Free Essay

Irving Berlin and Tin Pan Alley

In: Film and Music

Submitted By MechLord66
Words 933
Pages 4
Jordan Caro
Rod Henley
History of Rock Music
29 October 2012
Irving Berlin and Tin Pan Alley Irving Berlin and Tin Pan Alley. If you’re not a student of music or an avid fan of its history, these names may seem superfluous. However without these key figures in music history, we may very well not have the compilations of sounds that we take for granted in our everyday lives. The creation of genres such as blues, jazz, country, and even rock ’n ’roll can trace their lineages back to these groups of lyrical and melodious pioneers. While these styles and songs have grown and evolved over the years, Irving Berlin and the composers of Tin Pan Alley laid the ground work for the birth of all American modern and future music. Irving Berlin is widely considered to be the greatest American song writer. Songs such as “God Bless America” sung at every baseball game today. “White Christmas”, a song treasured through the holidays is a cornerstone in his legacy. He even wrote many famous musicals during his career, perhaps the most known of them being “Annie’s Got a Gun”. But he was not born into his mark on history. Irving Berlin’s beginnings were much more humble than his fame would lead to believe. Irving was born Israel Isidore Baline, May 11th 1888 to Leah and Moses Baline, in the small town of Mogilyov, Russia. As one of eight children, life was no picnic in the poor town. When Irving was 5, his family moved to America to start a new life. They settled down in New York City, where they sold newspapers to support the family after their father died. As he got older, Irving took a job as a singing waiter, perhaps the start of his musical career. Although he couldn’t read music, Irving taught himself to play the piano so he could begin composing. His first song ““Marie of Sunny Italy” sold for thirty-five cents”. Not a huge amount now, but he began to create more and more songs as his popularity grew. It was then he decided to “Americanize” his name because he thought it would help his work sell more. Israel Baline became Irving Berlin, the great American song writer, a pioneer of the music industry. He went to create over 900 songs, 19 musicals, and even 18 scores of music for movies during his lengthy career as an artist. After a long life of composing, writing, and creation, he died at the age of 101. Leaving behind a vast collection of works that helped shape our current progress with music and will continue to affect and drive its industry.
“Irving Berlin Biography”. Sing365.com. http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/Irving- Berlin-Biography/954E8A4CFAC1945848256970000CC030, 21/10/2012 Although his contributions to American music history were great, Irving Berlin cannot be given sole credit for its foundation. Tin Pan Alley, the birthplace of modern American music, was the gathering of minds that helped its creation. Roughly established around 1885, Tin Pan Alley was a publishing company. Songwriters, performers, and musicians alike began their careers there, publishing sheet music and selling to people and businesses, spreading their art throughout the country. It brought prolific songwriters such as Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, and Albert Von Tilzer to the mix. The creation of songs like “Take Me Out to the Ball Game” or “Hello, Ma Baby!” were some of the greatest hits of the time to come out of Tin Pan Alley. But its reign was not to last. Its end began with the inventions of the radio and the phonograph. With recorded music becoming the popular choice for music, sheet music sales began to drop. Although it still played an important role in the art of music, its rise to power was over. Tin Pan Alley still exists today, and the people who helped develop the roots of its legacy are remembered. And though its bright shine has become a dim light, its mark on history can never be erased.
1)Jones, Brian. Greenfield, Lyle. “Tin Pan Alley”. Tinpanalleynyc.com,http://www.tinpanalleynyc.com/Welcome_files/TinPanAlley_Proposal.pdf, 21/10/2012
2) Arnold, Thomas. “The History Of Tin Pan Alley”. Ehow.com. http://www.ehow.com/about_5386749_history-tin-pan-alley.html, 21/10/2012 Without these important figures in American musical history, the beauty of what we hold dear today may well have never existed. Deep connections between the songs of the past and present works can be found even now. Artists like Elton John or Billy Joel have them to thank for their base. To this day, artists have flourished from their influence. The biggest genres we listen to everyday on the way to work, at home, parties all derive from the blood sweat and tears of the pioneers before us. Irving Berlin gave us songs and musicals that have touched people nationwide and lasted through the age. Genres and sub genres have evolved from the work done by so many in Tin Pan Alley. Though these are but small examples of what can be attributed to the plethora of melodious harmony and emotion evoking artwork Irving and Tin Pan Alley have given to history, their legacies will continue to help evolve and drive forward American music to new horizons.
Works Cited
“Irving Berlin Biography”. Sing365.com. http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/Irving-Berlin-Biography/954E8A4CFAC1945848256970000CC030
Jones, Brian. Greenfield, Lyle. “Tin Pan Alley”. Tinpanalleynyc.com. http://www.tinpanalleynyc.com/Welcome_files/TinPanAlley_Proposal.pdf
Arnold, Thomas. “The History Of Tin Pan Alley”. Ehow.com. http://www.ehow.com/about_5386749_history-tin-pan-alley.html…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

