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Ion Exchange

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Submitted By teemukaz
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ion exchange
Process in which ions of one substance are replaced by similarly charged ions of another substance. In water softening, for example, the hardness causing calcium and magnesium ions are replaced by non- hardness causing hydrogen and sodium ions by passing the hard water over an ion-exchange resin. also a good example is H+ and Na+

Ion exchange (IX) processes are reversible chemical reactions for removing dissolved ions from solution and replacing them with other similarly charged ions. In water treatment, it is primarily used for softening where calcium and magnesium ions are removed from water; however, it is being used more frequently for the removal of other dissolved ionic species.
In a cation exchange process, positively charged ions on the surface of the IX resin are exchanged with positively charged ions available on the resin surface - typically sodium. Water softening is the most widely used cation exchange process. Similarly, in anion exchange negatively charged ions are exchanged with negatively charged ions on the resin surface - typically chloride.
Contaminants such as nitrate, fluoride, sulfate, and arsenic, as well as others, can all be removed by anion exchange.
The exchange medium consists of a solid phase of naturally occurring materials
(zeolites) or a synthetic resin having a mobile ion attached to an immobile functional acid or base group. Both anion and cation resins are produced from the same basic organic polymers but they differ in the functional group attached to the resin. The mobile ions are exchanged with solute ions having a stronger affinity to the functional group (e.g. calcium ion replaces sodium ion or sulfate ion replaces chloride ion).…...

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