Free Essay

Job Satisfaction

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sumudujanadari
Words 2349
Pages 10
Concept of Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction refers to the degree of favorableness of an employee’s attitude towards his or her job. It is basically the degree of enjoyment or pleasure an employee feels toward his or her job.

Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude towards the job. It can be affected by such factors as working conditions, pay and benefits the individual’s toward the organization and supervision and toward the work itself, and the individual’s health and age. Therefore job satisfaction is a general attitude resulting from specific attitudes and factors. It is an individual’s mindset with regard to a job. That mental set may be positive or negative, depending on the person’s mental set with regard to the major components of job satisfaction.

Supervisor-Subordinate Relationship

Supervisor-subordinate relationship is an important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinate’s perceive a supervisor’s behavior can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship. Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence, and emotional expression. Nonverbal immediacy from the supervisor helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting job satisfaction. The manner in which supervisors communicate their subordinates may be more important than the verbal content. Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisor are less willing to communicate or have motivation to work where as individuals who like and think positively of their supervisor are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment. The relationship of a subordinate with their supervisor is a very important aspect in the workplace. Therefore, a supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and open communication lines is more willing to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate where as a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and unwilling to communicate will naturally receive negative feedback and very low job satisfaction from their subordinate’s in the workplace.

Theories of Job Satisfaction

There are numerous theories attempting to explain job satisfaction, but three conceptual frameworks seem to be more prominent. The first is content theory, which suggests that job satisfaction occurs when one’s need for growth and self-actualization are met by the individual’s job. The second conceptual framework is often referred to as process theory, which tries to explain job satisfaction by looking at how well the job meets one’s expectations and values. The third conceptual group includes situational theories, which proposes that job satisfaction is a product of how well an individual’s personal characteristics interact or mesh with the organizational characteristics.

Content Theories
When discussing human needs, growth, and self-actualization, one cannot look far before finding Abraham Maslow and his “hierarchy of needs”. Maslow’s traditionalist views of job satisfaction were based on his five-level model of human needs. At the lowest level, basic life sustaining needs such as water, food, and shelter were identified. The next level consisted of physical and financial security, while the third level included needs of social acceptance, belonging, and love. The fourth level incorporated self-esteem needs and recognition by one’s peers, and at the top of the pyramid was reserved for self-actualization needs such as personal autonomy and self-direction. According to Maslow, the needs of an individual exist in a logical order and that the basic lower level needs must be satisfied before those at higher levels. Then, once the basic needs are fulfilled, they no longer serve as motivators for the individual. The more a job allows for growth and acquisition of higher level needs, the more likely the individual is to report satisfaction with his or her job. Furthermore, the success of motivating people depends on recognizing the needs that are unsatisfied and helping the individual to meet those needs.

Frederick Hertzberg suggested that the work itself could serve as a principal source of job satisfaction. Hertzberg’s theory recognized that work characteristics generated by dissatisfaction were quite different from those created by satisfaction. He identified the factors that contribute to each dimension as “motivators” and “hygienes”. The motivators are intrinsic factors that influence satisfaction based on fulfillment of higher level needs such as achievement, recognition, and opportunity for growth. The hygiene factors are extrinsic variables that such as work conditions, pay, and interpersonal relationships that must be met to prevent dissatisfaction. When hygiene factors are poor, work will be dissatisfying. However, simply removing the poor hygiene does not equate to satisfaction. Similarly, when people are satisfied with their job, motivators are present, but removing the motivators does not automatically lead to dissatisfaction. Essentially, job satisfaction depends on the extrinsic characteristics of the job, in relation to the job’s ability to fulfill ones higher level needs of self-actualization.

Process Theories
Process theories attempt to explain job satisfaction by looking at expectancies and values. This theory of job satisfaction suggests that workers’ select their behaviors in order to meet their needs. Within this framework, Adams’ and Vroom have become the most prominent theorists. J. Stacy Adams’ suggested that people perceive their job as a series of inputs and outcomes. Inputs are factors such as experience, ability, and effort, while outcomes include things like salary, recognition, and opportunity. The theory is based on the premise that job satisfaction is a direct result of individuals’ perceptions of how fairly they are treated in comparison to others. This “equity theory” proposes that people seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance. In other words, people feel satisfied at work when the input or contribution to a job and the resulting outcome are equal to that of their coworkers. This social equity is not limited to others within the same workplace, and the equity comparisons often reach into other organizations that are viewed as similar places of employment.