German Berlin

...1885-1914. 2. ‘Tatsächlich ist es die Erfahrung der Großstadt Berlin, die Konfrontation eines in der Provinz herangebildeten kleinbürgerlichen Bewußtseins mit der Hektik, der Unübersichtlichkeit, den Massenmenschen, dem Elend der industrialisierten Metropole, aus denen die Entstehung der künstlerischen Moderne, ihr unklarer und widersprüchlicher Charakter verstanden werden können.’ (Jürgen Schutte and Peter Sprengel). Discuss with reference to a representative selection of texts or visual material produced before 1930 that you have studied on the module. 3. ‘Die psychologische Grundlage, auf der der Typus großstädtischer Individualitäten sich erhebt, ist die Steigerung des Nervenlebens, die aus dem raschen und ununterbrochenen Wechsel äußerer und innerer Eindrücke hervorgeht.’ (Georg Simmel). Analyse the significance of Simmel’s essay ‘Die Großstädte und das Geistesleben’ of 1903 for an understanding of Walther Ruttmann’s film Berlin. Die Sinfonie der Großstadt. 4. Compare and contrast the representation of modernity and the urban metropolis in Walther Ruttmann’s film Berlin. Die Sinfonie der Großstadt and a representative selection of texts or visual material produced before 1930 that you have studied on this module. 5. Does the technical complexity of Döblin’s novel Berlin Alexanderplatz in your view detract from or enhance its validity as a portrait of social, political and existential concerns in Berlin during the late 1920s? 6. Which work in your view......

Words: 920 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Voltage and Current Stress Induced Variations in Tin/Hfsixoy/Tin Mim Capacitors

...edit of this line ‘It is known that the breakdown of MIM capacitors is...’. Please check this box if you have no corrections to make to the PDF file Thank you for your assistance. MR 10661 8 September 2012 Microelectronics Reliability xxx (2012) xxx–xxx 1 No. of Pages 5, Model 5G Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Microelectronics Reliability journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/microrel 2 3 Q1 4 Q2 5 Voltage and current stress induced variations in TiN/HfSixOy/TiN MIM capacitors D. Misra a,b,⇑, Jyothi Bagade a, A.N. Chandorkar a a b Center of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA 6 8 1 5 9 10 11 12 13 14 a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t In this paper we have investigated the long-term reliability of TiN/HfSixOy/TiN Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors by using constant voltage stress (CVS) and constant current stress (CCS). No significant increase in leakage current was observed as a function of stress time. On the other hand, stress induced capacitance changes were observed due to change in quadratic and liner coefficients of permittivity nonlinearities. Stress-induced oxygen vacancy related defect formation believed to be the cause of this shift in permittivity. Ó 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 16 17......

Words: 3520 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Washington Irving

...Washington Irving was born on April 3rd 1783 in New York City by parents William Irving SR and Sarah Irving he was the youngest of 11 children. William Irving was well known as the man you created short stories also for the many books he has written such as “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”, “The sketch book of Geoffrey Crayon”, “Gent Tales of the Alhambra”, “Tales of a Traveler”, “Brace Bridge Hall”, “A tour on the Prairies”, “The life and voyages of Christopher Columbus”, “The history of New York”, “Letters of Jonathon old style”, “Salmagundi”, “George Washington”, “Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus”, “The Complete tales of Washington Irving”, “Rip Van Winkle”, and “Three Western Narratives history, tales, and sketches”. Washington Irving was named after George Washington and he attended the first presidential inauguration of his namesake in 1789. He went to a private school and studied law and began to write essays for periodicals. He worked in it in various offices until 1804. He also wrote articles for The Morning Chronicle and The Corrector, both newspapers edited by his brother Peter. He wasn’t a very good student and almost didn’t pass the bar. Washington, his brother William Irving and James Kirke wrote a collection of funny essays but he became more known for “A History of New York”, written under the name of "Diedrich Knickerbocker.". He went to England to work for his brothers business in 1815. He wrote a collection of stories......

