Premium Essay

Intro to Statistics Cheat Sheet

In: Other Topics

Submitted By kayla90
Words 1923
Pages 8
Statistics Cheat Sheet Proportion = Frequency x 100 = Percentage Total No | Z score (standardised value)-how many sds from the mean the value liesZ score = data value – mean Standard deviation | Metric Data = ExploreCategory = Frequencies | Bigger sample size will give a narrower confidence interval range (more specific) outliers affect the mean but not the median – this is why the median is preferred here. | | Reports -Only give confidence interval if signicant-All values to 2 dec pts except the p-value Experimental = IV is manipulated to see the effect on the DV
Observational = Information just observed & recorded | P-Value Significant Figurep-value < 0.05 = Significantp-value < 0.05 = Not Significant
The probability that our test statistic takes the observed value Always leave at 3 decimal places | Levene’s Test-Used to test if equal variancesIf significant (<0.05)– use equal variances not assumed rowIf not significant (>0.05)– use equal variances assumed row | Dependent Variable = the variable in which we expect to see a changeIndependent Variable = The variable which we expect to have an effect on the dependent variable Example: There will be a statistically significant difference in graduation rates of at-risk high-school seniors who participate in an intensive study program as opposed to at-risk high-school seniors who do not participate in the intensive study program." (LaFountain & Bartos, 2002, p. 57)IV: Participation in intensive study program. DV: Graduation rates. | Nuisance variable
- Associated with the DV
- Never the IV-Must Vary | Confounding Factor = a nuisance variable associated with both the DV & the IV
-Alters the logic of the experiment (cannot tell if it is the IV or the nuisance variable that is having an effect on the DV | Control by Nuisance variables & confounding factors…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ratio's Cheat Sheet

...Ratio Formula Cheat Sheet Prerequisite Formulas Used in the various ratio formulas below Measures the dollar amount of profit remaining after cost of goods sold and is used as the denominator in the Gross Margin calculation Used as the denominator in the Return on Assets calculation Used as the denominator in the Return on Equity calculation Used as the denominator in the Receivables Turnover calculation Used as the denominator in the Inventory Turnover calculation Profitability Ratio Formulas Used to measure how effective an organization is at generating profits Measures the percentage of each sales dollar remaining after cost of sales that contributes to funding the organization’s SG&A and other costs Measures the percentage of each sales dollar that remains after cost of goods sold and SG&A expenses Measures the percentage of each sales dollar that remains after all expenses Measures how effectively an organization uses its assets to generate profits Measures how effectively an organization uses the capital contributed by equity investors (excludes preferred stock) Measures the percentage of net income paid out as dividends Asset Utilization Ratio Formulas Used to measure the amount of time it takes or how efficiently assets are turned into cash Measures the number of times per year the balance of receivables is collected and shows how efficient an organization is in collections Measures the average number of days it takes from the time a sale is made until cash is......

Words: 555 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Statistics Cheat Sheet

...Statistic- is a number computed from a sample of data. It is characteristic of a sample. A summary measure that is computed from a sample to describe a characteristic. (Numerical summary of the population) (Ex. The proportion of females randomly selected from the registered voters of a county or the average time it takes for the first 5 students to complete an exam) Parameter- A characteristic (numerical summary) of the entire population. A number computed from the entire population usually unobservable. Subject- the entities that we measure in a study. Population- the collection of all subjects under study. Proportion- of the observations that fall in a certain category is the frequency (count) of observations in that category divided by the total number of observations. Proportion and percentages (aka relative frequencies) Probability- the chance that an even will occur. Sample- a subset of the population. Random Samples are most valid. Design- Plan for how the data will be collected. Two events are dependent if the outcome or occurrence of the first affects the outcome or occurrence of the second so that the probability is changed. Sample Space- set of all possible outcomes for a random phenomenon Variables (COLUMNS)- characteristics or measurements on the subject. Event-subset of the sample space Description- summarizing the data that are obtained. Descriptive Statistics- methods for summarizing the data. Usually consists of bar graphs and...