Vroom’s theory of job satisfaction was similar in that it looked at the interaction between personal and workplace variables; however, he also incorporated the element of workers’ expectations into his theory. The essence of this theory is that if workers put forth more effort and perform better at work, then they will be compensated accordingly. Differences between expected compensation and actual outcome lead to dissatisfaction. If employees receive less than they expect or otherwise feel as if they have been treated unfairly, then dissatisfaction may occur. On the other hand, overcompensation may also lead to dissatisfaction and the employee may experience feelings of guilt. The compensation does not have to be monetary, but pay is typically the most visible and most easily modified element of outcome. Salary also has significance beyond monetary value and the potential to acquire material items, and it is also an indication of personal achievement, organizational status, and recognition.

Situational Theories
The situational occurrences theory emerged in 1992, when Quarstein, McAfee, and Glassman stated that job satisfaction is determined by two factors: situational characteristics and situational occurrences. Situational characteristics are things such as pay, supervision, working conditions, promotional opportunities, and company policies that typically are considered by the employee before accepting the job. The situational occurrences are things that occur after taking a job that may be tangible or intangible, positive or negative. Positive occurrences might include extra vacation time, while negative occurrences might entail faulty equipment or strained coworker relationships. Within this theoretical framework, job satisfaction is a product of both situational factors and situational occurrences.

Affect Theory
Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

McGregor's Theory “X” and Theory “Y”
Douglas McGregor proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side of Enterprise'. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques.

McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten.

McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.

Theory X * The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. * Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives. * The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.

Theory Y * People can be self-directed and creative at work, if properly motivated. * Under proper conditions, the average person learns to accept and seek responsibility. * Most people possess imagination, ingenuity and problem solving ability.

Measurement of Job Satisfaction

Measuring job satisfaction is difficult, for it is an abstract personal cognition that exists only in an individual’s mind. To measure job satisfaction, one must have a conceptual understanding of the construct in order to decide what indirect factors to measure. The most basic forms of measurement might include an interview, a single-item measure, or a workplace observation; however, most researchers select for a more objective and in-depth survey instrument. Questionnaires are easily distributed, have less room for bias, have increased likelihood of confidentiality, and require much less time and money than one-on-one interviews. Job satisfaction questionnaires also can examine any number of facets that have hypothesized impact on job satisfaction, although the lack of common agreement with definition and theory can present challenges when weighting each facet and interpreting the results. The most widely cited methods include The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).

The Job Satisfaction Survey
The Job Satisfaction Survey was developed by Paul E. Spector to assess employee attitudes about the job and aspects of the job. The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that targets nine separate facets of job satisfaction. Those facets include pay, promotion, benefits, supervision, contingent rewards, operating procedures, coworkers, nature of work, and communication. Each of these facets is assessed with four items, and a total score is computed from all 36 items. Responses to each question range from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree", and questions are written in both directions.

Job Descriptive Index
The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) was first discussed in Smith, Kendall, and Hulin's publication of the Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement (1969). This 90-item scale is designed to measure employees' satisfaction with their jobs by looking at five important aspects or facets of job satisfaction which are present job, present pay, opportunities for promotion, supervision, and coworkers. It has been widely used and researched for over 40 years, and it has become one of the most popular job satisfaction survey instruments (DeMeuse, 1985; Zedeck, 1987). In fact, more than 12,000 research studies are currently archived by the JDI Research Group.

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
Developed in 1967 by Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) has become a widely used instrument to evaluate job satisfaction. Three forms of the MSQ have been developed, two 100-item long forms (1977 version and 1967 version) and a 20-item short form. The MSQ is designed to measure specific aspects of an employee's satisfaction with his or her job, and it provides more information on the rewarding aspects of a job than do more general measures of job satisfaction. The MSQ has been widely used in studies exploring client vocational needs, in counseling follow-up studies, and in generating information about the reinforces in jobs.

