Premium Essay

Irish Times Report

In: Science

Submitted By kumar88
Words 366
Pages 2
Oil reserves to run dry by 2036
Fri, May 9, 1997, 01:00
Dick Ahlstrom

GLOBAL oil reserves will be gone by 2036 and the economic and social implications of this demand serious planning by world governments now, according to a US researcher.
Difficulties will come much sooner, however, as producer countries reach their peak output levels and oil production declines in the face of growing demand, argues Dr Craig Bond Hatfield of the department of geology at the University of Toledo in Ohio.
"Global oil production will peak and begin its decline during the first or second decade of the 21st century," he writes in the current issue of the science journal, Nature. "Despite the intensive, inter-governmental debates on the environmental effects of energy policies, geological constraints on the amount of (oil) that can be produced will soon override governments' decisions about future rates of fossil-fuel burning."
US production peaked in 1970 and has been in decline since, and Russian production fell after the break-up of the Soviet Union. Growth in North Sea, Latin American and Asian production just offsets the US and Russian decline, but geological data indicate that this group "will remain incapable of significant, sustained growth and is likely to begin a permanent decline" in production early in the 21st century.
The 16 per cent growth in global oil consumption between 1985 and 1995, from 59.7 million to 69 million barrels a day, was therefore "supplied almost entirely by an increase in oil production by members of OPEC", Dr Hatfield writes. But these countries will also be approaching their production peaks between 2010 and 2015, he argues, after which production rates will fall as the amount of oil remaining in the ground dwindles.
OPEC currently produces about 25 million barrels a day and has an estimated production capacity of about 29 million barrels…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Young Adults’ Irish Identity: Relationship Between Time in Ireland and Emigration

...Young Adults’ Irish Identity: Relationship between Time in Ireland and Emigration University of Limerick College Students Hannah Davis Hastings College In partial fulfillment of the requirements for PSY370 Dr. Stephanie Furrer February 28th, 2012 Abstract In an attempt to explore Irish national identity, the researcher distributed 100 questionnaires at the University of Limerick, examining national identity and the current economic effects (i.e., Ireland’s struggling economy) on citizens’ attitudes toward emigration. Specifically, analyzing if there is a correlation between participants’ national identity and the likelihood of emigration during economic crisis. Although past research has focused on 10-15 year olds, the economic boom experienced in 1995-2007 has caused a shift to examine college-aged participants, the ones who are experiencing the effects of Ireland’s current economic downfall. With high unemployment and over 400,000 people on the dole, emigration has become a reality for many in Ireland. The findings presented suggest the longer participants have lived in Ireland, the stronger they associate with the Irish Identity. Young Adults’ Irish Identity: Relationship between Time in Ireland and Emigration Historically, Ireland has always been a country divided; the division between the Republic of Ireland and the six counties in the North, within those areas, the division of religion,......

Words: 1810 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Irish Identity and Religious Diversity

... Programme Title: | Business, Economic and Social Studies | Module Title: | Introduction to Sociology | Assessment Title: | To what extent does the new religious diversity in Ireland challenge traditional definitions of Irish national identity? | Lecturer(s): | Daniel FaasAnna Siuda (TA) | Date Submitted: | 13/12/12 | I have read and I understand the plagiarism provisions contained in the General Regulations of the University Calendar found at: http://www.tcd.ie/calendar/assets/pdf/tcd-calendar-h-regulations.pdf I declare that the assignment being submitted represents my own work and has not been taken from the work of others save where appropriately referenced in the body of the assignment. Signed Date: This essay explores the extent to which new religious diversity in Ireland challenges traditional definitions of Irish national identity. National identity can be defined as the cultural outcome of a discourse of the nation. This concept of national identity exists for a number of reasons. It gives us a sense of collective belonging, it decides who should be allowed become a full citizen of the nation, and it influences the goals of a nation that are thought to be in the collective social interest (O’Mahony et al, 2001). Irish national identity used to depend on Catholicism. Although predominantly Roman Catholic, Ireland today is a multi-cultural society where all religions are embraced and respected as playing vital roles in the societal make-up......