Words: 12484 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Cheat Sheet for Statistics 1

...Question 1 # sold | P(x) | 0 | 0.1 | 1 | 0.11 | 2 | 0.2 | 3 | 0.23 | 4 | 0.3 | 5 | 0.06 | Question 2: The average rate of occurrence of accidents was 8.15 per week. A) during that time, what is the probability of getting less than 3 accidents a week? Use poisson for this question. Since it is less that 3 accidents, x = 0,1,2 (Px=o) = [(8.15^0) (e^8.15)] / 0! = 0.00288735. (Px=1) = [(8.15^1) (e^8.15)] / 1! = 0.002353193. (Px=2) = [(8.15^2) (e^8.15)] / 2! = 0.009589362. Add all these results together, and p(x<3) is 0.01223119. B) The probability if an accident on the road is 0.295. Out of 10 reportable accidents, what is the probability that 2 occurred on the road? Use Binomial for this. Since it is exactly 2, we need to find P(x=2). Use the binomial formula, n = 10, x = 2, p = 0.295, and q is 0.705. = 10!/2!(10-2)! * 0.205 ^2 * q^ 10-2. Answer is 0.23898436. Question 3: 15% of drivers have a probationary license and 85% have a regular license. In a given year, 10% of drivers with probationary licenses are involved in an accident. 2.5% of regular drivers are involved in an accident. For this question it is better to draw a tree diagram. Question 4: Mean values for income for men are 100K, for woman, 80K. SD deviations of 20K and 15K respectively. Variables are normally distributed and independent. Calculate the 95th percentile, for men income. 95th p = 0.95. In the zscore table, we find a value of 1.64. Us e the formula for z-score (population) : ......

Words: 9115 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Intro to Statistics

...Lecture 1 What is Statistics? One of the tools to understand information is “Statistics”. Example 1: Suppose you are at the grocery store and wish to buy a frozen pizza. One of the pizza makers has a stand, and they offer a small wedge of their pizza. After sampling the pizza, you decide whether to purchase the pizza or not. In this example, you make a decision and select a course of action based on a sample. Example 2: On a national level, a candidate for the office of a Chief Minister of Lahore wants to know what percent of the voters in Gulberg will support him in the upcoming election. There are several ways he could go about answering this question. He could have his staff call all those people in Gulberg who plan to vote in the upcoming election and ask for whom they plan to vote. He could go out on a street in Lahore, stop 10 people who look to be of voting age, and ask them whom they plan to vote. He could also select a random sample of 2,000 voters from the city, contact these voters, and, on the basis of this information, make an estimate of the percent who will vote for him in the upcoming election. Why we study statistics? 1) Data are everywhere. We need statistics to understand and analyze the information, 2) Statistical techniques are used to make many decisions that affect our lives, and 3) Statistical methods will help you make these decisions more effectively. What is meant by statistics? A collection of numerical information is called “Statistics”, e.g. the......

Words: 1340 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cheat Sheet for Business Law

...Chapter 13 Intention to create legal relations ‘Honour’ clauses: not entered into as formal agreement. expressly intention: consider term expressly and clearly state the parties intention. Implied intention: the courts have to determine objectively whether the parties intended the agreement to be legally enforceable. Society agreement: ones made b/w friends or acquaintances.. other domestic agreement: voluntary agreement, commercial or business agreement. Government contract,AD, 1. Trevey v Grubb (1982) social 中奖一人独吞A three person syndicate won in the lottery. The ticket was in the name of D, who refused to share the prize. This was a social agreement. The nature of the agreement betw. parties was that they must have agreed that it would be enforced in the event of them winning. Thus, there was a contract and P was entitled to share of the winning in proportion to her contribution. 2. Balfour v Balfour [1912] domestic 成功拒绝付生活费D left apart with his wife, and promises to pay $30 a month. But he refused to continue pay. This was a domestic arrangement ‘bcs. the parties did not intend that they should be attended by legal consequences’. At the time the agreement was made the courts did not consider that the marriage had broken down. 3. Merritt v Merritt [1970] family 离婚,但是还要给利息The D left his wife. The parties reached an agreement whereby the D was to transfer his interest in the jointly owned matrimonial home to P. P should succeed, bex. the parties are separated. The......

