Query
[federal expres], English (US)

Query Interpretation
The only reasonable query interpretation is the company named Federal Express.

[new england patroits], English US)

The only reasonable interpretation is the NFL football team.

[byonce knowles], English (US)

The only reasonable interpretation is the famous singer/actress, Beyonce Knowles.

Some misspelled or mistyped queries are more difficult to interpret. Use your judgment and do query research.
For obviously misspelled or mistyped queries, you should base your rating on user intent, not necessarily on exactly how the query has been spelled or typed by the user.
For queries that are not obviously misspelled or mistyped, you should respect the query as written, and assume users are looking for results for the query as it is spelled.

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19.2 Name Queries
Consider the query [john stuart], English (US). There is a very famous Jon Stewart, the comedian and host of a popular U.S. television show. However, we should not assume that the query [john stuart] has been misspelled.
There are many people named John Stuart. We will respect the query as written and assume the user is looking for someone named “John Stuart.”
Query, User Location,
Possible User Intents

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation
The page lists all members of the
LinkedIn site named
“Micheal Jordan.”
LinkedIn is a very popular social networking website for professionals in the
U.S. This result would be very helpful for many or most users trying to find information about someone named
“Micheal Jordan.”

Query: [micheal jordan],
English (US)
User Location: San
Francisco, California
User Intent: There are many people named
“Micheal Jordan.”
Helpful results for more prominent people named
Micheal Jordan should receive higher ratings than helpful results for less prominent people named Micheal Jordan.

LinkedIn page for
Micheal Jordan, a facilities services professional in Atlanta,
Georgia.

Because Michael Jordan is such a famous athlete/celebrity, we will consider Michael Jordan to be a minor interpretation. Michael Jordan’s player profile page on the NBA basketball website.

20.0 Non-Fully Meets Results for URL Queries
Raters sometimes ask the question, “For a well-formed working URL query, are the only acceptable Needs Met ratings for a result either Fully Meets or Fails to Meet?” The answer is no. There can be other helpful results for URL queries. Some users issue URL queries to find information about a website, such as reviews or recent news. We recommended this to you as one method of reputation research in the PQ guidelines. Real users do this too. Results which give reviews and reputation information can be very helpful for a URL query.
However, websites that offer usage statistics about a website are not usually helpful results for URL queries. Most users aren’t interested in this kind of information.
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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

This LP is the target of the query. Query:
[coldwatercreek.com]

Online coupon codes are very popular in the U.S. and this
LP (from a well-known coupon site) displays codes for online purchases on the
Coldwater Creek website.
Users may be interested in coupon codes and this would be very helpful for those shopping online at coldwatercreek.com, especially frequent shoppers.

User Location: Palo Alto,
California
User Intent: Coldwater
Creek is a well-known
U.S. company that sells women’s clothing and accessories online and in retail stores. Users may want to go to the website, do research, or find more information on the company. This LP (from a well-known review site) has reviews of the coldwatercreek.com website. Users may be interested in reading reviews when considering whether to make purchases at coldwatercreek.com, especially new shoppers.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

This LP is the target of the query. Query:
[ratemyprofessors.com]

This LP is a Huffington Post article dated August 31, 2012 about ratemyprofessors.com.
The article was newly published when it was added to the guidelines. Some users might be interested in this article.

User Location: Los
Angeles, California
User Intent: Go to www.ratemyprofessors.co m, a website where students can rate their college professors.

This LP is an article dated
April 17, 2006 about the ratemyprofessors.com website. Few or no users would be interested in this outdated information.

21.0 Product Queries: Action (Do) vs. Information (Know) Intent
Some product queries, such as [ipad reviews], have a clear information-seeking (Know) intent. Other product queries, such as [buy ipad], have a clear purchase (Do) intent. And some product queries, such as [ipad store.apple.com], have a clear navigation (Website) intent. However, most product queries don’t obviously specify one type of intent.
Even though the ultimate goal may be to purchase a product, many other activities may take place first: researching the product (reviews, technical specifications), understanding the options that are available (brands, models, pricing), viewing and considering various options (browsing), etc.
Give high Needs Met ratings to results that allow users to research, browse, and decide what to purchase.
Important: E-A-T ratings for product results need extra care and attention.
Often, the results for product queries are YMYL pages. Users need high quality information from authoritative sources when researching products, especially when products are expensive or represent a major investment/important life event (e.g., cars, washing machines, computers, wedding gifts, baby products). When buying products, users need websites they can trust: good reputation, extensive customer service support, etc. Results for product queries may be important for both your money and your life (YMYL)! u=lqqqkiik Copyright 2016

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, E-A-T Rating, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

Query: [high definition tv]
This LP has comprehensive information about different types of high definition TVs
(plasma, LCD, LED), as well as reviews about many specific models. The website is known for having helpful reviews and information about electronics.

