Premium Essay

Locke on Property

In: English and Literature

Submitted By dhillon817
Words 878
Pages 4
Reconstruction of John Locke’s View on Private Property In chapter 5 of Locke’s Second treatise on Civil Government, Locke gives his view on property. He starts off stating that the earth serves as common property to all man. However, he starts the chapter with the main question of how one’s own self property came to exist. Locke states that the problem that arises is how to differentiate all of mankind’s common property to one’s own. Locke states “there must of necessity by a means of appropriate them some way or other before they can be of any use, or at all beneficial to any particular man” (Locke, 286). Thus, Locke states that man must have a way to claim his or her own property through a certain manner where they can now claim it their own, and not all of mankind. This thing is done through labor. “The Labour of his Body, and the Work of his Hands, we may say, are properly his. Whatsoever then he removes out of the State that Nature hath provide, and left it in, he hath mixed his Labour with, and joyned to it something that is his own, and therby makes it his Property” (Locke, 287-288). Each individual has their own body and therefore owns their own labor since it is produced by their body. Mixing one’s own property, such as their labor, with a common property or foreign property shared amongst others then makes that specific property one’s own. Locke further mentions how labor puts a distinction between what one owns and what is shared by all mankind. He gives an example of when an individual goes to the woods to collect nuts for eating. He says that the act of eating and digesting does not make the property one’s own. The act of labor is what “put a distinction between them and common” (Locke, 288). Each person has the ability to go and appropriate their own goods by their own will. However, when does acquiring property become unreasonable? Locke…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Locke Property

...Locke’s property Locke was born in 1632, when king Charles 1 was in his throne. What we learn about Locke is his ideas about religion, natural law, Social contract, etc but he was also a doctor and a revolutionist. In his famous writing, “Second treatise of government”, he appealed his idea about property. According to the chapter 5, property, he is saying that property is a right that is given by god to human beings. And property can be owned when it is mixed by own person’s labour. But simultaneously, Locke said that there should be consent of the other people. Also he said that there is a limitation on property. For example, by picking apples and through that labour apples become my property. However, if anyone possesses more than he or she could get, then it is the violation of the natural law. Therefore people started to barter of their surplus properties. Also money had invented such as gold and silver that are never gonna rot in a short time, which made barter more easily. So, human mankind could expand their property and can be free within the boundary of natural law. If the property is robbed by another person then the owner of the property have right to punish the thief. But, protect own indivisual’s property more secure, people came to the idea of Social contract. The important point here is that Locke’s government made by citizen’s contract can never deprive property out of the citizen’s pocket. Even one penny. In other words, government can deprive life......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Jhon Locke

...Jhon Locke: Mercados Libre y Derechos “El Mercado y los Negocios”: John locke afirma que el mercado debe ser libre del poder coercitivo del gobierno ya que los seres humanos poseen “ Derechos Naturales” con los cuales pueden disponer libremente de una propiedad e intercambiar bienes de forma voluntaria y libre, estos son el derecho a la libertad y a la propiedad privada. Según el pensamiento del Filosófo, “la razón” es una ley natural innata del hombre, que lo llevara a concluir que para ser todos iguales nadie debe dañar a otro en su vida, salud, libertad y posesiones; y deberá tratar a los demás como esa persona quiera ser tratada. La ley natural también dicta que el hombre tiene derechos sobre sus cuerpos, su trabajo y todo lo que provenga de este; por lo tanto los hombres tienen derecho a poseer lo que trabajaron, modificando lo que obtuvieron de la naturaleza mediante su esfuerzo. Sin embargo los hombres inevitablemente se organizaran en un cuerpo político y crearan un gobierno para proteger sus derechos naturales, ya que el estado natural es muy inseguro, debido a que no todos tienen el mismo punto de vista de equidad y justicia. Este gobierno solo debe limitarse a preservar estos derechos y no debe interferir a menos que sea para proteger estos. Los derechos naturales implican que en las sociedades deben incorporar en el mercado instituciones de propiedad privada y los mercados de libre intercambio. Las críticas de los derechos lockeanas se han......