Words: 6157 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Statistics Cheet Sheet

...B+D/M+N) - P(X and T) P(X or Y) =(M/M+N) + (N/ M+N) - P( X and Y) P(A) = # times A observed/ Total # outcomes (N). A tree diagram -no. of outcomes of events and the sample space. 1) 2) 3) 4) X Y Z A C A+C T B D A+D A+B=M C+D=N M+N Folosim N=n*m =>goes back into the pool. Avem m ways of doing A and n ways of doing B. How many possibilities? Folosim N=n! if the outcome after is chose does not go back into the pool.In how many ways we can arrange x things? X! Daca trebuie sa alegem din n  k si conteaza ordinea. How many possibilities? Pnk =n! / (n-k)! Daca trebuie sa alegem din n  k si NU conteaza ordinea. How many possibilities? Cnk = n! / ((n-k)!* k!) Relative Frequency = Frequency of A/ Total Frequency = P(A). While statistics (proportions-population) - past events, Probability (sample) - future events. 1) A U B, A or B P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B) Mutually exclusive => P(A and B)=0 2) P(B/A) Independent=P(B). Dependent=P(B/A)= P(A and B)/ P(A) 3) Intersection A ∩ B ///Dependent :P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B|A) Independent Events: P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B) 4) A stands for “not A” ; Complement Rule: P(A) + P(not A) = 1; P(A) = 1- P(not A); P(At least one) = 1 – P(none) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………. 1)UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION: The area under the uniform distribution: P( Mx1 ) z1= 1 - CI% x% (confidence interval dat) of the observation fall below X 3) BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION: calculez :......

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cheat Sheet

...attendance in the events * Easy to promote surveys, and feedbacks while waiting in lines * Affordable and convenient * Free of Charge (QR generator and URL) * | * Lack of familiarity: business are using the QR code to advertise information that a potential customer might be interested in, but if the customer doesn’t know how to find the information. (vs. product knowledge) * Code’s dependability on a mobile device or smartphone: If a consumer does not have a mobile device or smartphone, then the QR code is not beneficial to them and they lose out. | * | * | * Geographical Information System- computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earth’s surface. #General Statistics #VanRealty #Google Map #Population Density) * Benefits | * Limitation | * Better efficiency * Improve communication * Better decision making * Better record keeping * Managing geographical information * Improve management of organization and resources (combine divisions share their data) * Power to create maps with images shown * * GIS (using Cloud Computing) * - Real time update * - Sharing, collaboration between offices | * Data collection and generating required information is expensive * Requires enormous amount of data which Makes it prone for error * Geographical error increases with larger scale * Learning (Training) is hard, complicated (Lack of qualified staff) * Violation of......

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Vi Cheat Sheet Editor “Cheat Sheet” Invoking vi: vi filename Format of vi commands: [count][command]Command mode versus input modeVi starts in command mode. The positioning commands operate only while vi is in command mode. You switch vi to input mode by entering any one of several vi input commands. (See next section.) Once in input mode, any character you type is taken to be text and is added to the file. You cannot execute any commands until you exit input mode. To exit input mode, press the escape (Esc) key.Input commands (end with Esc)a Append after cursor i Insert before cursor o Open line below O Open line above :r file Insert file after current lineAny of these commands leaves vi in input mode until you press Esc. Pressing the RETURN key will not take you out of input mode.Change commands (Input mode) cw Change word (Esc)cc Change line (Esc) - blanks line c$ Change to end of line rc Replace character with c R Replace (Esc) - typeover s Substitute (Esc) - 1 char with string S Substitute (Esc) - Rest of line withtext . Repeat last changeChanges during insert mode <ctrl>h Back one character <ctrl>w Back one word <ctrl>u Back to beginning of insert | VI “Cheat” SheetACNS Bulletin ED–03Februa ry 1995(count repeats the effect of the command)File management commands :w name Write edit buffer to file name :wq Write to file and quit :q! Quit without saving changes ZZ Same as :wq :sh Execute shell commands (<ctrl>d)Window motions ...