Words: 1929 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Fact and Fiction of Irish Americans

...Fact and Fiction of Irish Americans History of the Immigration Beginning almost 300 years ago Irish immigrants were among the first large groups of people to migrate to the New World. With years of wars, famine, and religious persecution in Ireland, these people came to America to build a new life. Not afraid of hard work the Irish came and built a life they could be proud of; although the Irish American believes that they have been victim of discrimination. NINA ‘No Irish Need Apply’ and WASP ‘White Anglo Saxon Protestant’ is and ingrained belief that the Irish American’s “remember” (Jenson, 2004). Another current issue is the unjust treatment of the Irish seeking political asylum in the United States (McElrath, 1997). The first Irish immigrants came in the 1580s to the Carolinas long before the founding of the United States of America. It is believed that possibly hundreds of thousands of Protestant Irish immigrated in these early years. This is contrary to the urban myth of the Irish Catholic American origins (Meagher, 2009). The next big migration of Irish to America was in the 1700s to 1820s. These immigrants assimilated easily into the American way of life as most prospered at a rate that could not have been conceived in Ireland. “Nearly half of General Washington’s continental arm, including 1492 officers and 22 generals, were of Irish descent” (American Immigration law Foundation, 2001, p. 1). Even with the influx of Irish throughout early history of......

Words: 1191 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Irish Labour Markets

... During these times the unemployment rate was below 4%, there was little or no long term unemployment, which was more in line with the EU average. The issues surrounding mass emigration and the decline of the population had reversed and a surge in immigration and a rise in the population; one of the fastest growing populations in the EU. This was a time of boom for Ireland, caused mainly by the buoyancy of the global economy and the expansion of the US economy. This was prevalent with the amount of foreign direct investment that was coming from the US. A major period of economic expansion caused an increase in the construction industry. At the start of 2008, the construction industry accounted for 25% of Irish GDP and 20% of Irish jobs. At this time, the Irish government was in a false budgetary position where it ran significant exchequer surpluses. As a result, the then Fianna Fail government, which was in power at the time began a process of cutting taxes, increasing tax incentives for developers to build homes, increased the size of the public sector including increasing the public sector wage through a benchmarking processes that was deeply flawed and even encouraged people to save through the SSIA scheme which for every Euro saved, the government would contribute 25% to this fund. In addition, the government invested heavily in the capital spending program which led to many projects been delayed and saw excessive over runs in terms of cost. The Irish banking......

Words: 2659 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Irish Television

...finally in place and with a new regulator, the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland, emerging, one can expect significant changes in the coming five years. While the recession, which has hit media’s commercial revenue hard, currently dominates the boardrooms all Irish broadcasting businesses the real seismic change for broadcasting is not the economic downturn but the shift online and the convergence of content in a multi-platform environment. The public sector broadcast consists of Radio telefís na hEireann (RTE) and has provided a radio service since 1926 and a television service since 1961. As RTE is an organization it is subject to the nine member RTE authority appointed by the government, this consists of the RTÉ executive board, which is responsible for the day-to-day running of RTÉ and is headed by RTÉ’s director general, reports to the RTÉ Authority. At the given moment RTE is broadcasting three television services, RTE ONE , Network 2 and TG4 as well as four radio stations, Radio 1 , 2FM , Lyric FM and Radió na Gaeltachta. The PSB/RTE are also responsible for advertising, performing groups, publishing and transmission. RTE is dually funded with approximately 40 per cent of its annual revenues in recent times coming from licence fee revenue with the remainder from advertising (approx 50%), other broadcasting revenue and RTÉ Commercial Enterprises. In 2003 their was a significant increase in the licence fee, the new fee was now €150 a jump of €43 from the......