Words: 719 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Berlin Wall

...The rise of the Berlin Wall physically began the morning of August 13th 1961, but the separation of East and West Germany began years before. The life span of the wall lasted until November 9th 1989, just a mere 28 years later. The purpose of the Berlin wall was to separate the East and the West sides of Germany. The result of WWII divided Germany into zones; those zones were given to Great Britain, the United States, France and the Soviet Union. The rise and the fall of the Berlin Wall were key moments in our global history, as it was a series of events that shaped a country. World War II was a success in conquering Germany; The Potsdam Agreement officially broke up Germany into 4 zones. The furthest South was the United States territory, the Southwest territory belonged to the French, the British were in control of the Northwest Territory and Soviets had the East. This division was eventually broken down into a division of the West and East Germany, the West part of Germany was called composed of the United States, France and Great Britain, and was also known as the Federal Republic of Germany. The East side of Germany was the Soviet Union’s portion after the Potsdam Agreement; this side was also known as the German Democratic Republic. The West side of the berlin wall was very different than the East. The west side was the one that sought after to live in by the people of the East side. After the war and the separation of Germany between the four countries West......

Words: 2246 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Tin Flute

...Throughout history, human kind has always tried to find a way to escape from reality. They thought that facing the tough periods of life is unbearable. However, by creating fiction stories, people have found a way to transform the “reality”. Writing fiction, transformed the unbearable reality to something which is more acceptable. In Tin Flute, Gabrielle Roy has perfectly managed to combine fact and imagination by introducing familial survivor of the working class district in Montreal. In the novel, the relationship between fact and fiction was perfectly balanced. Roy was significantly successful in describing the particular war period, by concentrating only on one family. It may be a controversial choice to focus on just one family while describing the history; it could be restrictive. However, it may be considered as if Roy was trying to make the novel more intimate for the readers. This makes the novel much interesting than a historical book. Tin Flute is a crucial piece of work for Canadian fiction. Although the characters were imaginary, the novel portrays the working class family living in Montreal slums realistically. Roy’s use of verisimilitude could be considered as the most fascinating aspect of the novel. The descriptions of the family’s daily life problems push readers to relate to the main character’s emotions and to develop empathy for them. Roy’s each imaginary character reflects an ongoing issue in that period of time such as poverty, war, solitude and......

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Washington Irving

...Washington Irving “Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortune; but great minds rise above them.” Washington Irving, a well-known short story author in the nineteenth century, spoke these words of wisdom. Washington Irving became famous in America for his fine works from The Specter Bridegroom to Rip Van Winkle to The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. These satirical sketches are all based on the local areas in New York where Irving resided. His adventures through life spread the word of his writings and he became one of the first renowned short story writers in Europe. Washington Irving was born in New York, New York on April 3, 1783. His mother, Sarah, and father, William Irving, Sr., had eleven children including Washington. He was named after the United States first president, George Washington who was sought to be the greatest hero of all time to his parents. “… He attended the first presidential inauguration of his namesake in 1789” (Biography Channel). Irving was privately schooled and later went to study law in New York after his return from travelling Europe. In 1804 he travelled to France and Italy, while writing journals and letters. When he returned in 1805, Irving continued law school but did poorly for he barely passed the bar exam. (Biography Channel). After Irving finished his studies, he went on to write humorous essay with his older brother William Irving, Jr., and James Kirke Paulding. The Salamagundi papers published the essays in 1807 to 1808....