User Location: Los
Angeles, California
User Intent: This query doesn’t specify a size or brand of TV. Users are probably doing research before making a purchase. Query: [girl toddler jeans size 3T]

This is a helpful page for browsing and shopping for toddler girls jeans. There are many options for jeans in size
3T. This is a high quality store known for selling jeans.

User Location: Los
Angeles, California
User Intent: The query is very specific. The user wants to browse and find an item to buy.
Query: [cufflinks]

This LP has a large collection of cufflinks from a very reputable retailer. There are many options and styles.
This is a good page for browsing. There are helpful features at the top to choose styles, price ranges, etc.

User Location: Los
Angeles, California
User Intent: Most users probably want to find different cufflink styles and options to browse or purchase. 22.0 Rating Visit-in-Person Intent Queries
When there is a user location for a visit-in-person intent query and a location has not been specified in the query itself, such as [chinese restaurants] with a user location of Boston, MA, results in or near the user location are the most helpful. How close is “near”? The type of business and/or entity should be taken into consideration when deciding if the distance of the visit-in-person result is too far. For example, most people are not willing to travel very far for a gas station, coffee shop, supermarket, etc. Those are types of businesses that most users expect to find very nearby.
However, users might be willing to travel a little farther for certain kinds of visit-in-person results: doctors’ offices, libraries, specific types of restaurants, public facilities like swimming pools, hiking trails in open spaces, etc. Sometimes users may accept results that are even farther away, such as a very specialized medical clinic.
In other words, when we say users are looking for results “nearby,” the word “nearby” can mean different distances for different queries. As always, please use your judgment.

22.1 Examples Where User Location Does (and Does Not) Matter
As previously mentioned, the user location may not always change our understanding of the query and user intent. Below is one example where user location plays an important role, and two examples where user location does not matter.
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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

This Special Content
Result Block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read.
Note: Assume that the result shows current information for users.

Query: [minimum wage rate] This is the official Kansas state website page on minimum wage for
Kansas.

User Location: Wichita,
Kansas
User Intent: Find out what the minimum wage is. Different states in the
U.S. have different minimum wage rates.
Users might be interested in the minimum wage in their state and how it compares to other places.

This LP has the minimum wage rates for all states.
It is on the official U.S.
Department of Labor website, which has high
E-A-T on the topic, but it takes some work to find the information specific to
Kansas. On a mobile phone, you may want to select the Hard to Use flag. Please use your judgment. This is the official
California state website page on minimum wage for California.

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Query, User Location,
User Intent

Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating

Explanation

The LP is a page full of kitten pictures. The result block has a nice assortment of pictures as well that would highly satisfy users.

Query: [pictures of kittens] User Location:
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
User Intent: Users are looking for pictures of kittens. This is a non-visitin-person intent query. There is no obvious user intent to find pictures of kittens in
Pittsburgh. The user location plays no role in the Needs Met rating.

This is a local listing of pets needing homes in the
Pittsburgh area. There are no pictures of any pets directly on this page and few pictures on the individual listings.

The user is looking for a job at Google and there is no information in this result block that will help the user explore job opportunities—it Fails to
Meet the user need.

Query: [google jobs]
User Location: Miami,
Florida
User Intent: Users are looking for job opportunities at Google.

This is Google’s official page on careers and jobs at Google, where users can search for currently open opportunities. This page is exactly what the user is looking for—it
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Part 4: Using the Evaluation Platform
23.0 Introduction
Welcome to the Evaluation Platform! The Evaluation Platform is the system you will use to acquire and rate tasks.

24.0 Accessing the Evaluation Platform (EP)
Go to this link to access the Evaluation Platform: http://www.raterhub.com/evaluation/rater.

25.0 Evaluation Platform Screenshot
Here is a screenshot of the task acquisition page on the Evaluation Platform. Please note that changes are sometimes made to the appearance of pages on the EP, so it may not look exactly as it appears here.