The MSQ is a gender-neutral, self-administered paper-and-pencil inventory that is written on a fifth-grade level. The short form can be completed in about 5 minutes while the long form can be completed in 15 to 20 minutes. Although both the short and long forms provide job satisfaction estimates, the long form provides much more information for the short additional administration time required. The MSQ can be used in an individual or group setting, and standardized instructions for administration are provided. The 1977 revision of the MSQ (originally copyrighted in 1963) uses a standard five-point response scale. Response choices are “Very Satisfied”, “Satisfied”, "N" (Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied), “Dissatisfied” and “Very Dissatisfied.” This response format was found to have a ceiling effect which caused the scale score distributions to be negatively skewed. The 1967 version adjusted for this by changing the response options to “Not Satisfied,” “Somewhat Satisfied,” “Satisfied,” “Very Satisfied,” and “Extremely Satisfied. This modification resulted in a symmetrical scale score distribution that centered on the "satisfied" category and evidenced larger item variance.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...University Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Introduction My business issue is written about job satisfaction within organizations. My business issue will be analyzed using the following two concepts, Continuance commitment and psychological empowerment, and my research is based on direct exposure while employed in the United States Navy. Background I have been enlisted in the United States Navy for nine years. Over this time I have developed through the leadership cycle that exists in the Navy. I have been in charge of divisions, departments, and classes. Throughout this time I played the role of both leader and follower. Understanding that I played both roles allowed me to really see the big picture of the organization. In order to motivate people in military organizations, leaders must instill pride in what the organization stands for. In the military that is relatively simple since the vast majority of Americans are born and raised to love freedom and democracy. Different branches of the military “advertise” themselves through simple slogans that exploit this love, which is basically instinct by adulthood. The current Navy slogan, “A Global Force for Good”, changes the appeal from an enlistee’s immediate self-interest to appealing to a higher sense of service (Ewing, 2009). This instills the qualities of commitment to one’s nation from the get go. This concept lends itself to job satisfaction, which is defined as “a positive feeling about one’s job resulting......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...Job Satisfaction PSY/428 Job Satisfaction In today’s demanding and stressful work environment, a majority of employees are looking for more than just a place to earn a paycheck, but a place to grow, learn, and be committed to a common goal. To be a successful organization, employers must ensure that their workforce is satisfied. Successful organizations realize that job satisfaction, or the experience and attitudes that an employee has about his or her job, has many variables that contribute to how satisfied an employee is about his or her employer. Some of these variables are pay, benefits, promotions, work climate, work conditions, safety, and the job role itself. To understand the subject of job satisfaction clearer, Team D will define job satisfaction, explain the impact that organizational socialization has on job satisfaction and provide an example of how an organization can use organizational socialization to positively impact job satisfaction. In addition, Team D will describe the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction as well as providing an example of how an organization can use organizational commitment to positively impact job satisfaction. Job Satisfaction Definition According to Christen and Soberman, there is a significant relationship between the effort an employee puts forth on-the-job, their job performance, and his or her job satisfaction (Christen & Soberman, 2006). However, the question still lingers of what......

Words: 1533 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...relating to job satisfaction is of major interest in the field of organizational behavior and the practice of human resources management now. The interest steamed from the belief that the satisfied employees are more productive than dissatisfied employees are. This interest induces the management academics to conduct many researches regarding different issues in the field of job satisfaction. Employees spend most of their time at work but they are not completely satisfied from their job that’s why satisfaction is not only important for employee’s wellbeing but also for organization wellbeing. Attainment of a high level performance through productivity and efficiency has always been an organizational goal of high priority. In order to do that highly satisfied work force is an absolutely necessity for achieving a high level of performance advancement of an organization. Satisfied worker leads to extend more effort to job performance, then works harder and better. Thus every organization tries to create a satisfied work force to operate the well- being of the organization. However, the total organizational performance depends on efficient and effective performance of individual employees of the organization. Therefore, every organization places a considerable reliance on their individual employee performance to gain high productivity in the organization. Employee effort is an important factor that determines an individual performance will be. When an employee feels a......