Words: 1409 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Irish Economy

...The Irish Economy The Celtic Tiger years were very exciting and prosperous for those who resided in Ireland. There were lots of investments being made, people were very care free about where they put their money as long as there was some sort of short-term profit available. Employment was up from 1.1 million to 1.9 million jobs available, population increased by 15% from 1996 to 2005 and unemployment was at a mere 4.4%. One of the most astounding statistics was that Ireland’s GDP was the second highest per capita in the European Union, during the times of the Celtic Tiger (Dorgan 2006). All seemed as if Ireland was the first success story of the creation of the Eurozone until the crash. After the creation of the Eurozone, the goal was to help struggling economies to use the power of the Eurozone to create growth and during the Celtic Tiger years it seemed to be working. However, the Eurozone was not doing its job of overseeing the activities of the country of Ireland and let it slip through the cracks. After the crash, unemployment soared which was caused by the huge loss of jobs in the construction market and young workers began leaving Ireland again in hopes of finding jobs. As a result, private debt was high and people lost trust in Irish Banks. Any hope of growth in the Irish economy was lost due to high percentages of debt in all sectors including households, financial and non-financial institutions, and within the government. Along with a complete loss of trust in the......

Words: 2110 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Irish Immigration

...Ian Fischer January 26, 2014 Paper #1 for Global Issues Irish Immigration Before and After the Potato Famine Globalization is to be defined as, “The worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration,” according to BusinessDictionary.com. The immigration to the exponentially growing United States had been open to all types of ethnicities and cultures throughout the 18th and 19th Century, and along the North-Eastern coast, the people of Ireland were settling. I chose this group and time frame, because I believe it represents globalization at its finest. Immigrants from Ireland had been immigrating to the United States before the Potato Famine, but it had been just the wealthy population of Ireland, because they could afford to start a new life in America. After the Potato Famine in the 1840’s, the majority of the immigrants were the surviving peasants of Ireland, which I will need to research why that was. As I searched for a background source by looking up Irish Immigration to the United States, I found a very informing and reliable website named Irishamericanjourney.com. After I read through this website, I was able to understand their culture and the reasoning behind why they left their country even before the Potato Famine, and how these Irish immigrants were accepted into American Culture and ideology. To find even more in depth information I used Google Scholar through the library’s database to explore what books and......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Irish Immigrants

...Migrating to Canada for the Irish emigrants was not something they did for leisure reasons, but more of a life or death decision put upon them. In the 19th century, England made Ireland a part of Great Britain rather than just a colony. Ireland became greatly over-populated, having a population of 8 million people. The agriculture and production of grain became extremely difficult due to the vast amount of people, and something needed to be changed. A new phenomenon spread across the country of switching from a grain based diet to potato, which took up way less room and was also highly nutritious. This worked wonders for the Irish until a huge disaster hit all: an airborne fungus that destroyed all the crops for several years. This left Ireland with the biggest ultimatum: to either stay there and most likely be faced with death, or to follow the quest for the new world in British North America. This phenomenon was embellished greatly by the British Empire so they could “free up land and lessen long-term financial obligation.” The British took full advantage of this famine, and continued to send the Irish off on vessels to Canada, making it our problem. The sick Irish continued to get sick, and the horrible conditions of the emigrant ships did not help. There were hundreds of poor people of all ages dying. The poor conditions included: lack of light, no clean air where they breathed in the diseases, sick people everywhere along with the rough immigration journey with a......

Words: 1519 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

History Irish

...History of Ireland From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search History of Ireland Wenzel Hollar's historical map of Ireland This article is part of a series Chronology Prehistory Protohistory 400–800 800–1169 1169–1536 1536–1691 1691–1801 1801–1923 Timeline of Irish history Peoples and polities Gaelic Ireland Lordship of Ireland Kingdom of Ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Republic of Ireland · Northern Ireland Topics Battles · Clans · Kingdoms · States Gaelic monarchs · British monarchs Economic history · History of the Irish language Ireland Portal v · d · e The first known settlement in Ireland began around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from continental Europe, probably via a land bridge.[1] Few archaeological traces remain of this group, but their descendants and later Neolithic arrivals, particularly from the Iberian Peninsula, were responsible for major Neolithic sites such as Newgrange.[2][3] On the arrival of Saint Patrick and other Christian missionaries in the early to mid-5th century AD, Christianity began to subsume the indigenous Celtic religion, a process that was completed by the year 600. From around AD 800, more than a century of Viking invasions brought havoc upon the monastic culture and on the island's various regional dynasties, yet both of these institutions proved strong enough to survive and assimilate the invaders. The coming of Cambro-Norman mercenaries under Richard de...

