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Js Investigation

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By kurobat
Words 2865
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Universidad Católica del Norte Escuela de Ingeniería Coquimbo

Javascript
El futuro es hoy
David Cortés Mery

1.

Historia

JavaScript tuvo su origen a mediados de los años 90 y nació bajo la necesidad de entregar mayor dinamismo a los documentos HTML de la época, los cuales eran estáticos y no permitían ningún tipo de interacción con el usuario. JavaScript originalmente fue llamado LiveScript y desarrollado por Brendan Eich para NetScape e iba a ser lanzado en la versión 2.0 del navegador web NetScape Navigatior de la misma compañia. En el año 1995 NetScape firmó una alianza con Sun Microsystems para el desarrollo del lenguaje de programación, por lo cual, antes del lanzamiento del lenguaje, NetScape decidió cambiar su nombre a JavaScript por asuntos de marketing, debido a que Java era la palabra de moda de la época. La primera versión de JavaScript fue un completo éxito y la versión 3.0 del navegador ya incorporaba la versión 1.1 del lenguaje, la cual agregaba muchas características y capacidades. En el año 1996, Microsoft lanzó su propia versión de JavaScript llamada JScript junto con el navegador Internet Explorer 3.0. Para evitar una guerra de tecnologías, NetScape decidió estandarizar su lenguaje. Así fue como en el año 1997 se envió la especificación JavaScript 1.1 al organismo ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association). ECMA creó el comité TC39 con el objetivo de estandarizar un lenguaje de Script multiplataforma e independiente de cualquier empresa. El primer estándar que creó el comité se denominó ECMA-262, en el que se definió por primera vez el lenguaje ECMAScript. De hecho JavaScript no es nada más que la implementación que realizó NetScape del estándar ECMAScript por lo cual muchos programadores prefieren denominar ECMAScript a JavaScript.

2.

Modelo de objeto DOM

Es una jerarquía de objetos predefinidos que describen los elementos de una página web que está mostrando el navegador, así como otras características del proceso de navegación (como el historial o el tamaño de la ventana de navegación). Esencialmente es una interfaz de programación de aplicaciones que proporciona un conjunto estándar de objetos para representar documentos HTML y XML, un modelo estándar sobre cómo pueden combinarse dichos objetos, y una interfaz estándar para acceder a ellos y manipularlos. A través de DOM los programas pueden acceder y modificar el contenido, estructura y estilo de los documentos HTML y XML.

2.1.

Objetos

Dom define la manera en la que objetos y elementos se relacionan entre sí en el navegador y en el documento. En el caso de JavaScript, cada objeto tiene un nombre, el cual es exclusivo y único. Cuando existen más de un objeto del mismo tipo en un documento web, estos se organizan en un vector. Para acceder a una propiedad de un objeto del modelo se utiliza la siguiente sintáxis: nombre_objeto.nombre_propiedad Para acceder a un método, se utiliza una sintáxis similar: nombre_objeto.nombre_metodo() Como un objeto es básicamente un array. Es posible acceder a las propiedades del objeto utilizando la siguiente sintáxis: nombre_objeto["nombre_propiedad"] Ejemplo:
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< d i v i d ="pepe"> . . . < / d i v > / / P a r a h a c e r r e f e r e n c i a l o s e l e m e n t o s d e l mismo t i p o s e p u e d e u s a r l o s i g u i e n t e : document . d i v [ 0 ] document . d i v [ "pepe" ] document . d i v . p e p e

Javascript, el futuro es hoy

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7 8 9 10 11 12

/ / P a r a a c c e d e r a un metodo document . g e t E l e m e n t B y I d ( "Juan" ) / / P a r a m o d i f i c a r una p r o p i e d a d Objeto . propiedad= valor ; Alumno . nombre="pepe" ;

2.2.

Eventos

Un evento sucede cuando alguna situación cambia en la computadora, como por ejemplo: la posición del ratón, la presión de un tecla, etc. En la creación de las páginas web estos eventos representan la interacción de la computadora con el usuario. Por ejemplo. cuando un usuario presiona algún botón del ratón, es deseable que la computadora responda de alguna manera. Esta es la razón por la cual existen los event handlers (.Encargados de manejar eventos") los cuales son objetos que responden a eventos. Una forma de añadir eventos utilizando JavaScript es:
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< d i v i d ="midivision" o n c l i c k ="javascript:comeLaLetraA(’bar’);"> cosas . . . < / div>

3.

Interacción con HTML

JavaScript se utiliza principalmente en su forma del lado del cliente, implementado como parte de un navegador web permitiendo mejoras en la interfaz de usuario y paginas web dinámicas, en bases de datos locales al navegador. JavaScript interactúa con HTML mediante las etiquetas que se encuentran dentro de las etiquetas HTML Ejemplo:
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< t i t l e > E j e m p l o de c o d i g o J a v a S c r i p t en e l p r o p i o documento < / t i t l e > < s c r i p t t y p e ="text/javascript"> a l e r t ( "Un mensaje de prueba" ) ; < / head> Un p a r r a f o de t e x t o . < / p> < / body> < / html >

4.

