Business and Management
Submitted By yanki1829
Introduction P 2-3
Elaborate Topic P 4–5
Local Advertising P 6–25
Global Advertising P 26–36
Effective advertisement global or local?
Advertisement, every time we turn on TV or radio, surf the Web, check the mail or drive to the supermarket, we are subjected to multiple, and sometimes simultaneous--advertising messages. With that kind of saturation, and the high cost of running an ad campaign, advertisers need to make their ads stand out. Of course, advertising needs to do more than get noticed. It needs to be focused, memorable and ultimately compelling enough to move customers to choose their product or service over all the others fighting for attention. Before we define an effective advertisement is global or local, we should know one thing first . what is the meaning of an effective advertisement? What is the factor to construct a successful advertisement ? effective advertising is advertising that changes the behavior of the consumer of that one thing and also effective advertising, is advertising that makes people feel a certain way about a brand mean it’s all about the brand and how people allow that brand to influence their lives, effective advertising is there is a lot of ways to measure advertising these days, but the over view of what makes an add effective is to people remember and they motivated by is it to the consumption habbits. The basic concept of effective advertising including advertising by a marketer are to inform potential customers that new products or services are imminent to exist; to persuade the customers that how the new products and services could solve customers’ problem or bring conveniences or pleasures, and we are the best that the customers must try; to remind the customers that must not miss these offers before the dead line since these are limited to few persons and prestigious people who come first! Many marketers or the boss of consumer’s electronics have adopted this approach— By the way ,there are some important elements to construct an effective advertising. First of all, target audience. Company cannot design effective advertising without knowing who they are talking to. The advertising cooperation create to sell furniture to suburban families will be different from the advertising you pitch to college students to sell the same product. To be effective, advertising must be targeted to a specific audience. Who are they? eastern or western countries? What are their likes and dislikes? How old are they? Learn as much as possible about target audience before doing anything else to advertise their product or service. Identify "USP." Every company has a USP, or "Unique Selling Proposition." We find it by asking what do cooperation do better than anyone else? What is unique about their product or service? What do firm provide "faster, better or cheaper" than the competition? What problem are firm solving for customers? Are firms convinced customers differentiate firms from the competition and can be substantiated? Cooperation will need to let customers know not only what they have to sell but also the benefits that come from buying their product or service. For example, Café de coral will need to sell the "sizzle" as well as the steak. Try thinking of it this way. Prudential isn't just in the insurance business. They're selling peace of mind. Or consider Rolls Royce. They're not just selling cars. They're selling prestige. So, if they're selling dishwashers, they'll describe the features (touch pad controls, automatic detergent dispenser, low water use). But don't forget the benefits (ease of use, good for the environment). To summary analyst point above, we can see that it is important to ‘know your local customer’ before designing advertising. An effective advertisement , it is undeniable to attract more customers sight to your product and may double cooperation revenue . Thus , in my standpoint ,it is a large extent that a local advertisement will be more effective than global , because local advertisement will be more preciously to satisfy customer unique style( eg. diversity of geographic cultures, strategies, and differences in environmental factors cultural, market, financial processes, etc.).In contrast , global marketing is more complex than domestic marketing, such as difficulty in gaining update information. Any company seeking to expand globally needs to ask if its offerings are culturally and socially appropriate for its targeted market. From the paragrapg above,we may see that culture difference is the major elements to adopt local advertisement more than global.According to Holden (2002), Mc Sweeney (2002) and Myers & Tan (2002), Hofstede‟s theory has some weaknesses and strengths. The main weaknesses are that the study of Hofstede seems to be outdated and therefore obsolete, he doesn‟t take into consideration different cultural groups in a same country (example: in Spain there are Catalans, Basques and Castilians). Also, Hofstede‟s respondents worked within a single industry and a single multinational, IBM. And finally, the definition of the dimensions may be different from culture to culture. For instance, Japanese collectivism is organization based but Chinese collectivism is family based. Even if there are a lot of weaknesses, we choose to take the framework of Hofstede because of his strengths: in reality many companies use Hofstede„s cultural dimensions. Also, the study is based on a large sample (116 000 respondents). The information population is controlled across countries which means that comparisons can be made. The four dimensions tap into deep cultural values and make significant comparisons between national cultures. The connotations of each dimension are highly relevant. And finally, no other study compares so many other national