Words: 2583 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Hawthorne Irving

...Jordon Wilkinson Mrs. Mitchell English III- 7th hour 11/13/14 Comparing Irving and Hawthorne Irving and Hawthorne both use a symbolic point to slowly detail the pathways in their short stories. In Irving's "The Devil and Tom Walker," Walker saunters through the "ill-chosen way" into the dangerous forest that leads him into his sinful journey. “Because of all his misery due to his wife, a forlorn-looking house,” and "community full of liars,” the short cut that he took signified a path that leads him away from all unhappiness and into the glorious light. Though it would soon be covered with the darkness of greed and evil, Walker risked the loss of his soul for the temporary phase of richness. Because of all the wealth he obtained as he was aging, his understanding of losing everything he went to the devil for advice, and he messed with his mind and soon regretted his bargain. After he did this, the story speaks advice of the pathway to the conclusion of losing his essence to greedy cravings. Like Irving, Hawthorne's story Young Goodman Brown exploits a lonely trail that is darkened by all the gloomiest trees of the forest. In which leads him away from the dream realm to authenticity. Though Goodman's dreary road differs from Walker's neglected route, Goodman also ambles through a path concealed by the thick boughs overhead, leading him to immorality. During his walk on the path, he encounters bumps on the road that curve his way into his...

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Startupworld Berlin

... InsIght Into the onlIne CapItal BerlIn With contributions from Alexander Kudlich, Ansgar Oberholz, Michael Brehm, Mathias Döpfner, Carsten Maschmeyer, Christian Reber, Jan Beckers, Fabian Heilemann, Fabian Siegel, Florian Heinemann, Ijad Madisch, Jens Begemann, Klaus Hommels, Lukasz Gadowski, Joel Kaczmarek and 85 other great minds. „ BerlIn has the most potentIal of all CItIes In europe“ peteR tHIeL * Peter Thiel, Former CEO of PayPal, first investor of Facebook and partner of the venture capital firm, Founders Fund. ENJOY BERLIN VALLEY! HUNDERT IS A PROJECT FROM BERLINVALLEY.COM DAILY NEWS FROM THE BERLIN ONLINE SCENE WHAT A gREAT FAMILY: HIRE! WE MODEL: JENNIFER IRMLER (WWW.MODEL-FABRIk.COM) PHOTO: MAx THRELFALL (WWW.THRELFALL-gOERS.DE) MAkEUP: BIANCA BENSCH (FACEBOOk.COM/BENSCHBIANCA) OUTFIT WITH FRIENDLY SUPPORT FROM PEPE JEANS (NEUE SCHöNHAUSER STRASSE) WE ARE LOOkINg FOR COOL INTERNS AND EDITORS, MALE OR FEMALE. CAREER CHANgERS WELCOMED. APPLY WITH 100 WORDS OR LESS AT PIMPMYFUTURE@WHY-BERLIN.COM the hundert Register now, and receive every issue by mail for free! introduCtion Klaus Wowereit KlauS WoWereit haS been the governing mayor of berlin Since 2001, and the longeSt Serving head of government in office of any german State. Governing Mayor of Berlin Hundert Continues as a series! We are very excited about the response that “Hundert – insight on the Online Capital Berlin” has received. Therefore, we have......

Words: 44714 - Pages: 179

Free Essay

Pan European Transport Corridors

...Pan European Transport Corridors Overview The Pan-European Transport Corridors represent the ten key multimodal transport links of the Central and Eastern European transport infrastructure development program of the European Commission, ECMT and UNECE in 1994 (source: United Nations, 2009). The nine corridors consist of a set of eight rail and road links with a total length of 18,000 kilometers and one an inland waterway link, the river Danube. Corridors I-X The list of ten Pan European Transport Networks (See Map 3); • Corridor I, from Helsinki to Warsaw (first branch) and Gdansk (second branch) connecting Riga. • Corridor II, from Berlin to Moscow connecting Poznan, Warsaw, Brest, Minsk and Smolensk. • Corridor III, from Kiev to Brussels connecting Aachen, Cologne, Dresden, Wrocław, Katowice, Krakow and Lviv. • Corridor IV, from Dresden to Istanbul connecting Prague, Vienna, Budapest Craiova, Sofia, Thessaloniki, Plovdiv and Istanbul. • Corridor V, the East-West corridor, from Venice to Kiev through Trieste, Ljubljana, Budapest, Uzhhorod, Lviv and Kiev. • Corridor VI, the North-South corridor, from Gdansk to Brno connecting Katowice, Zilina, including a western branch, Katowice-Brno. • Corridor VII, the Northwest-Southeast corridor or the 2300 km long Danube River. • Corridor VIII, from Durres to Constanta connecting Tirana, Skopje, Sofia, Plovdiv, Burgas, Varna. • Corridor IX, from Helsinki to Alexandroupolis connecting Vyborg, St. Petersburg Pskov, Gomel,...

