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Investigatory Project

In: Science

Submitted By japs07
Words 2975
Pages 12
Republic of the Philippines
Mariano Marcos State University
Laoag City



Research Adviser




Research Adviser: Dr. Eva Macugay

University: Mariano Marcos State University - College Of Teacher Education
Brgy. 5, Castro Avenue, Laoag City

This study was designed to determine the feasibility of tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) fruit as pancake ingredient. The data on the organoleptic tests like appearance, texture and taste were used. The acceptability test used 5 Points Hedonic scale with corresponding numerical score (Highly acceptable, very acceptable, acceptable, not so acceptable, not acceptable).
Thirty (30) respondents were randomly selected at Brgy.10, San Jose and Brgy. 9, Sta. Angela, Laoag City. Results were statistically treated using mean average scores.
The formulation made of 25% tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) + 75% flour was recommended for making pancakes. The product was rated the most preferred in terms of taste, appearance and acceptability.
It was recommended that further improvement of appearance, texture and taste should be done to make the product better. The researchers also recommend the search for other ingredients that can be added to the product to improve its taste.
Table of Contents
Title Page 1
Abstract 2
Table of Contents 3
Chapter I- Introduction
Background of the Study 4
Statement of the Problem 5
Significance of the Study 6
Scope and Limitations
Chapter II- Review of Related Literature 7
Chapter III- Methodology 10
Experimental Design
Materials and Equipment 11-13
Collection of Raw Materials
Product Formulation
Ingredients and their Basic Proportions Mixing and Cooking Procedures Sensory Evaluation
Chapter IV– Findings, results, and discussions 14-16
Chapter V- Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 17
Bibliography 18
Appendices 19-21


Background of the Study
The Monosodium Glutamate MSG intake of school children is very alarming. Though these school children want a more nutritious snack, sometimes they can’t afford. Junk foods are the cheapest remedy, so there is a need to look for cheap yet nutritious alternatives for new recipes that can be introduced to the community.
Tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) is primarily grown for its fruits which are usually consumed for snacks and desert. Here in the Philippines, it is oftentimes ignored and the fruits just drop under the tree until they were rotten. Due to tremendous price increase and food crisis, a need to maximize the use of indigenous materials and crops that are available in the locality arised.
This study aims to utilize tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) as the alternative ingredient for pancakes and to provide its composition and nutritional qualities.
The necessity to serve nutritious yet inexpensive food and the abundance of local new materials encouraged the researchers to further investigate other products that can be made from tiyesa fruits.

Statement of the Problem
This research study aims to determine the potential of tiyesa as the main ingredient in making home-made pancakes. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. Is it possible to use tiyesa in making home-made pancakes? 2. Is it acceptable in color, texture and taste? 3. How do pancakes made from different formulations of tiyesa and flour differ in terms of: a) taste b) texture c) appearance, and d) general acceptability.


1. It is possible to use tiyesa in making home-made pancakes. 2. Tiyesa pancakes are acceptable in color, texture and taste.

Significance of the Study
The result of the study will be beneficial to:
Families and Schools. It makes parents and teachers to choose nutritious foods for students and be aware of the importance of vitamins and minerals that tiyesa can provide.
Entrepreneur. This provides an idea for entrepreneurs to produce this tiyesa pancakes which can be affordable and very nutritious.

Scope and Limitations of the Study
This research will be limited to the utilization of tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) as another version for pancakes. The data like the acceptability of the color, taste and texture that will be used in the study will be limited to the responses of 30 respondents. This project will be conducted at #30 McKinley St. Brgy. 10, San Jose, Laoag City.


“Tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma)”

Lucuma is a delicately flavored tropical fruit native to the cool highlands of coastal valleys in Peru. With its high nutritional value, it has been an important crop since ancestral times, proven by the many ceramic remains from the Moche and later Inca cultures alluding to this great fruit. In fact, it was once referred to as the Gold of the Incas. Its tasty flavor and aroma are hard to describe or compare to any other. Some may say it tastes like caramel custard and others a bit like pumpkin. Its texture, unlike most fruits, is dry, quite starchy and with a paste-like consistency that melts in your mouth.