cultures in so much detail (Myers and Tan, 2002). Due to this, we think it is important to explain what culture, according to Hofstede, is. In international business it is sometimes amazing how different people in others cultures behave. We tend to have a human instinct that deep inside “all people are the same”, but they are not. Therefore, when a businessman works into another country and makes decisions based on how (s)he operates in her/his own country, the chances are (s)he will make some very bad decisions (Hofstede, 1980). Geert Hofstede‟s research gives us insights into others cultures so that we can be more effective when interacting with people in others countries. Moreover, he gives the edge of understanding which translates to more successful results. According to Hofstede (1980), the way people in different countries perceive and interpret their world varies along four plus one dimensions: • Power Distance Index (PDI) that is the extent to which the powerless members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally (Hofstede, 1980). •Each population of each country is characterized by Hofstede‟s four plus one cultural dimensions. The study of these cultural dimensions can give very important information to marketers for the standardization or the adaptation of the marketing mix. Indeed, the behaviour of the customers change depending of this cultural dimensions and an adaptation of the marketing mix is in this way needed or not (Dwyer, Mesak, & Hsu, 2005). In this regard, Dwyer, Mesak, and Hsu (2005) conclude by providing global marketers specific marketing examples linked to each of the cultural dimensions as you can see in the table 2. Collectivism influences innovativeness, service performance and advertising appeals. Uncertainty avoidance impacts information exchange behaviour, innovativeness and advertising appeals. Power distance affects advertising appeals, information exchange behaviour, innovativeness and service performance. Masculinity impacts sex role portrays, innovation and service performance. Finally, long-term orientation influences innovativeness. For example ,there is a successful advertisement for HSBC in 1986, which is a Chinese kung fu played by Cheng Siu Chou for showing ATM machine function .It is very popular in Hong Kong but may be do not work in Europe . Simply, a better advertisement can double business revenue. In the following paragraphs ,we will discuss how an Effective local advertisement will be more efficient in attracting customers eyes. First of all, we have to ask a question. Why global advertisement is difficult to defeat local competitors and what problems faced by global brands advertisements. We may concluded into three major reasons .1) They often underestimate differences in the patterns of daily life in the new markets and culturally unfamiliar. 2)This makes it difficult to develop products and services that fit peoples’ lives and interest .3) It is difficult to extend their brand, and manage culturally difference teams. Western companies are now paying a lot of attention to the growing number of people with expendable income in China, India, and other developing regions where the cultures are very different from those in the West.
Consumers in different national markets demand products that reflect their tastes; cultural, These variables are the following: written and spoken language, nonverbal communication, education, attitudes, social organization, thought patterns, proximity, technological factors, aesthetics,material possessions, religion, customs and traditions. The effect of these elements is interdependent and inseparable.. Certain products do appeal to practically specified cultures. Compared with global advertisement , some important modifications to adapt marketing efforts to the needs of the specific country or geographic location. For example, not a western food, rice burger, promoted from Mcdonald’s is sweeping Asian markets such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and China. Advertisement standardization is more likely when nations share the same level of economic and culture development. Most companies , when they design their brand advertisement , will fall in the middle of standardization(global) and customization(local), and follow a policy of “think locally, act globally.” while localization implies that a decentralized product design should be adopted. Various company and country specific factors can affect the decision to standardize or customize the marketing mix. For example, there is a catchphrase in HSBC ‘The World’s Local bank’ .Which means the worldwide bank will push localized product in order to satisfy different culture of customers taste. As HSBC in Hong Kong , people is the longest life in world . So medical insurance ,annuity ,and time deposits financial product will be the target development projects. Compared with another HSBC headquarter , UK. Retirement welfare is desirable and citizen may enjoy free medical service in private or public hospital from government . Therefore , investment link product and personal loan product will be a wise option which citizens like. One more thing is a although products standardization is increasing such as Microsoft and Nike , there are important differences in practices depending on the nature of the country and their trendy where products are sold. After decades of continued success, Coca-Cola found itself facing a series of problems as it entered the millennium. During the 1970s and 1980s the firm had expanded its global reach into almost 200 countries. At the same time the company began to centralize control and to encourage consolidation among all bottling partners. In the 1990s, however, the world began to change. While Coca-Cola was centralizing decision making, standardizing operating