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Aristotle vs. Locke

...Theorists in the Enlightenment era such as Hobbes and Locke began to apply concepts of reason to all functions of society. Politics and the role of government had a major impact on theorists like Hobbes and Locke. In this paper, I will focus on what is the difference between Hobbes and Locke in regards to the role of government? And why are their theories important to today’s government? To respond, I will be arguing that Hobbes and Locke have two completely different views on how governments should be run; Hobbes focuses on authoritarian regime and Locke’ main idea is there should be a civil society. To answer the latter, I will analyze Hobbes’s theory of government with today’s government and I will also analyze Locke’s Theory of government with today’s government. Thomas Hobbes believed in a form of government in which people were controlled by an absolute ruler (Leviathan). For Hobbes, he believed that all human beings were naturally selfish and cruel; he believed that the State of Nature is short, poor and disorderly (Lecture). People in the State of Nature pursue their self-interests (material gain and personal safety), and this will lead to human beings to make enemies and create conflict (Lecture). Therefore, without government there will be no control over humans and life would be disorganised. In his eyes, a ruler is necessary for a state to thrive and flourish, without a leader, society would be chaotic (Leviathan). In this type of government, people would need......

Words: 2209 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

John Locke

...JOHN LOCKE Summary The First Treatise is a criticism of Robert Filmer’s Patriarcha, which argues in support of the divine right of kings. According to Locke, Filmer cannot be correct because his theory holds that every man is born a slave to the natural born kings. Locke refuses to accept such a theory because of his belief in reason and in the ability of every man to virtuously govern himself according to God’s law. The Second Treatise is Locke’s proposed solution to the political upheaval in England and in other modern countries. This text laid the foundation for modern forms of democracy and for the Constitution of the United States. The Second Treatise consists of a short preface and nineteen chapters. In chapter i, Locke defines political power as the right to make laws for the protection and regulation of property. In his view, these laws only work because the people accept them and because they are for the public good. In chapter ii, Locke claims that all men are originally in a state of nature. A man in this original state is bound by the laws of nature, but he is otherwise able to live, act, and dispose of his possessions as he sees fit. More important, human beings, free from the arbitrary laws of other men, have an obligation to protect the interests of each other, since they are all equally children of God. They also have an obligation to punish those who go against God’s will and attempt to harm another by compromising his life, liberty, or possessions. In......

Words: 1399 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

John Locke

...and the human understanding that led to governmental and social improvements. John Locke believed in political reform. John Locke is one of the most influential authors and political philosophers in history. His ideas and views have influenced such momentous commodity such as the American constitution. Many of Locke’s ideas were used in the creation of the United States Constitution. John Locke was a British philosopher and medical researcher. Locke was born to Agnes Keene and John Locke on August 29, 1632, in Somerset, England. His father was a Puritan lawyer, who served as a Captain during the English civil war. Locke’s schooling began at Westminster School in 1647. He earned the title of King’s Scholar, which prepared him for the next phase of his education at the Christ Church in Oxford in 1652. He studied literature, physical science, medicine, politics, and natural philosophy. In 1656 he continued for his Master of Arts degree. In 1665 at Oxford, Locke encountered Lord Ashley, a notable statesman looking for medical treatment. After a friendship formed, Ashley invited Locke to join him in London as his personal physician. Locke agreed and left for London in 1667, where he lived for the next eight years. This was the beginning of Locke’s deep political interests, which was no surprised considering that Ashley was one of England’s most skilled politicians. While in London, Locke took a job in Government researching the relationship between trade possibilities......

Words: 2488 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Hobbes vs Locke

...James Wells 12/11/14 Hobbes vs. Locke This paper will compare and contrast the views of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke expressed in Leviathan and Second Treatise of Government. The paper will show the basic differences between the two philosophers views, is Hobbes' distrust of the people and Locke's relatively greater trust of the people and distrust of the government's power and the likelihood of the abuse of that power.  Hobbes' view in Leviathan aims at ensuring civil order, which means for him the absolute power of the government, or the Leviathan, which power the people have given him through the social contract. Locke, on the other hand, keeps much more power in the hands of the people through the legislature, which means, in effect, majority rule. Locke was also deeply concerned with maintaining the rights of the people, especially the right to own property. Locke's political view produces a much more democratic system, while Hobbes' produces a much more authoritarian, if not totalitarian, system. Both Locke and Hobbes start their political analysis with reference to the state of nature. However, their definitions of this state of nature stand in stark contrast to one another. The differences on their perception of the state of nature correspond to the final conclusions of what is important in a civil society. The contrasting perceptions of the state of nature on the part of these two philosophers are crucial, because they use those perceptions as the foundations......