Tipos de variables

La declaración de variables en JavaScript se realiza mediante la palabra reservada "var"(aunque es posible no usarla), pero la forma en la que se les asigna un valor depende de lo que queramos almacenar.

4.1.

Variables Numericas

Se utilizan para almacenar valores enteros o decimales. Ejemplos: var numEntero=1; Javascript, el futuro es hoy 3

var numDecimal=2.34;

4.2.

Cadenas de texto

Se utilizan para almacenar caracteres, palabras o frases de textos. Para asignar un cadena a una variable se encierra entre comillas dobles o simples. Ejemplos: var mensaje="hola"; var caracter=’c’;

4.3.

Arrays

Es una colección de variables, que pueden ser del mismo tipo o de tipos diferentes. Sintaxis: var nombreArray=[valor1,valor2,... valorN]; Ejemplos: Array que permita almacenar los días de la semana var dias=["lunes","martes","miercoles","jueves","viernes","sabado","domingo"];

4.4.

Valores booleanos

Son variables de tipo lógico. Almacena un tipo especial de valor que solamente puede tomar dos valores: true (verdadero) y false (falso). Ejemplos: var loTengo=false; var loTengo=true;

5.

Alcance de las variables

JavaScript puede tener variables locales, es decir, puede tener variables que pertenezcan a su ámbito o contexto, es decir, que existan solo dentro de una función. Ejemplo:
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var fn= f u n c t i o n ( ) { var a =2; alert (a) ; //2 }; fn ( ) ; a l e r t ( a ) ; / / indefinida , dara error

/ / S i no usamos l a p a l a b r a v a r var fn= f u n c t i o n ( ) { a =2; alert (a) ; //2 }; fn ( ) ; alert (a) ; //2 / / Podemos v e r que l a p a l a b r a "var" , que s e u s a p a r a d e c l a r a r v a r i a b l e s , l o que en r e a l i d a d h a c e e s e s p e c i f i c a r que l a v a r i a b l e p e r t e n e c e a l s c o p e l o c a l , e s d e c i r , a l de l a f u n c i o n en l a que a p a r e c e . Otro ejemplo :

18

Javascript, el futuro es hoy

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19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

29 30

var a =5; var fn1= f u n c t i o n ( ) { var a =2; }; var fn2= f u n c t i o n ( ) { a =2; }; alert (a) ; //5 f n 1 ( ) ; / / 5 , l a v a r i a b l e no m o d i f i c a e l v a l o r , a l a n t e p o n e r l a p a l a b r a v a r s e e s t a m o d i f i c a n d o s o l o una v a r i a b l e l o c a l a s i misma fn2 ( ) ; a l e r t ( a ) ; / / 2 , e s t a f u n c i o n en cambio , s i m o d i f i c a l a v a r i a b l e

La cosa se vuelve más compleja cuando tenemos funciones anidadas. Ejemplo:
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var f= function ( ) { var a =2; / / v a r i a b l e l o c a l b =3; v a r g= f u n c t i o n ( ) { a =20; var c =4; d =5; }; g ( ) ; / / s e e j e c u t a g , a v a l e 2 0 , c no e s v i s i b l e d e s d e e s t e p u n t o }; f () ; / / ejecutamosf alert (b) ;//3 alert (d) ;//5 alert (a) ; / / error

Como se puede ver, omitir la palabra var indica que trabajamos con una variable de un scope superior. Si no existe una función con scope superior que tenga a la variable como local, estaremos modificando o creando esa variable, si no existe, estaremos modificando o creando una variable global, una variable que pertenece al scope global.

6.

Tiempo de vida

El tiempo de vida de una variable dependera si ésta fue declarada dentro de una función o no. Cuando se declara una variable dentro de una función, la variable solo puede ser accedida dentro de la función. Cuando el Script termina la ejecución, la variable es destruida, es posible tener variables con el mismo nombre en distintas funciones, pero cada una es reconocida dentro de la función en la cual fue declarada. Si se declara una variable fuera de una función, todas las funciones dentro de la página pueden acceder a ella. El tiempo de vida de estas variables comienza cuando son declaradas y termina cuando la página es cerrada.

7.

Ligamiento
El ligamiento utilizado en JavaScript es de tipo dinámico.

7.1.

Ligamiento dinamico

En este ligamiento el tipo de variable no se especifica en su declaración, ni tampoco se puede determinar por la forma de su nombre (como por ejemplo el Perl). La variable se liga a un tipo cuando se le asigna un valor, en un estamento de asignación, cuando el estamento de asignación se ejecuta, la variable se liga al tipo de valor de la expresión del lado derecho de la asignación. La principal ventaja de este tipo de ligamiento es que proveen mas flexibilidad al programar. Ejemplo: a=10;

Javascript, el futuro es hoy

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a es de entero. c="Hola Mundo"; c es una cadena de texto.