The scientific name for this fruit is Pouteria Lucuma and it grows best at altitudes above 1,000 up to 2400 meters. It has an ovoid shape of about 5 to 8 cm long, green yellowish color when ripe. Pealing its thin skin reveals a dry and starchy orange-yellow flesh. Peru is the main producer, although it is also now grown in parts of Chile. The bulk of the production is used in dehydrated form with only a small percentage reaching the local markets to be consumed fresh. Once dehydrated, the lucuma powder (or flour) is mainly sold as flavoring to be used in ice creams and other dairy products.
Despite lucuma's dynamic sweetness, it is still amazingly low on the glycemic index which makes it a great treat without any downsides. It also contains healthy doses of fiber, vitamins and minerals and is especially high in beta carotene, iron and niacin (vitamin B3). Beta carotene, responsible for the beautiful orange hue of the fruit's flesh, helps aid your DNA in keeping cancer at bay while the B3 is known to help depression. Lucuma has been used for centuries in South America for its medicinal properties. The State University of New Jersey reported a study that evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of lucuma extract on wound healing and skin aging. Results of the trial determined that lucuma significantly increased wound closure and promoted tissue regeneration. The report of the study concluded that lucuma may have anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and skin-repair effects on human skin.
Lucuma is now being enjoyed as a popular ice cream flavoring in Peru but in US it is commercialized as powder. Lucuma fruit powder has a distinctively sweet and fragrant taste that provides a natural sweetening to desserts without increasing your blood sugar levels, unlike many sweeteners that offer empty calories. A healthy alternative to sugar, lucuma powder may be useful for diabetics and people with other health issues. Lucuma fruit powder can be added to any beverage, smoothie, yogurt, granola, pudding or pastry. Lucuma powder is ideal for making gourmet ice cream products, nutritional supplements and functional beverages because it helps combine and emulsify fats and oils with sugars and polysaccharides. You can use lucuma powder in baking cakes, cookies and pies to fortify the nutritional content of your dessert. Lucuma also makes healthy baby food. As with any food supplement, always consult with your doctor before altering your diet.

Pancakes are a type of flat sweet bread enjoyed by cultures around the world. Pancake recipes vary but all have the same basic ingredients of flour, eggs and milk. Some countries, like the United States and Canada, serve pancakes for breakfast while others, such as the European regions, serve pancakes as desserts or even side dishes. They are eaten plain, with butter, sprinkled with powdered sugar or filled with pastry, fruit or cheese. Whatever the tradition, pancakes are a truly universal and enjoyable treat.

Food Value
Pouteria lucuma is an amazingly generous tree originating in Peru's Andean region and today is grown in many places around the world. It has recently become popular as a dried powder flavoring, and production of fruits dried for export is increasing on a large scale. Lúcuma is a popular flavoring for ice cream in its native range, and in Chile and Peru even exceeds the demand for strawberry, chocolate, and vanilla.
Table1. Minerals composition of Pouteria lucuma Element | Concentration (g/100g) | CarbohydratesFiberProteinFats | 87 g2.3 g4 g2.4 g | | Concentration (mg/100g) | CalciumPhosphorus | 92 mg186 mg | Iron | 2% of the recommended daily value for iron | Calories | 329/100g |

Carbohydrates are one of the main types of food. Your liver breaks down carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this sugar for energy for your cells, tissues and organs. (
Fats are organic compounds that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are a source of energy in foods. Fats belong to a group of substances called lipids, and come in liquid or solid form. All fats are combinations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (
Proteins are the building blocks of life. The body needs protein to repair and maintain itself. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. (
Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that the body can't digest. Most adult women should shoot for over 20 grams of fiber a day; men should shoot for over 30 grams. Great sources are whole fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads and breakfast cereals, and all manner of beans. (
Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. (
Phosphorus is important for bone and protein formation, digestion and hormone balance. (
Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. The body needs iron to make the proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found in muscles. They help carry and store oxygen in the body. Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes in the body. (
Calorie is a pre-SI metric unit of energy. (


A. Experimental Design
The study was composed of two phases. Phase I was actual making or preparation of the product while Phase II dealt on the evaluation of the organoleptic properties of tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) mixed with flour and its acceptability. For Phase II, the evaluators composed of 30 respondents were randomly selected. The product was subjected to organoleptic test and acceptability test.

Sensory Evaluation
Sensory Evaluation
Gathering of tiyesa fruits
Gathering of tiyesa fruits
Frying the different treatments
Frying the different treatments

Preparing the needed materials
Preparing the needed materials
Mixing the ingredients of the different treatments
Mixing the ingredients of the different treatments

Mashing the tiyesa fruits
Mashing the tiyesa fruits
Washing the tiyesa fruits
Washing the tiyesa fruits

Flow Chart in the Conduct of the Study

B. Materials and Equipment

Ingredients for tiyesa pancakes were tiyesa fruit (mashed), flour, eggs, milk, baking powder, butter/vegetable oil, sugar and water.
The tools used were knife, chopping board, mixing bowls, frying pan, measuring cup, beaker, weighing scale.