Words: 11293 - Pages: 46

Free Essay

The Irish

...The use of my strengths has been a very helpful resource in the past few months, although I started off a little bit weak in using them, and I believe I have been getting better and better at applying them in my daily life without even having to think about it. At the beginning I did not use my strengths all the time, or at least, the ones that were provided by the Signature Strengths Survey. I had to try to remember to use them in order to even remember that I had any strengths. However, as time has been passing and life has been going on, I have learned that there are times when I have used my strengths, especially my top strength, which is kindness and generosity, without even noticing that I was. I noticed that I am the kind of person who does not have to be thinking on the back of my mind that I have certain strengths which are prevalent in my persona, to actually be using them; in fact, a lot of them I practiced unconsciously, without even being aware of it. There were times where I was not using my strengths, not because I was not thinking about them, or because I did not want to, but rather because perhaps I was angry, or having a fight with someone and that affected the way the rest of my day went, not leaving me any space to be kind, or grateful, or even fair. At the moment, just like when I was using them I did not think about it, the same happens when I am not using them; it is not something that seems to matter at the moment, but rather when I go home......

Words: 898 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

This Time Is Different: Comparing Al-Qaeda’s Unique Place in the History of Terrorism with the Freedom Fighters of the Irish Republican Army

...“This Time is Different: Comparing Al-Qaeda’s Unique Place in the History of Terrorism with the Freedom Fighters of the Irish Republican Army” Al Qaeda and the Irish Republican Army are two of the most complex and famous terrorist organizations in modern history. While both groups share some principles with one another, and undoubtedly have committed and continue to commit horrible acts, the world’s perception of each is undoubtedly different from the other. There is an apparent contradiction in Karl Heinzen’s famous quote: “If to kill is always a crime, then it is forbidden equally to all; if it is not a crime, then it is permitted equally to all.”[1] This difference in public perception is a result of several key tenets of each organization’s strategy and structure. The IRA fights to protect and support the liberties of the Irish people, while Al Qaeda relies upon the religious doctrine of a radical Islamic minority to carry out jihad against Western infidels. Al Qaeda, while claiming to represent the entire Muslim world, has never had a real home or a consistent base to draw upon; inversely, a large proportion of the Irish people are steadfast in their support for the cause. Al Qaeda’s indiscriminate killing of innocent civilians has resulted in a falling out with a large percentage of its former supporters. Finally, the IRA had a distinct, tangible, and realistic goal of expelling the British from Ireland, while Al Qaeda seeks to establish a new caliphate based...

Words: 3638 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Irish Language

...The Irish Language INTRODUCTION What I am going to talk about in this essay is how the Irish Language played a huge part in the development of Ireland throughout the 20th century.I picked this topic because I think that the Irish Language was a key element of Irish nationalism. The Irish Language was part of Irelands separate identity, and we the Irish back in the day felt that its revival was vital if the country were to successfully pursue sovereignty. That’s why I picked this topic because I think this is very interesting and would like to learn more about the Irish language. MAIN BODY In 1893, The Gaelic League was founded with the aim of reviving the Irish language. Successful Irish Governments sought to re-establish the Irish Language as the native tongue. In 1924, the Department of Education began its work to co-ordinate a comprehensive primary and secondary school system. The most important aim was to increase participation in education and to make sure that the people of Ireland gained the basic skills of reading and writing. Gaelic became a badge of identity which distinguished the Irish from the British. The Cumann na nGeadheal Government sought to bring the language back into everyday life. One means of doing this was to translate Irish place names back into Gaelic. From 1922 onwards, signposts, addresses and maps were changed. By 1925, the civil service, Garda, armed forces and courts had all introduced Irish into their day to day affairs. In 1926 2RN and......