Words: 12271 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...RUNNING HEADER: Job Satisfaction Team Paper Job Satisfaction Team Paper PSY428 June 21, 2010 Maria Cuddy-Casey Job Satisfaction Team Paper With today’s ever-changing, stressful environment individual job satisfaction is critical to the success of any organization. Today’s individuals are looking for more than a job; they are searching for a career that will challenge them, allowing them to grow and progress within the organization. They need a sense of accomplishment while allowing the flexibility to be creative. It is these employees who find satisfaction in their positions. They are more productive, efficient, and effective; contributing to success of the company. The purpose of this paper is to define job satisfaction and its affect within the workplace. It will explain the impact that organizational socialization has on job satisfaction as well as providing an example of how an organization can use organizational socialization to positively impact job satisfaction. Finally, it will describe the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction as well as providing an example of how an organization can use organizational commitment to positively impact job satisfaction. Define Job Satisfaction Employees who are happy and content at work are satisfied with their job. Employers are placing more emphasis on employee job satisfaction. Employees who are satisfied with their job have better retention, camaraderie with fellow......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...Job Satisfaction Overview: Job Satisfaction is how content an Individual is with his or her Job. It is a positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Researchers have divided Job satisfaction into 2 sub Categories: Affective Job Satisfaction and Cognitive Job Satisfaction Affective Job Satisfaction: The extent of pleasurable feelings one has about his or her job. Cognitive Job Satisfaction: The extent to which Individuals are satisfied with different facets of the Job like pay, promotion opportunities, working hours, pension, The quality of relationships with co-workers etc. It is always not easy to measure Job Satisfaction as different people have different definitions and perceptions. An individual’s performance can be impacted if he or she is satisfied with the job or not but some studies have shown that some high performing employees are not satisfied with their job. If management is concerned about Job satisfaction of their Employees, Then it should conduct various surveys to find out the satisfaction level of their Employees and would consider seeking advise from their Employees on how to increase their overall level of Job Satisfaction. According to an Article published in Economic Times, 60 % of the people think that less job satisfaction is their primary reason of Unethical behavior at work second only to the lack of personal integrity. 91% said workers who enjoy a good work-life balance are more likely to behave ethically...

Words: 2592 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Job Satisfaction

...studies that examine the relationship between job satisfaction and job absenteeism as absence from work is commonly viewed as one of the options of being in a stressful work environment. According to Luthans (1995), research has generally revealed that when satisfaction is high, absenteeism tends to be low and when satisfaction is low, absenteeism tends to be high. Even though this link has been found to be rather moderate, the underlying assumption is that absence is at least in part, the result of dissatisfaction on the job (Anderson, 2004; Hardy, Woods & Wall, 2003). However, even though it makes sense that dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work, absenteeism is a complex variable and is influenced by multiple factors. (Robbins, 1998; Robbins, Odendaal & Roodt, 2003; Spector, 1997). An employee might therefore be absent for various other reasons, than being dissatisfied with the job such as genuine illness or family responsibilities. ABSENTEEISM Unscheduled absenteeism affects almost every type of organization and according to Robinson (2002) the indirect cost of absenteeism can be up to three times higher than the direct costs of absenteeism. Therefore, it is critical that organizations recognize the degree of this problem due to the high cost associated with unscheduled absenteeism. JOB SATISFACTION One of the main factors to an organization’s success is employee satisfaction. Past studies have shown that an......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...their jobs. Typically research has shown that satisfied employees or corporations are thought to be more productive. On the other hand, if workers are dissatisfied with their jobs, they are thought to be less productive and more prone to absenteeism and turnover. So HR departments need to measure employee job satisfaction and examine the correlations between these three variables (productivity, absenteeism, and turnover) with regard to possible extraneous variables. Human Resources Consulting, Inc. is hired by a medium-sized financial firm to conduct a survey addressing these topics. The survey, which is administered to the entire worker population, quantifies job satisfaction and employee. The general job satisfaction feedback will help HR in identifying the percentage of satisfied employees and the percentage satisfied in the areas of compensation, benefits, training, and supervisor relations. Research Objectives The purpose of this research is to identify the overall job satisfaction and whether it is related to the degree of absenteeism, intention to turnover, and perceived level of productivity among the employees. Specifically, this study aims to: • Determine the percentage of employees who are satisfied, overall, with their jobs and with which particular areas of job satisfaction (compensation, benefits, training, and supervisor relations). • Determine whether there is a correlation between the degree of absenteeism and job satisfaction and,......