C. Procedure

1. Collection of raw materials

The tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) were gathered at San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte. The fruits were washed thoroughly.

2. Product Formulation

This research focused on the formulation and improvement of recipes using tiyesa as an ingredient. This was conducted at Brgy. 10, San Jose, Laoag City on September 20, 2012.
The main ingredient was tiyesa (Pouteria lucuma) but substituted with different levels of flour. In the actual testing, the variation of the standard recipe was brought about by the different proportions of tiyesa. These are the treatments evaluated.

T1- 25% tiyesa+ 75% flour
T2-50% tiyesa + 50% flour
T3 -75% tiyesa + 25% flour
T4- 100% tiyesa

Ingredients and their Basic Proportions

The basic ingredients of tiyesa pancakes were mashed tiyesa and flour. The proportions of the ingredients of tiyesa pancakes in different treatments are shown in the table below (Table 1).
Table 1. Proportions of the ingredients for banana peel nuggets.

INGREDIENTS | AMOUNT | | T1 | T2 | T3 | T4 | Tiyesa | 75 g | 150 g | 225 g | 300 g | Flour | 225 g | 150g | 75 g | 0 g | Cornstarch | 20 g | 20 g | 20 g | 20 g | Egg | 2 pieces | 2 pieces | 2 pieces | 2 pieces | Milk | 150ml | 150 ml | 150 ml | 150 ml | Baking Powder | ½ teaspoon | ½ teaspoon | ½ teaspoon | ½ teaspoon | Butter/Vegetable Oil | 2 tablespoons | 2 tablespoons | 2 tablespoons | 2 tablespoons | Sugar | 5 tablespoons | 5 tablespoons | 5 tablespoons | 5 tablespoons | Water | 150 ml | 150 ml | 150 ml | 150 ml |

Mixing and Cooking Procedures:

The tiyesa fruits were washed thoroughly. All ingredients except oil were measured and mixed to the following proportions given. Mixed ingredients of different treatments were placed in different mixing bowls. Fried in cooking oil until it was golden brown. Set aside.

3. Sensory Evaluation

The product was evaluated by 30 respondents using the evaluation form which include taste, texture, and appearance acceptability.

Chapter IV

This chapter presents analysis and interprets the data gathered.

Table 1.Frequency count and average rating on appearance of the product.

Treatment | Highly Acceptable(5) | Very Acceptable(4) | Acceptable(3) | Not so Acceptable(2) | Not acceptable(1) | Average rating | Treatment 1 | 6 | 17 | 7 | 0 | 0 | 23.8 | Treatment 2 | 2 | 14 | 13 | 1 | 0 | 21.4 | Treatment 3 | 3 | 13 | 13 | 0 | 1 | 21.4 | Treatment 4 | 2 | 9 | 12 | 4 | 3 | 18.6 |

The table above revealed that treatment 1 with the average rating of 23.8 is the most preferred when it comes to appearance. It is followed by treatments 2 and 3 with an average of 21.4; and treatment 4 with an average of 18.6.

Table 2.Frequency count and average rating on texture of the product. Treatment | Highly Acceptable (5) | Very Acceptable(4) | Acceptable(3) | Not so Acceptable(2) | Not acceptable(1) | Average rating | Treatment 1 | 3 | 15 | 11 | 1 | 0 | 22.0 | Treatment 2 | 3 | 10 | 16 | 1 | 0 | 21.0 | Treatment 3 | 3 | 8 | 18 | 0 | 1 | 20.4 | Treatment 4 | 0 | 10 | 13 | 3 | 4 | 17.8 |

It can be inferred in the table above that treatment 1 with an average rating of 22.0 is the most preferred when it comes to texture. It is followed by treatment 2 with an average rating of 21.0; treatment 3 with 20.4 average rating and treatment 1,17.8

Table 3.Frequency count and average rating on taste of the product.

Treatment | Highly Acceptable (5) | Very Acceptable(4) | Acceptable(3) | Not so Acceptable(2) | Not acceptable(1) | Average rating | Treatment 1 | 3 | 16 | 7 | 3 | 1 | 21.4 | Treatment 2 | 5 | 9 | 10 | 5 | 1 | 20.4 | Treatment 3 | 6 | 10 | 13 | 1 | 1 | 22.4 | Treatment 4 | 3 | 12 | 12 | 1 | 2 | 20.6 | In the above table it can be inferred that treatment 3 with an average rating of 22.4 is the most preferred when it comes to taste. Followed by treatment 1 with an average of 21.4; treatment 4, 20.6; treatment 2, 20.4.