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Who Is Irish

...An Analysis of Who is Irish? by Carol Belanger In the United States, there are many immigrants from different countries and nationalities. It is probably the most ethnically diverse country in the world. Some people view it as a “melting pot” where a variety of cultures mix together and influence the overall culture. Others use the analogy of a quilt, woven by cloths from different colors and fabrics that comes out a whole piece. Despite this, gaps between different cultures still exist, especially for older immigrants, no matter how well they have assimilated. The cultural and life perspective of first generation Chinese immigrants are deeply rooted in China, even though some may have lived almost half of their lives here. Their offspring, the second generation, Chinese-Americans who grew up in the United States, hold different views than their parents. They have been Americanized just like the Chinese food at many restaurants in the United States. Because of this, the culture gap between these two generations is inevitable. In “Who is Irish”, the writer Gish Jen addresses the issues between a sixty-eight old Chinese born grandmother, who is the narrator, and her American born daughter, Irish American son-in-law-and granddaughter. As a permanent resident, the grandmother is not going anywhere, but she still feels uncomfortable with the cultural here. In the story, she ends up living with her son-in-law’s mother. The culture gaps in contemporary America are......

Words: 1090 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Computer Science Siwes Report on Time and Attendance Management (Jantek)

...KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCES, MATHS/STAT/COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT PMB 1101, LOKOJA, KOGI STATE A TECHNICAL REPORT ON STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) AT THE TIME OFFICE, DANGOTE CEMENT PLC OBAJANA BY AIYEDE JOHN E. 2010/ND/CPS/370 IN PARTIAL Fulfillment of THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF NATIONAL DIPLOMA (ND) IN COMPUTER SCIENCE. FEBRUARY 2012. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 SIWES The Student Industrial Work-Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a planned and supervised training intervention based on stated and specific learning and career objectives, and geared towards developing the occupational competencies of the participants. It is a skill Training programme designed to expose and prepare students of Agriculture, Engineering, Technology, Environmental, Science, Medical Sciences and pure and applied science for the Industrial work situation which they likely to meet after graduation. Duration of SIWES is four (4) months in Polytechnics at the end of ND I, four (4) months in College of Education at the end of NCE II and six (6) months in the Universities at the end of 300 or 400 or 500 levels depending on the discipline. Therefore, SIWES is generic, cutting across over 60 programmes in the universities, over 40 programmes in the polytechnics and about 10 programmes in the colleges of education. Thus, SIWES is not specific to any one course of study or discipline. In Nigeria, industrial......

Words: 4649 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Irish Republican Army

...Ireland into two areas: the Irish Free State, made up of the 26 southern counties, and Northern Ireland - comprising of the counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Londonderry, Tyrone and Fermanagh. Roman Catholics, who made up around one-third of the population of Northern Ireland, were largely opposed to the partition. Irish Republican Army (IRA), nationalist organization devoted to the integration of Ireland as a complete and independent unit. Organized by Michael Collins from remnants of rebel units dispersed after the Easter Rebellion in 1916 (see Ireland), it was composed of the more militant members of the Irish Volunteers, and it became the military wing of the Sinn Féin party. With the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, the IRA became the stronghold of intransigent opposition to Ireland's dominion status and to the separation of Northern Ireland. During the troubled early years of the Free State, the IRA was responsible for numerous bombings, raids, and street battles on both sides of the Irish border. Popular and effective at first, its fortunes turned after Eamon De Valera, a former IRA supporter, took over the Free State government in 1932. Weakened by internal dissensions, by a loss of popular support because of its violence and pro-German agitation during World War II, by the attainment of republican objectives in 1949, and by government measures against its illegal activities, the IRA declined swiftly. Eventually outlawed by both Irish governments, it......

Words: 2523 - Pages: 11