8.

Closures

Concepto que pertenece a la programación funcional y que tiene su origen el lenguaje de programación Scheme. Closure es una función que es evaluada en un entorno conteniendo una o mas variables dependientes de otro entorno, por ejemplo, en JavaScript podemos definir una función en cualquier momento, inclusive, dentro de la definición de otra función. Por ejemplo:
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function crearFuncion () { var i =0; v a r sumar = f u n c t i o n ( ) { / / F u n c i o n d e n t r o de o t r a f u n c i o n i = i +1; return i ; }; r e t u r n sumar ; }

var fsumar = crearFuncion ( ) ; a l e r t ( fsumar ( ) ) ; a l e r t ( fsumar ( ) ) ; a l e r t ( fsumar ( ) ) ;

Se puede ver que al declarar la función sumar dentro de la función crearFuncion, la función sumar tiene acceso a todas las variables de la función crearFuncion, aún despues de que crearFuncion terminó su ejecución. Decimos que sumar es una closure debido a que tiene acceso a todas las variables de la función donde fue declarada.

9.
9.1.

Otros usos
JQuery

JQuery es una biblioteca de JavaScript, creada inicialmente por John Resig, que permite simplificar la manera de interactuar con documentos HTML, manipular el arbol DOM, manejar eventos, desarrollar animaciones (FLV) y agregar interacción con la técnica AJAX a páginas web.

9.2.

node.js

Es un entorno de programación en la capa del servidor basado en el lenguaje de programación Javascript, con I/O de datos en una arquitectura orientada a eventos, y basado en el motor Javascript V8. Fue creado por Ryan Dahl en 2009 con el enfoque de ser útil en la creación de programas de red altamente escalables, como por ejemplo, servidores web.

10. Prototype based
Es un estilo de programación orientada a objetos en la que las clases no están presentes y la reutilización de comportamiento (conocida como herencia de lenguajes basadas en clases) se realiza a través de un proceso de clonación de objetos existentes que sirven como prototipos. Este modelo también es conocido como programación sin clases, prototipo orientado o basado en instancias.

Javascript, el futuro es hoy

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JavaScript usa prototipos en vez de clases para el uso de herencia. Es posible llegar a emular muchas características que proporcionan las clases en lenguajes orientados a objetos tradicionales por medio de prototipos en JavaScript.

11. Paradigma de programación
JavaScript es un lenguaje de programación multiparadigma, entre los cuales se encuentran: Programación basada en prototipos: Bajo este tipo de programación no existen las clases como tal, los objetos por lo tanto son copiados o clonados de existentes, es decir, los prototipos. Al contrario de la programación orientada a objetos donde una clase define el comportamiento y estructura de un objeto y un objeto es la instancia de una clase definida. Los prototipos son ejemplares o moldes que se clonan o copian de un prototipo con estado, estructura y comportamiento ya iniciado. Este tipo de programación presenta un nuevo concepto de modelo de objetos debido a que rompe con el nivel de abtracción natural de la POO (al clasificar a los objetos por comportamiento, tipo y estado antes de usarlos), los prototipos sólo usan características ya definidas que pueden adaptarse. Este punto a llevado a divergencias entre los programadores de una u otra área, por un lado, los programadores que utilizan el paradigma basado en prototipos a menudo argumentan que los lenguajes basados en clases animan a un modelo de desarrollo que se centra en la taxonomía y las relaciones entre las clases. En cambio, en la programación basada en prototipos se intenta animar al programador a que se centre en el comportamiento de un cierto sistema de ejemplos y después de clasificar estos objetos en objetos arqueotipos que se utilizan en una manera similar a las clases. Programación Funcional: Permite utilizar las funciones como un tipo de dato más, es decir, pueden asignarse a variables, pasarse como parámetros a otra función o bien ser retornadas por otra función. Por ejemplo:
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v a r suma= f u n c t i o n ( a , b ) { r e t u r n a+b ; }; a l e r t ( suma ( 2 , 3 ) ) ;

Se puede ver que las funciones son anonimas (no tienen nombre) y el nombre lo define la variable que las almacena. Además, se debe tener en cuenta que se dispone de la funcion luego de que esta es declarada y no antes. Es decir:
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a l e r t ( suma ( 2 , 3 ) ) ; / / No e s p o s i b l e u t i l i z a r suma a n t e s d e b i d o a que aun no ha s i d o d e f i n i d a . v a r suma= f u n c t i o n ( a , b ) { r e t u r n a+b ; };

Programación procedural: JavaScript soporta el paradigma de la programación procedural, al estar su sintaxis basada C (aunque adoptando nombres y convenciones del lenguaje de programación Java) tiene una secuencia de ejecución, condicionales y estructuras de control de flujo, tales como if, for, while, etc. Por ejemplo:
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f o r ( v a r i = 1 ; i…...

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