Table 4. General Average.

Treatment | Texture(rank) | Taste(rank) | Appearance(rank) | General Average | Treatment 1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 1.33 | Treatment 2 | 2 | 4 | 2.5 | 2.83 | Treatment 3 | 3 | 1 | 2.5 | 2.17 | Treatment 4 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 3.67 |

In the above table, treatment 1 is the most preferred in all aspects.

Table 5. Sensory and acceptability scores of the different formulations of tiyesa pancakes.

Treatment | | Sensory Qualities | | General | | Taste | Texture | Appearance | Acceptability | Treatment 1-25% tiyesa +75% flour | 23.8 | 22.0 | 21.4 | 22.4 | Treatment 2- 50% tiyesa +50% flour | 21.4 | 21.0 | 20.4 | 20.9 | Treatment 3- 75% tiyesa + 25% flour | 21.4 | 20.4 | 22.4 | 21.4 | Treatment 4- 100 % tiyesa | 18.6 | 17.8 | 20.6 | 19.0 |

Chapter V

Tiyesa were favorably processed into home-made pancakes. Tiyesa pancakes made from 25% tiyesa + 75% flour were most preferred in all parameters evaluated. The use of 25 % tiyesa + 75% flour is therefore recommended to attain the most acceptable in all aspects and is comparable to the standard pancakes. The researchers further recommended that the product will be tested by the BFAD to know the nutritional value of the finished product.





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... 2. Will this natural pesticide helps in getting rid of pests as commercial pesticides do? 3. To find out if the materials that will be used in the project can really be a pesticide or pest killer. C. Significance of the Study Pests are big problems of farmers today. They kill and destroy crops which affect the livelihood of the farmers. Pests also bring problems in our household. Pests like cockroach and rats. They carry bacteria to people. They give people diseases as well as it can harm and suffer from these diseases and causes death. This project will help a lot in getting rid of these pests. Pests which are found in the farms and in our houses. By making this natural pesticide, we can spend a small amount of money rather than buying expensive commercial pesticides sold in the market. And also by making our home made pesticides, we know the materials and the chemicals that are added to make our pesticide effective. Unlike the commercial ones, we don’t know what and how it was really made. We can also enjoy making this natural insecticide. We can learn more things while doing the project. And lastly, we can contribute in the decrease of pollution in our environment. D. Scope, Limitation and Delimitation The scope of the project is with the use of the pesticide. This natural pesticide can be used in getting rid of different pests. Pests that are problems in our houses and pests that......

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Investigatory Project

... This Research main goal is to find which of the two subjects is more effective and which of them is more suitable to be a stain remover also to see which of the two subjects is more Economical and Beneficial also to test the subject’s advantages and disadvantages. Research studies like these shows a person which of the subjects is more advisable to use or more effective to be able to remove stains E. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS This study entitled “A Comparative study between Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) leaves extract and Calamansi (CitrofunellaMicrocarpa) extract to see which is a better Stain Remover” was first planned and then gathered data and information and also conducted research and made interview to a reliable source. This project is only after the effect of the comparative study D. DEFINITION OF TERMS Comparative- is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, quantity, or degree; it is one of the degrees of comparison, alongside the positive and the superlative. Stain-is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. They are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials. Malunggay- is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. English common names include: moringa, drumstick tree, horseradish tree, ben oil tree, or......

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Investigatory Project

...investigatory Project The Feasibility of Saltwater as an Alternate Source of Energy Chapter I Introduction A. Background of the Study Philippines is a country that is surrounded by water. Saltwater is very abundant in our country; so, this study tries to find more uses of the saltwater. In this study, saltwater is used as a battery of a light bulb to prove that it can be a source of energy. This will possibly help solve the energy crisis that our country is suffering now. A compound can produce electric energy when it has enough oxygen in it. Saltwater is a kind of a compound that can possibly produce energy. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is also used in this study, to have more oxygen in the compound. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscousthan water. It is a weak acid. It has strong oxidizing properties and is therefore a powerful bleaching agent that is mostly used for bleaching paper, but has also found use as a disinfectant, as an oxidizer, as anantiseptic, and in rocketry (particularly in high concentrations as high-test peroxide or HTP) as a monopropellant, and in bipropellantsystems.[1] The oxidizing capacity of hydrogen peroxide is so strong that the chemical is considered a highly reactive oxygen species. Hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced as a byproduct of oxygen metabolism, and virtually all organisms possess enzymes known asperoxidases, which harmlessly and......

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