practices, and insulating itself from this changing environment. Coke was going global, when it should have been going local. Today Coca-Cola is beginning to turn things around. In particular, the firm has begun implementing three principles that are designed to make it more locally responsive. First, Coke is instituting a strategy of “think local, act local” by putting increased decision making in the hands of local managers. Second, the company is focusing itself as a pure marketing company that pushes its brands on a regional and local basis. Third, the firm is working to become a model citizen by reaching out to the local communities and getting involved in civic and charitable activities. In the past Coke succeeded because it understood and appealed to global commonalties. In the future it hopes to succeed by better understanding and appealing to local differences even though material of this product is nearly same all over the world . But this company also follow the game rules in localization. Beginning a strategy of ‘think local, act local’ by putting increased decision making in the hands of local managers. In order to achieve the aims of better understanding and appealing to local differences. As in Japan , healthy diet and keep fit bared in young customers mind deeply. They are not only pursued tasty but also focus on ‘eat healthy’. In view of this, Coca Cola design Coke light and sugar free Coca Cola advertisement in order to catch the eyes of this young customer level. As in Australia , people there like ‘big boy’ ,young man would like to build up bigger and stronger themselves . So it is not hardly to find Coca Cola advertisement there will always promote strong man holding a big size of Coca Cola. Different terms of using localized advertising strategy will help to achieve different consumption patterns all over the world . From the aspect of the food product to evaluate local or global advertisement . Because of foods are most sensitive to local tastes and habits.
The Kingfisher Group, a British retail enterprise with annual sales of over $10 billion, was founded in 1989. Implementing series of changes, abandoning its global approach, and substituting one that appealed to local tastes. This international firm adopts ‘retail is detail’ and ‘local knowledge is vital.’ The advertisements they design also follow the local culture where retail. They are advocating ‘the most powerful lozenges in Hong Kong. This approach that is used in managing these geographically dispersed operations
Actually ,sometimes company will modify their product advertisement to make more attractive to each separate group and religion. They can change performance levels, design ,support, speed of services, packaging, positioning and pricing. Some funny thing is there are advertisement will be change because of religion causes. For example , there are no pork burger in Turkey Mcdonald’s because it is prohibited eating pig in Islam. And you will be easily to find that one man will drive with his three to four wifes traveling in Fond advertisement in Dubai because it is lawful and common there.
‘Think Globally, Act locally’ is a trendy concept for global goods advertisement. Advertising localization does not mean that everything should be localized; a more appropriate explanation is that it gives a company to be more flexible or more adaptive to the local environment in its management. A global company should focus on a combination of global integration and local adaptation, allowing its customers to “think globally, act locally” (Vladimir Pucik). This should also be made the long-term objective for Michelin China. The previous chapters we have provided information for understanding how culture influences consumer behavior, branding, and advertising. Marketing and advertising will only be successful if the values of consumers match the values of the product or brand, which means that strategies successful in one culture Consider for example the Yakult products. In Western Europe, one is sold under the name Yakult (or Yakult Light), containing specific live bacteria (the lactobacillus casei shirota), which are supposed to be good for your intestinal flora. In Japan, Yakult has many more products on the market, for example, Yakult Itawari Cha (to soothe the stomach), Yakult Bansoreicha (to control sugar intake), and Yakult has some specific ingredient, and Japanese consumers know much about all these different ingredients. Moreover, they trust the Yakult Honsha Company to deliver good and beneficial products. It is Yakult they trust, and they therefore consume their products. Also, collectivistic cultures do not relate to brands as persons. They buy products with specific product features, not abstract brands. Illustration shows outdoor advertising for the Super Sol retail chain in Barcelona, Spain, A company that wants to work globally should consider the cultural specifics of the brand concept.When formulating the brand identity, be aware that Asian consumers are not so interested in an abstract brand identity or personality. They are more interested in what a company stands for, how reliable it is. A global company should align its corporate and brand identity in a way that both north Europeans/Americans (brand identity) and Asians (corporate identity) can be addressed. Global brand companies tend to measure the equity of their brands in the various countries. In cultures of the configuration low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance, people attributed ‘innovative’ and ‘different’ to these brands. So consumers project their own personality preferences on the (Hostede model) to global brands. The companies that own global brands want to be consistent in their messages worldwide, but consumers attribute personalities to such brands that fit their