Words: 948 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Job Satisfaction

...achievement of the said strategy. Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her job. This feeling is based on an individual's perception of satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a person's ability to complete required tasks, the level of communication in an organization, and the way management treats employees. There are often two different levels of job satisfaction: affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction. Affective job satisfaction is a person's emotional feeling toward the job as a whole. Cognitive job satisfaction is how satisfied a person feels concerning an aspect of his or her job, such as pay, hours, or benefits. The connection between leadership and job satisfaction is a factor of the business culture that can have far-reaching consequences. In the best of scenarios, managers and other leaders within the company structure inspire employees to take pride in their work and also feel competent in the tasks they are assigned. This goal is pursued using a number of different strategies, helping to create a working situation that enhances employee satisfaction in general, and satisfaction with the job in particular. The end result is that the company enjoys a higher level of productivity, there is a lower amount of employee turnover, and the working environment tends to be more stable and appealing. There is no doubt that exercising responsible leadership will lead to high job satisfaction among......

Words: 12478 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...November, 2014 PRESENTED TO: Alice Muringu 1. JOB SATISFACTION 4 A. DEFINATION 4 B. IMPORTANT FACTORS USED TO MEASURE AND INFLUENCE JOB SATISFACTION 4 C. DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION 5 i. The Evaluative Component 5 ii. The Cognitive Component 6 iii. The Affective Component 7 D. CAUSES OF JOB SATISFACTION 9 i. Job characteristic 9 ii. Social information processing (organizational characteristics) 10 iii. Dispositional (worker characteristics) 10 iv. Life Satisfaction 10 E. IMPACT FOR JOB SATISFACTION 11 F. JOB SATISFACTION APPLICATIONS 12 i. Company policies 12 ii. Salary/benefits 12 iii. Interpersonal /social relations 12 iv. Working condition 13 v. Achievement 13 vi. Recognition 13 vii. Autonomy 14 viii. Advancement 14 ix. Job Security 14 x. Work-life Balance Practices 14 G. MEASURES OF JOB SATISFACTION 15 i. Overall Job Satisfaction 15 ii. Job Descriptive Index (JDI) 15 iii. Global Job Satisfaction 16 iv. Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectations 16 v. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 16 vi. Job in General Scale 17 vii. Job Satisfaction Survey 17 viii. Job Satisfaction Index 17 ix. Job Diagnostic Survey 18 x. Career Satisfaction 18 H. REFERENCE 20 * JOB SATISFACTION DEFINATION Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her job. This feeling is mainly based on an individual's perception of satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a person's......

Words: 2782 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...Job satisfaction is a complex concept, which can mean different things to different people, and is difficult to measure objectively. Set out clearly your own explanation of job satisfaction, what you see as the main dimensions of job satisfaction and how you believe it can best be measured. Chapter 1 1. Introduction 1. What is job satisfaction Job satisfaction is how people react towards their job. If their current job meets their expectations and needs, it will satisfy them. If not, their work quality will be decrease. Job satisfaction is a very important issue that every organization frequently measured to make sure all of them employees satisfied with their job to maintain or increase their work quality. Job satisfaction is related with motivation. If employees have high satisfaction towards the job, they will be motivated to continue working. 2. Factors influence There are many factors that can influence employees’ satisfaction towards their job. In Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, all the factors are classified in two categories, the motivators factors and the hygiene factors. 1. The hygiene factors Include pay, status, job security, working conditions, fringe benefits, policies and procedures, and interpersonal relations. Pay is what the organization pay to the employees for their job. The employees will be satisfied with their job if the pay is suitable with the job. Status is the rank where the employees are in.......