Words: 1828 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

John Locke the Blueprint

...John Locke: The Blueprint Speech Outline Specific Purpose: to inform my audience about the contributions that philosopher John Locke made to American society. Central Idea: The impact of John Locke’s philosophies on the American Constitution and society. Introduction I. Imagine living in a land where the Government took away all of your hard earn money without justification or where the expression of your views and ideas are considered a crime of treason against the government or where you can be accused of a crime and hanged without due process of the law. Can you imagine that? Well for most people these circumstances would signal the end of life. II. The Pursuit of happiness A. How many of us have migrated to America in pursuit of freedom? Whether is freedom of life, liberty or property? Many of us have left our countries behind to pursue happiness and have found that the United States can offer things that are not available in our native countries. B. Because of the ideas of English Philosopher John Locke we can today live in a country full of opportunities. This political and social philosopher of 17th century England influenced the author of the Declaration of Independence and the Framers of the Constitution more than any other. After studying the contributions of John Locke towards American society, I would like to discuss the three central ideas that shaped the United States constitution and the glorification of democracy. Body I. John Locke is......

Words: 994 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Essay on Locke

...private property? Does it work in contemporary conditions? Locke believed that private property was a means to an end and that by investing labour into an object, the individual appropriated that object. However, Locke’s theory does not work in the modern world. The technological and economical advances have rendered Locke’s theory obsolete. Locke believed the human race was born into a state of nature. This meant there was no government or higher authority and each individual was autonomous. Each man had the right to do what he wanted as long as he preserved peace and mankind in general. He also had the right to preserve himself and therefore, he had the right to those things that would help him and make him happy. Locke believed that God gave mankind all the resources and materials for man’s preservation and all man had to do was use them. By applying labour to the resources, man would bear the fruits of his labour and would be happy. For example, God has provided fields for mankind to use and all man has to do is farm the fields and he can enjoy the crops that are yielded as a result. Locke proposed that since individuals completely own their own bodies, it would only follow that they should own what their bodies and labour produces too. Therefore, Locke believed that appropriation came by investing labour into something. By gaining the fruits of investing your labour into property, Locke believed that private property was the means to an end. However, Locke also......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

John Locke

...John Locke - Biography John Locke (1632-1704) John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Warington, a village in Somerset, England. In 1646 he went to Westminster school, and in 1652 to Christ Church in Oxford. In 1659 he was elected to a senior studentship, and tutored at the college for a number of years. Still, contrary to the curriculum, he complained that he would rather be studying Descartes than Aristotle. In 1666 he declined an offer of preferment, although he thought at one time of taking up clerical work. In 1668 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1674 he finally graduated as a bachelor of medicine. In 1675 he was appointed to a medical studentship at the college. He owned a home in Oxford until 1684, until his studentship was taken from him by royal mandate. Locke's mentor was Robert Boyle, the leader of the Oxford scientific group. Boyle's mechanical philosophy saw the world as reducible to matter in motion. Locke learned about atomism and took the terms "primary and secondary qualities" from Boyle. Both Boyle and Locke, along with Newton, were members of the English Royal Society. Locke became friends with Newton in 1688 after he had studied Newton's Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis. It was Locke's work with the Oxford scientists that gave him a critical perspective when reading Descartes. Locke admired Descartes as an alternative to the Aristotelianism dominant at Oxford. Descartes' "way of ideas" was a major influence on Locke's...

Words: 1196 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

John Locke

...John Locke John locke was a English liberalist, believing that no man is without liberty or equality. He also supported the rights to which a man could have. His philosophy was to believe that man could not be controlled by another man; only you can control yourself and the power of nature. Locke was born in august 29, 1632. In 1647, he attended the Westminster school of London, later earning his bachelor’s degree and master’s degree. In oxford he had earned a bachelor of medicine in 1674. One day a man named Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of Shaftesbury to get his liver treated. He apparently met Locke and was thoroughly impressed at his skill in medicine, asking John to later become an attendant for the earl, earning his right to be called a doctor of sorts to Cooper. Later Locke had performed surgery with several others and saved Cooper from a life-threatening liver infection. This later influenced his life as “thinker”. Shaftesbury later became lord chancellor in 1672, After that John Locke spent a lot of years traveling around Europe and came back to England in 1679, and having written the Two Treatises of government, which argued that absolute monarchy is unjust and wrong, but these views and ideas of his proved to be revolutionary. Later being spied and questioned for the assassination attempt of the current king – King Charles II of England, he fled to the Netherlands in 1683 and then continued his writings and revised quite a large sum of it, including the......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