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Berlin Wall

...Abstract This paper examines the reasons for the construction of The Berlin Wall, and the inner and outer factors that resulted in the destruction of The Berlin Wall. This paper will furthermore assess the consequences for the East Germans when The Berlin Wall was destroyed. Through looking at many sources and carefully selecting the most important ones, it revealed an interesting part of European history. By examining various factors such as the inner and outer factors regarding the destruction of The Berlin Wall, the paper revealed how much the people suffered during the Soviet Union’s rule in Eastern Europe. In the search for some reliable sources, the study stumbled upon an article in a Danish newspaper, who had a special issue in 2009. The article revealed many interesting stories both found by the journalist and by interweaving regular East Germans. The result of this paper is a thorough exposition of the “how’s” and “why’s” that surround the subject of The Berlin Wall. Indholdsfortegnelse Indledning 1 Redegørelse for Berlinmurens opførsel 2 Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands 2 Arbejder- og bondestaten 2 Grebet strammer i DDR 3 Arbejderopstanden 1953 4 Indhentning og overhaling 5 Muren bygges 5 Analyse af Berlinmurens fald 6 Indre faktorer 6 Ydre faktorer 8 Stemningen i DDR 10 Vurdering af konsekvenserne af Berlinmurens fald 10 Et nyt verdensbillede 10 Den Første fase 11 Den Anden fase 11 Den Tredje......

Words: 5321 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

The Berlin Wall

...delivered their Berlin ultimatum, demanding that the western allies should withdraw their troops from West Berlin and that West Berlin should become a "Free City" within six months. On 1959-02-17, the threat of settling a separate peace treaty between the USSR the GDR followed. The meeting between US President Kennedy and the Prime Minister of the USSR, Khrushchev, on 1961-06-03/04 in Vienna ended without any noticeable results. Generally, measures of the government of the GDR were expected with the aim of preventing people from leaving the GDR. At an international press conference on June 15, 1961, Walter Ulbricht (the leader of the east German communist party, SED, and President of the Privy Council) answered to the question of a journalist: "I understand your question as follows: there are people in West Germany who want us to mobilize the construction workers of the GDR to build a wall. I am not aware of any such plans... No one has the intention of constructing a wall." Construction of the Wall Early in the morning of Sunday, August 13, 1961, the GDR began under the leadership of Erich Honecker to block off East Berlin and the GDR from West Berlin by means of barbed wire and antitank obstacles. Streets were torn up, and barricades of paving stones were erected. Tanks gathered at crucial places. The subway and local railway services between East and West Berlin were interrupted. Inhabitants of East Berlin and the GDR were no longer allowed to enter West Berlin,......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Berlin

...Berlin Welcome Card'  Berlin Bus Tours / Walking Tours / Boat Tours  German State Opera House / Berlin Philharmonic Hall  Alexanderplatz Brandenburg Gate, 'Story of Berlin' Exhibition Potsdamer Platz Television Tower (Fernsehturm) Schloss Charlottenburg Berlin Cathedral Pergamon Museum Old Museum Bode Museum National Gallery Church of Sophie  Cemetery for the Parishes of Dorotheenstadt andFriedrichswerder Potsdamer Platz and the New Centre Unter den Linden Jewish Centre Oranienburger Strasse Spandau Citadel Checkpoint Charlie Museum (Military attraction or museum;  Photo collection, exhibit) Brandenburg Gate,Berlin Commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm II in the 1700s to represent peace, the Brandenburg Gate is nothing short of an iconic symbol of the city. Originally built as a customs post, the gate was an integral part of the Berlin Wall and remained locked for the duration of the Communist rule. When the wall that was once the boundary between East and West Berlin was knocked down, the gate became an important symbol of German reunification and it is the only one out of 18 such gates that now remains. Designed in 1791 by Carl Gotthard Langhans, a detailed sculpture of the beautiful goddess Victory resides at the top of the structure. When Napoleon occupied Berlin in 1806 he stole this statue and took it back to Paris, but it was returned to its rightful home again in 1814. When the Berlin Wall was erected in 1961 the tor became...