The red numbers represent the following:
1. Tasks
This text shows that you are at the task acquisition page on the Evaluation Platform.
2. rater@gmail.com
Your Gmail account.
3. Recent tasks
Click this link to revisit tasks completed in the last few minutes.
4. Sign out
Click this link to end your rating session.
5. Acquire if available
Click this link to acquire a new task.
6. Experimental
This text indicates that there is an Experimental task available. Please note there are other types of rating tasks
(e.g., Result Review, Side-by-Side). Sometimes there will be only one task type available, but other times you may see more than one type displayed. When there is more than one type displayed, you may choose the type you want to acquire.

26.0 Needs Met Task Page Screenshot

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The red numbers represent the following:
1. rater@gmail.com
Your Gmail account.
2. Recent tasks
Click this link to revisit tasks completed in the last few minutes.
3. Sign out
Click this link to end your rating session.
4. Mobile
This text indicates that the current task belongs to the Mobile property type. Other properties you may rate include Web, Video, Image, etc.
5. Experimental
This text indicates that the current task belongs to the Experimental project type. Other project types you may rate include Result Review, Side-by-Side, etc.
6. Average Estimated Time
This text indicates the average estimated time for completion of the task.
7. Instructions
Click this tab to view the project-specific instructions. Some tasks display project-specific instructions on the task page instead of behind the Instructions tab.
8. Query
You should understand the query before rating the task.
9. Locale
This refers to the task location and task language associated with the query.
10. Report a Problem / Release this Task
Click this link to report a problem and/or release the task.
11. User Location
This refers to where the user is located when the query is issued. Note that if there is no user location listed, there will be no user location-related map displayed in the rating task. In this case, the task could still show a map if one of the results has a response pin.
12. Response Pin
This is a marker for a visit-in-person place.
13. Approximate User Location
This area represents the approximate location of the user when the query is issued.
14. Needs Met Rating Slider
Use this rating slider to assign a Needs Met rating.
15. Porn Flag
Assign this flag if it applies to the result.
16. Foreign Language Flag
Assign this flag if it applies to the result.
17. Didn’t Load Flag
Assign this flag if it applies to the result.

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18. Hard to Use Flag
Assign this flag if it applies to the result.
19. Comment
Use the result block comment box to write comments that will be helpful to you when assigning ratings. Note: All comments must be written in English.
20. Special Content Result Block
This result block shows content directly in the block.
21. Result with Response Pin
The response pin in this result indicates the location of the corresponding response pin on the map.
22. Web Search Result Block
Click the block to visit the landing page.
23. Dupe Confirmation Checkbox
Check this box to confirm that you are done flagging duplicate results.
24. Submit
Use this button to submit the task and continue rating.
25. Submit and Stop Rating
Use this button to submit the task and stop rating.
26. Cancel
Use this button to cancel any ratings you have assigned in the task.

26.1 Understanding the User Location on the Task Page
While most tasks have a user location listed below the query, the map can also help clarify where the user was physically located when the query was issued and is more precise than the user location listed below the query.
On the map, the user location can be precise (blue dot) or approximated (blue rectangle). Here are some examples of what you might see at the top of the task:

A precise user location is represented by a blue dot (

).

The approximate user location is shown as a blue rectangle on the map. Copyright 2016

Sometimes you will see a shaded blue circle around the blue dot. The blue dot is user’s most likely location, but it is possible they are located anywhere within the larger shaded blue region. The map includes a response pin, which is a marker for a visit-inperson result block in the task. If there are three visit-in-person result blocks in the task, there should be three response pins on the map. 141

27.0 Notes about Using the Needs Met Rating Interface
Result blocks are sometimes slow to load: Before assigning any ratings, please scan the task page to make sure that all result blocks with a Needs Met rating slider have loaded. Please note that result blocks may be slow to load and/or that the task page may need reloading if there are empty result blocks. If the result blocks fail to load after refreshing a few times, please release the task.
Sometimes a side will not have any result blocks: If one side displays the message “This side did not generate any results,” please do not release the task.
Do not refresh the task page after assigning ratings: If you refresh the page after assigning ratings, you will lose them and they will have to be entered again.

28.0 Using the “Report a Problem / Release this Task” Button
You will report problems and release tasks using the “Report a Problem / Release this Task” button on the rating interface. This is what the “Report a Problem / Release this Task” button looks like:

Clicking the red button displays the following reporting and release options:

Here are some examples for the “lack expertise” and “technical problem” release categories.
Lack expertise: These queries require specialized knowledge and may be difficult for some raters.