own cultural values, not the values of the producer of the brand. More research is needed to find whether consumers link brand personalities to brands and, if they do so, consumers’ personality preferences across cultures. The need for consistency also is at the basis of advertising preferences for standardization strategies of US multinationals. It drives the wish of companies to build uniform brand images (Duncan & Ramaprasad 1995) and academic focus on standardisation instead of adaptation. Taylor mentions a preoccupation with questions of whether campaigns should be standardised to the detriment of seeking answers for pragmatic execution across markets. Consistency needs drive several research assumptions and questions, such as the assumption that a uniform brand image plays a key role in building global brands, and questions about the role of standardized advertising in building a uniform brand image (Taylor 2005, 2007). The Hofstede model to standardise and when. These questions assume that consumers process various elements of advertisements separately. Consumers, however, observe the whole picture. Distinguishing what one says from how one says it may not be the way to understand how advertising works across cultures. Often the communication style is decisive for consumers’ acceptance of advertising. For example, the direct style of individualistic cultures may be offensive to members of collectivistic cultures. Various advertising researchers have studied differences in style such as the direct versus indirect styles used in individualistic and collectivistic cultures (e.g.Cutler et al. 1997; Cho et al. 1999). As the right advertising style may be more influential to success than executional aspects of advertising, more research is needed to understand advertising styles across cultures. This also applies to communications on the internet. A review of cross-cultural advertising research by Okazaki and Mueller (2007) shows that most cross-cultural advertising research topics were cultural values and the most used research methods were content analysis and survey. Content analysis has been criticised for providing description without prescription (Samiee & Jeong 1994). The first is that comparative content analysis does provide insight in cross-cultural advertising practice that also points at what works best in a country. If in a country certain appeals and communication styles are more common than in others, these style elements are used because they are effective (McQuarrie & Phillips 2008). When the values of consumers are congruent with the values reflected in advertising, the link to liking the ad, the brand or the company increases, and advertising will be more effective (Polegato & Bjerke 2006). Consumers are more positively disposed towards local advertisements and find them more interesting and less irritating (Pae et al. 2002). This is also relevant to website design. in the direction of standardisation. Observation of actual practice by content analysis demonstrates what companies do in reality and may as well uncover important advertising appeals and styles for other cultures than the home culture. A problem of cross-cultural content analysis is the organisation and logistics of a large-scale cross-country study. In particular when using cultural variables like the Hofstede dimensions, comparison should be across more than two countries. Unfortunately most studies compare the United States with one other country (Chang et al. 2007), whereas for proper cross-cultural research preferably at least five countries must be compared. Unfortunately, few multiple-country studies have been conducted. . Another example is a statement like ‘Many advertisers standardise general strategy while modifying executions’ (Taylor 2005). Are these American advertisers, or also from other countries? This is important information as managers of US firms are more inclined to standardise advertising and to create a uniform brand image than, for example, Japanese managers (Taylor & The Hofstede model Okazaki 2006). The degree to which marketing managers customise brand image varies with individualism and uncertainty avoidance (Roth 1995). Any study dealing with information processing, how advertising works, attitudes towards advertising and advertising practice should mention the cultural background of research subjects, because the national culture of respondents may influence the results.
The study of culture for understanding global advertising results from the global–local dilemma: whether to standardise advertising for efficiency reasons or to adapt to local habits and consumer motives to be effective. Only recently have studies included performance criteria and several have demonstrated that an adaptation strategy is more effective. As a result, understanding culture will be viewed as increasingly important. In the past decades, various models have emerged of which the Hofstede model has been applied most to global marketing and advertising.1 Geert Hofstede’s dimensional model of national culture has been applied to various areas of global branding and advertising, and the underlying theories of consumer behaviour. The model has been used to explain differences when we use the term global marketing and advertising, we refer to advertising worldwide, not to standardised advertising. of the concepts of self, personality and identity, which in turn explain variations in branding strategy and communications. Another area is information processing, including differences in perception and categorization that influence interpersonal and mass communication, and the working of advertising. This article summarises various elements of consumer behaviour that affect global branding and advertising strategy, and that have been explained by the Hofstede model.