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Pan Africanism

...Pan Africanism The ideology and movement that aims to unify and uplift people of African descent, is also known as Pan Africanism. It encourages the solidarity of Africans worldwide, focusing on the belief that unity is vital to nationalism, independence, the political and economic cooperation, and historical and cultural awareness within Africans. Pan Africanism sought to eliminate the philosophy of that in which slavery and colonialism encouraged negative, unfounded categorizations of the race, culture, and values of the African people. Pan- Africanist ideals began in the 19th century in response to European colonization and exploitation of the African continent. Martin Delany, Edward Blyden and Alexander Crummell were early Pan African members. They believed that black people could not develop alongside whites and therefore advocated the creation of a black nation, suggesting that Africa was the best place to stay. Henry Sylvester-Williams, in 1897 formed the African Association in London, England to encourage Pan-African unity in British colonies. He organized the first Pan-African meeting in collaboration with several black leaders representing various countries of the African Diaspora. This conference introduced W.E.B. Du Bois, who is known as the father of modern Pan- Africanism, working to create a unified African nation where all Africans scattered from their ancestral home to different parts of the world, the Diaspora, can live. It was him who gave the......

Words: 266 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Washington Irving

...Rip Van Winkle Summary: “Rip Van Winkle” is an American masterpiece of the short story. It is based on local history but is rooted in European myth and legend. Irving reportedly wrote it one night in England, in June, 1818, after having spent the whole day talking with relatives about the happy times spent in Sleepy Hollow. The author drew on his memories and experiences of the Hudson River Valley and blended them with Old World contributions. “Rip Van Winkle” is such a well-known tale that almost every child in the United States has read it or heard it narrated at one time or another. Rip is a simple-minded soul who lives in a village by the Catskill Mountains. Beloved by the village, Rip is an easygoing, henpecked husband whose one cross to bear is a shrewish wife who nags him day and night. One day he wanders into the mountains to go hunting, meets and drinks with English explorer Henry Hudson’s legendary crew, and falls into a deep sleep. He awakens twenty years later and returns to his village to discover that everything has changed. The disturbing news of the dislocation is offset by the discovery that his wife is dead. In time, Rip’s daughter, son, and several villagers identify him, and he is accepted by the others. One of Irving’s major points is the tumultuous change occurring over the twenty years that the story encompasses. Rip’s little Dutch village had remained the same for generations and symbolized rural peace and prosperity. On his return, everything......

Words: 5056 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Black Shack Alley vs Sugar Cane Alley

...Black Shack Alley: Movie vs. Book Sugar Cane Alley is a film directed by Euzhan Palcy that depicts Joseph Zobel’s novel, Black Shack Alley. Both the film and the novel are set in Martinique and follow the life of José as he matures and struggles to escape the poverty and hardships of a sugar cane plantation in the colonial Caribbean. With the love, sacrifice and support from his family, while both the movie and book narrate the same story of achievement and overcoming obstacles, it is remarkable to examine the adaptations Palcy made upon the original text. Whether it’s a change on character dialogues, appearances, or modifications to José maturity and education, every different adjustment made confronts and addresses the issues of slavery, racial inequality, and the push for a collective African heritage and identity conveyed through Zobel’s text. It is essential to point out that the most obvious difference between both works is the time discrepancy. In the novel, José’s maturity progresses over a period of many years, starting with the age of seven and elongating all the way through his education at the lyceé. On the other hand, Palcy presents José as having reached maturity very early in the movie. The incident of the broken bowl exemplifies this adaptation. In the original text the incident occurs when José invites his friends inside to snack on goodies and sugar (which was very protected by M’an Tine). Urged by José’s initiative, they then proceed to search the......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3