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Query

General Query Topic

[cortisol secretion shows a blank pattern of secretion]

Scientific query

[minecraft gun and vehicles 1.1 mod installer]

Gaming query

[python pandas index like matrix]

Technical query

Technical problem: These result blocks have question marks and other characters where text should be.

Note: Based on the number and/or type of tasks that you release, you may be asked to provide additional details about the reason for some of the releases.

29.0 Reporting Results with Duplicate Landing Pages
In addition to assigning Needs Met ratings to each result block, we would like you to tell us whether any results are duplicates (dupes).

29.1 Pre-Identified Duplicates
Some duplicate results are automatically detected and will be pre-identified for you. They will be highlighted by a grey or green background, and annotated by either “Same as...” or “Dupe of...” text right below the slider and above the result block.

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This is what these pre-identified dupes look like:
Same as… pre-identified duplicate result

Dupe of… pre-identified duplicate result

Please note:




Results annotated by “Dupe of...” may be given different ratings/flags/comments.
Results annotated by “Same as…” may not be given different ratings/flags/comments. Their Needs Met and
E-A-T ratings, flags, and comments will be automatically transferred to each other.
You cannot un-check dupes that have been automatically detected and pre-identified.

29.2 Rater-Identified Duplicates
We would like your help identifying duplicate results that have not been automatically detected. Please mark two results as dupes if they have essentially the same content on the main landing page AND you would not want a search engine to return both results for the query.
Please note that in this project dupe identification is query-dependent.


Specific queries: For queries where the user is looking for a specific piece of content (such as queries looking for song lyrics, queries looking for a specific article, etc.), obtaining that piece of content from different sites could be helpful for users to verify the information, so they should not be rated as dupes.



Broad queries: If the query is broad, then returning the same piece of content is not what the user is looking for, and hence those results should be flagged as dupes. Results may be considered dupes even if they have different minor content on the page (such as different ads, images, or related links).

Please identify dupes both within the same side and across sides. Even for cross-side results, you should still ask yourself the question, “Would you want to see both results if they were returned by the same search engine?”
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Note: If two result blocks have very different types of content or very different appearances, do not mark them as duplicates even if they have the same landing page URL. For example, these two blocks should not be marked as duplicates of each other.

Reporting Duplicate Results
When you notice that the results in two or more result blocks are duplicates, please click on the Select Dupe link at the top of one of the results. The current result (the result you clicked on) will be highlighted in red at the top of the block. You can then check results that are duplicates of the current result, and the checked results will be highlighted in yellow. You must select the “Dupe of…” button.

The duplicate results that you checked will be annotated by "Dupe of..." text at the top of the block. After selecting all dupes, click on the finish selecting dupes link to return to the normal rating mode. The link’s name will change back to Select Dupes, and you will be able to report other sets of dupes, if there are any. If you change your mind, you can always un-check a result.

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Dupes
QUERY: [choosing and installing a motorcycle battery]
URL 1: http://www.caimag.com/wordpress/2010/03/06/motorcycle-battery-how-to-choose-install
URL 2: http://www.articlesbase.com/motorcycles-articles/choosing-and-installing-a-motorcycle-battery-47798.html
Reason: Both of these results display the same article (which also appears on many other pages on the web). The only real difference between the landing pages are the Ads displayed around the article. The query is broad enough that users would not benefit by search engines returning more than one of these results.
Dupes
QUERY: [jason castro]
URL 1: http://www.myspace.com/jasoncastromusic
URL 2: http://www.myspace.com/jasoncastromusic?MyToken=503599bf-01cf-4427-bdf4-d63920c107f9
Reason: These two results have the same landing page, even though the URLs are different. Users would not benefit by search engines returning both results.
Not Dupes
QUERY: [material girl lyrics]
URL 1: http://www.lyricsfreak.com/m/madonna/material+girl_20086925.html
URL 2: http://www.lyrics007.com/Madonna%20Lyrics/Material%20Girl%20Lyrics.html
Reason: Even though both pages display the lyrics to the song “Material Girl,” users would probably want to have the option to visit both pages so that they could verify the accuracy of the lyrics. Users could benefit by search engines returning more than one page with the lyrics to the song.

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