Even though advertising localization is very important for marketers , but we can not neglect the importance of globalization advertising . Globalization has been defined in business schools as the production and distribution of products and services of a homogenous type and quality on a worldwide basis. For example, Mercedes-Benz, traded on its reputation for building highly engineered automobiles to drive into foreign markets. And Sony Corp. found that compact, economical, and reliable electronics like the Walkman, struck a chord with people everywhere. In the following paragraph, we will discuss how the big firms use their celebrity to carry global advertisement. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the term “globalization” has increasingly became a matter of debate (Hollenson, 2001). So, globalization may be defined in several ways, and from different perspectives. One can talk about advertising globalization as the widening and deepening of international flows of trade, finance and information in a single, integrated global market (Doyle & Stern, 2006). An alternative would be to describe it as the increasing linkages between the world‟s people as natural and artificial barriers fall (Doyle & Stern, 2006). Or, one can refer to it as the transformation of the world into a global village. Rising incomes and particularly access to information through television, the internet, travel and advertising messages have created common demands and expectations an all countries (Doyle & Stern, 2006). On the one hand, globalization brings important opportunities to companies because they operate in more than one country, in this way they develop their production, so the renowned and the impact of the company increase. The company can have financial advantages because it can develop its turnover and economies of scale developing its activities. (Kotler, 2008) Moreover, marketers have to learn the foreign culture before launching a product advertising and marketers need to learn about various aspects of foreign market environments. And finally, underdeveloped communication infrastructure can hinder the information collection process global consumer culture is recognised as a collection of common signs and symbols (e.g. brands) that are understood by significant numbers of consumers in urban markets around the world. International advertising is a powerful driving force of this evolving phenomenon. However, scholars have suggested that more comprehensive theoretical frameworks are needed to better understand international advertising in the global environment. Global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) and perceived brand globalness (PBG) represent two important constructs for studying international advertising in the context of global consumer culture. This review of GCCP and PBG highlights their past application and future potential for advancing international advertising theory, research and application. It also sheds light on the long-standing standardisation versus adaptation debate. Depends on the Hofstede model: applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research ,Geert Hofstede point out that ,recent years have seen increasing interest in the consequences of culture for global marketing and advertising. Many recent studies point at the necessity of adapting branding and advertising strategies to the culture of the consumer. In order to understand cultural differences, several models have been developed of which the Hofstede model is the most used. This article describes elements of this model that are most relevant to branding and advertising, and reviews studies that have used the model for aspects of international branding and for advertising research. It provides some cautious remarks about applying the model. Suggestions for more cross-cultural research are added. Numerous calls have been made for further application of the Project GLOBE cultural framework (cf. House et al. 2004) in the global advertising literature. Similarly, we think that the present literature could benefit from greater inclusion of the crosscultural theoretical framework and empirical findings from the global study to understand societal-level cultural variability between and among consumers across the world. This paper introduces and explores the major findings of the advertising study, then reviews the extant advertising literature that has incorporated aspects of advertising. Additionally, further application of the global advertising framework is suggested that may help advance the advertising discipline. Indeed, the Hofstede dimensions have proven to represent an important breakthrough and have been employed by many studies, including several very recent ones (e.g. Bu et al. 2009; Kwak et al. 2009; Li et al. 2009) and helped to provide considerable insight. Still, there have been many subsequent discussions of the limitations of applying cultural dimensions alone as a conceptual basis for international advertising research. In an article in the Journal of Advertising Research, Taylor (2002) cited the need for more theoretical advances in international advertising research, particularly as applied to the issue of standardisation and global marketing. In a broader article reviewing progress in international advertising research, Taylor (2005) pointed out that, while more scholars were studying international advertising than before and using a wider variety of methods and theories than in the past (c.f. Taylor & Johnson 2002), there was still a glaring need for more comprehensive theoretical models to be developed and tested empirically. Indeed, Taylor (2005) explicitly called for the application of stronger theoretical frameworks to a variety of advertising issues. The time is ripe for an acceleration of such issues and it is hoped that this issue will serve as an aid to cross-cultural advertising researchers in developing and applying theory to their work.