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

... * Sports * Business * Entertainment * Lifestyle * Jobs * Cars * Real Estate Small Businessby Demand Media * Accounting & Bookkeeping| * Advertising & Marketing| * Business Communications & Etiquette| * Business Models & Organizational Structure| * Business Planning & Strategy| * Business Technology & Customer Support| * Business & Workplace Regulations| * Finances & Taxes * |More » 1. Small Business > 2. Managing Employees > 3. Jobs Dimensions of Job Satisfaction by Catherine Lovering, Demand Media Employees do not derive job satisfaction from high pay alone. In the 1950s, motivation theorist Frederick Herzberg divided the elements required for job satisfaction into two dimensions: hygiene and motivators. In short, the environment has to be positive and the job has to be a good fit. In the decades since Herzberg's study, employee surveys have confirmed employees' ownership of their jobs and tangible company benefits are as important to satisfaction as a big paycheck. Ads by Google Training Materials Soft skills training materials to teach soft skills training courses. corporatetrainingmaterials.com Hygiene Hygiene refers to working environment. While this dimension does not in and of itself create job satisfaction, it's a prerequisite to satisfaction occurring. Work environment involves all of the administrative aspects of an......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...Nur ‘Atiqah Binti Jamaludin Matrix No : MHA152028 Date : 27 October 2015 Journal : Pelit, E., Öztürk, Y., & Arslantürk, Y. (2011). The Effects of Employee Empowerment on Employee Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 23. No. 6, 2011: Pages 784-802. ------------------------------------------------- 1. Summarize the research objectives, methodology, findings and conclusion of your chosen journal. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of employee empowerment on job satisfaction whereby by considering two dimensions which is behavioral and psychological as a whole and separately. The questionnaire was distributed to 1,854 participants employed at five-star hotels in Turkey in order to collect the data on job satisfaction together with behavioral and psychological empowerment. The data that has been collected were analyzed through correlation and regression analyses. The findings of this research indicate that the most positive aspect related to job satisfaction are relations with colleagues and physical conditions, while the most negative aspect is unfair payment. Further, correlation and regression analyses indicate that psychological and behavioral empowerment has significant effect on job satisfaction and the effect is much greater when behavioral and psychological empowerment are taken as a whole. 2. Analyze the issues found in the journal with reference to a......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Job Satisfaction

...PROGRAM Organizational BehaviorPersonal Reflection About Job SatisfactionSubmitted by ; Mr. Lynn Pyi(Austria) Submitted to ; Dr. Ioan Voicu | Student ID ; 5819019 | | Date; 21, September, 2015 | Personal Reflection of Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive feeling about a job and it is one of most important job attitudes. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects of facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision. Others believe it is not so simplistic as this definition suggests and instead that multidimensional psychological responses to one's job are involved. Job satisfaction of employees improves the organization or company’s advantages. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his or her job, whereas a person with a low level holds negative feelings. Job satisfaction scales vary in the extent to which they assess the affective feelings about the job or the cognitive assessment of the job. Affective job satisfaction is a subjective construct representing an emotional feeling individuals have about their job. Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which affect an individual's experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its......

Words: 1380 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...Management Context: Citibank introduced the Balanced Scored Card performance evaluation process for the first time to conduct an effective performance evaluation of their employees from qualitative and quantitative measures. The balanced scored card evaluation enables to set clear targets or goals and provide an insight on the evaluation process more effectively, thereby performance evaluation aligned with company’s strategic goals and measurable objectives. As part of the Balanced Scored Card evaluation process, the management measures one’s accomplishments against the following operational, functional and non-functional aspects, 1. Financial Accomplishments 2. Strategy Implementation for maximizing revenue 3. Customer Satisfaction Index 4. Control Measures based on Audits process 5. People management and Standards Based on the above mentioned aspects, each employee is planned to be evaluated as part of the performance evaluation process and fitting into any one of the below indicators, * Below - Par * Par * Above Par It was also decided that an employee will not be awarded with the performance indicator of “Above Par” without ensuring they score a minimum of “Par” rating in all of the performance evaluation aspects. In line with this new score card performance evaluation process, Mr.James McGaran, the branch manager at Los Angeles area in California is evaluated by the management through his area manager Ms.Lisa Johnson and the......

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Job Satisfaction

...Job Satisfaction Survey Karrie Severance RES/341 11/28/2011 Roger Gibb Job Satisfaction Survey Job satisfaction is how content an individual is in his or her job, thus making job satisfaction one of the most researched concepts in general human resources. A finding in the research is that job satisfaction directly correlates with productivity. The more satisfied an individual is with their job, the more productive that individual is in return the more productive an individual is the happier the individual is with their job. To establish this sense of satisfaction an individual must be well matched to the job he or she is performing. Understanding this correlation between job performance and satisfaction will aid management in creating the working environment that has the most benefits to both the business and the employees within the business. Job satisfaction surveys should be given to all current employees by the human resource department. All employees in all departments will need to be surveyed to have a survey that is not skewed one direction or another. Also, this allows management to see if there are employees place in the wrong department that should be moved to another department that would be a better fit for that employee. The survey will give management a chance to improve upon their management of the employees. Management will be given the survey in addition to the employees so the results of the employee survey can be compared to managements. This......

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5