John Locke

... John Locke John Locke was more than just an ordinary man. He was the son of a country attorney and born on August 29, 1632. He grew up during the civil war and later entered the Church of Christ and remained there as a student and teacher for many years. With a wide variety of political and religious views, John expressed most of his personnel views on education, social, political and philosophies. Many of John’s views both political and religious were found to be famous though-out history in many countries. Locke was one of the first people who thought religion and state should be separated. Locke published anonymously the “Two Treaties of Government” and an essay “Concerning Human Understanding.” These writings were immediately successful and both influenced Rousseau and Voltaire along with many other scholars. John Locke’s Two Treatise of Government is a well-known and respected document. In the paper, John attacked the theory of the divine right of kings and maintained that all men are free and equal in the state of nature to posses certain rights. He did not believe that a king should become king because “God told him to,” but rather he was qualified for the position and the people felt he should be there. Locke argued that sovereignty did not reside in the state, but with the people and that, the state is supreme, but only if civil and “natural” law binds it. The task and duty of the government of any state was to protect mans rights. Locke......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

John Locke

...Enlightenment Philosopher Research - John Locke John Locke was an English political philosopher who was one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers and inspired the world with his ideas about the government and natural rights. He was also known as the “Father of Liberal Philosophy” because of his belief in Liberalism, which is a government whose authority is justified by its respect for human rights. Liberal government must treat individuals with respect, and pass laws that assure people freedom and liberty. He was not a follower for absolutism since he believed that all men are “equal and independent,” so no body should not ever “harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions.” Locke expanded the idea that the purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of the citizens. He believed that all men should be given three natural rights such as life, liberty and property, and that people naturally receive these rights simply by being born. Therefore, the role of government was to maintain these rights and if a government fails to preserve these rights, then the people have the right to change their government. Locke’s ideas were spread to the American thinkers when two of the English writers, John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon popularized Locke’s political ideas in a famous series of articles published in London newspapers, and these had the most direct impact on American philosophers. Locke’s influence was most apparent in the Declaration of......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

John Locke

...According to Locke, God has no relationship with human beings. Locke argues on the contrary of Calvinist Puritan beliefs about following the moral laws of the Ten Commandments. Instead Locke emphasizes the fine separation between doing what God wants us to do and doing what we find to be morally acceptable. Locke suggest that following the rules and not sinning is part of a person's morals and principles. Those who abide by these laws and rules would therefore gain benefits that only apply to the person themselves, and those who don't would feel unsettled and insecure. He mentions, "it is no wonder that every one should not only allow, but recommend and magnify those rules to others, from whose observance of them he is sure to reap advantage to himself He may, out of interest as well as conviction, cry up that for sacred, which, if once trampled on and profaned, he himself cannot be safe nor secure." What is deemed to be morally acceptable depends on the environment you grew up in. If one breaks the rules of God and sin, that does that mean one would be punished. It all depends if what one has done is considered a bad thing according to society. Killing maybe okay in one area of the world and it might not be in another part of the world. What is considered wrong is evaluated by our conscience, but our conscience is built up depending on whether everyone freaks out when someone is killed or whether everyone is calm and acts normally when someone dies right in front of your......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

John Locke

...Notes: John Locke, 1632-1704, Essay on Human Understanding • a British philosopher • Oxford academic and medical researcher • his association with Anthony Ashley Cooper (later the First Earl of Shaftesbury) led him to become o a government official charged with collecting information about trade and colonies, o An economic writer, opposition political activist, and o finally a revolutionary whose cause ultimately triumphed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. • Much of his work is characterized by opposition to authoritarianism. • This opposition is both on the level of the individual person and on the level of institutions such as government and church. • Locke's monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to God, the self, natural kinds and artifacts, as well as a variety of different kinds of ideas. • It thus tells us in some detail what one can legitimately claim to know and what one cannot. • Locke also wrote a variety of important political, religious and educational works including the Two Treatises of Government, the Letters Concerning Toleration, The Reasonableness of Christianity and Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Essay on Human Understanding • Locke is often classified as the first of the great English empiricists (ignoring the claims of Bacon and Hobbes). • This reputation rests on An Essay......

Words: 1920 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Hobbes vs Locke

...Within the state of nature there is neither private property nor injustice since there is no law, except for certain natural precepts discovered by reason ("laws of nature"): the first of which is "that every man ought to endeavor peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it" (Leviathan, Ch. XIV); and the second is "that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far forth as for peace and defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himself"(Leviathan, Ch XV). According to Hobbes the state of nature exists at all times among independent countries, over whom there is no law except for those same precepts or laws of nature (Leviathan, Chapters XIII, XXX end). His view of the state of nature helped to serve as a basis for theories of international law and realism. John Locke considers the state of nature in his Second Treatise on Civil Government written around the time of the Exclusion Crisis in England during the 1680s. For Locke, in the state of nature all men are free "to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature." (2nd Tr., §4). "The state of Nature has a law of Nature to govern it", and that law is Reason. Locke believes that reason teaches that "no one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, and or property"; and that transgressions of this may be......

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6