The goal of this issue is to examine how recent advances that have occurred in theory development in the marketing realm, as well as the further evolution of work on cultural dimensions, might be applied to research on global advertising. We are fortunate that several original authors of the theories, or those instrumental to the application of the theories to marketing, have made contributions Marketing mix is the promotion. A company’s total promotion mix, also called its marketing communications mix, consists of the specific blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling and direct marketing tools that the company uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships. (Kotler, 1996) Promotion also has to be adapted or standardized. It means create advertisements that work in different countries and cultures or create a different advertisement in each country (Keegan & Schlegelmilch, 2001). When a company decides to standardize the promotion, marketers create an advertising message which is effective all around the world (Keegan & Green, 1999). The standardization of the promotion means that same promotion is use in all countries in the world without any changes (Onkvisit & Shaw, 2004). When a firm decides to standardize an advertising message they can minimize their cost but they don’t have to forget that customers are different in all countries. Promotion can be affected by language, religions, laws, economic differences and media availability. All these factors create a need of adaptation for advertising messages (Theodosiou & Leonidous, 2002). In some countries, advertising can be translated into the local language and in other countries it is impossible, so, a whole change of the advertising is needed. So, we can say that adapting the promotion means only little modifications rather than a radical redesign (Douglas & Craige, 1995).Adapting the promotion through minor modification is a relatively cost effective strategy, since changing promotion message is not such an expensive thing to do (Hollenson, 2001) The purpose with this study has been to compare two strategies, standardization and adaptation, to show how companies manage cultural differences. The study has examined how Agatha, a company which is international has managed to standardize/ adapt its marketing mix for foreign markets. Agatha takes the decision to adapt its products to the different cultures in international markets. Indeed, when launching a product Agatha prefers spend more money on adaptation and in this way its permits to the product to be not rejected by the population. It is the same thing for the price. Agatha takes into consideration the purchasing power of the population and the economy of the foreign country. It permits for the company to catch more customers and be profitable. For the promotion, Agatha decides to standardize its slogan and images but do some modifications when it is necessary. They decide to standardize for the high cost of an adapted promotion. However, Agatha‟s products, promotions and prices are created in international bases and only adapted when it is necessary for the culture of the country. And finally, Agatha decides to standardize its distribution for keeping the same image all around the world and facilitate the organization. Thanks to our case study Agatha, we can say that all companies take into consideration cultural differences and they have to manage with. In this way, they have to choose the adaptation or the standardization of their marketing mix. In reality, almost none marketing mix is totally standardized or adapted. A company has to choose the degree of adaptation and standardization. The right degree of Agatha is standardized all products, promotions and prices when it is possible (because it is more profitable) but adapting to the culture when it is necessary and when it will be profitable for the company. Even if the company adapts its marketing mix, they keep the same image and values all over the world. In conclusion, we define a product as anything that is offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. Products include more than just tangible goods. Broadly defined, products include physical objects, services, persons, places, organizations, ideas or mixes of these entities (Kotler, 1996). It is essential for a company to offer a product more beneficial for customers in order to create a competitive advantage and a customer loyalty. Moreover, the product has to be compatible with the culture (local customs and habits) (Onkvisit & Shaw, 2004). The success of the company is determined on what marketing strategy the firm is going to use (adaptation or standardization). The decision to choose one or the other is based on business objectives but also on cultural differences (Hollensen, 2001). However, the product is the element of the marketing mix easiest to standardize (Hollensen, 2001). According to Onkvisit & Shaw (2004), product standardization is an approach where a firm is able to export their products to international markets without any essential changes thanks to the similarities in taste and needs in global market. Product standardization is more used for industrial goods products than customer‟s products and service because these latest have to be adapted to the culture of the country (Czinkota & Ronkanen, 1995). In this way, many international companies of customer‟s products develop a global product including regional differences and culture specification into one product which can be accepted in all countries. This product is done in international bases. By choosing this strategy, companies take into account local needs and demands. This alternative is only effective in a foreign culture close to the home company culture. Indeed, in some international markets, the company has to do modifications in the marketing mix because differences between the home culture and the foreign culture are too huge (Czinkota & Ronkanen, 1995). A firm has to decide the degree of adaptation of the product. If they fail to modify their product to specific markets, it can be a big problem and can result into a disaster (Douglas & Craige, 1995). Elements that have to be adapted in a product to local market and culture are design, brand names, packaging, colour of the product, etc (Keegan & Green, 1999). Coss-cultural consumer behaviour studies has been increasing over the years. The Hofstede model of national culture has proved to be a useful instrument for understanding consumer behaviour differences across cultures. Applying the model to branding and advertising, which originally sought answers to work-related value differences, needs conceptual insight in the various manifestations that are relevant to these business areas.…...