Words: 1256 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cheat Sheet

...= × + × × √ L= no of weeks, Z= given, Avg from table = √ 2 × × Q= Items/order, K =5550/orders , h =invt holding cost =1.25/unit/week = /2 +( × × √) () = × ℎ = × / = × ( + ) = + + st (a) Sequential Supply Chain:: (i) Retailer’s profit= Minimum of Demand and Order × Selling Price + Salvage Value × Surplus Product – Order × Whole price paid by the retailer – Fixed Production Cost (ii) Manufacture’s profit= Order × (Whole price paid by the retailer – Variable Production Cost) (b) Global Optimization: Profit= Minimum of Demand and Order × Selling Price + Salvage Value × Surplus Product – Order × Variable Production Cost – Fixed Production Cost (c) Buy Back Contract: : Retailer’s Profit= Minimum of Demand and Order × Selling Price + manufacturer buy back price × Surplus Product – Order × Whole price paid by the retailer – Fixed Production Cost Manufacturer’s Profit= Order × (Whole price paid by the retailer – Variable Production Cost) + Salvage Value × Surplus Product - Surplus Product × manufacturer buy back price (d) Revenue Sharing: Retailer’s Profit= Minimum of Demand and Order × Selling Price × (1-Revenue Sharing) + Salvage Value × Surplus Product – Order × Whole price paid by the retailer – Fixed Production Cost Manufacturer’s Profit= Order × (Whole price paid by the retailer – Variable Production Cost) + Minimum of Demand and Order × Selling Price × (Revenue Sharing) Supply chain management is......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

A Cheat Sheet for Acc Exam

...unnoticed by everyone, including the auditors. Assuming that no other errors were ever made, what would be the effect of this error on the balance sheet and income statement of 2016? A. Understate inventory and Overstate COGS. B. Overstate inventory and Understate COGS. C. Understate inventory and have no effect on COGS. D. None of the above. 13. When applying the Lower-of-Cost-or-Market rule for inventory, companies determine designated market as replacement cost subject to which limits? A. A ceiling of Estimated Sales Price minus Costs of Completion and Disposal. B. A floor of Estimated Sales Price minus a Normal Profit Margin. C. Both A and B. D. None of the above. 14. Which of the following cost is not a product cost? A. Freight-in. B. Insurance. C. Freight-out. D. Handling fees. 16. Mill Company uses Periodic LIFO. On December 23, it orders goods to be shipped FOB shipping point from a vendor. On December 29, the vendor ships the goods. Mill does not receive the goods until January 3 of the next year and disregards accounting for any of that inventory purchase until that date. If Mill’s year end is December 31, what are the consequences on that date of Mill’s actual accounting of the inventory? A. Mill’s records will be correct. B. Inventories and Accounts Payable will be understated on the year-end Balance Sheet. C. Purchases and Ending Inventory will be understated in the calculation of COGS for the Income Statement. D. Both B and C. 17.......

Words: 2179 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Mgmt Cheat Sheet

...flexibility dimensions that a process or supply chain actually possesses and is able to deliver. results. Order Winner: The criterion customers use to differentiate the services or products of one firm from those of another. Ex: Happy Meals. “We are this…” Order Qualifier: The minimum level required from a set of criteria for a firm to do business in a particular market segment. Ex: Fast Service, Low Cost, Location. Steps in Decision Making: Problem Recognition, Prob Formulation (develop objectives, criteria and gen. alts), Analyze alts, Choose best solution b. on criteria, Impl. Dec., Breakeven Analysis: Breakeven Point is the volume at which Total Revenues=Total Cost. A tipping point where your org goes from losing money to earning profit Intro or no Pref Matrix: Table that allows a manager to rate alts according to several performance criteria. The alt with highest score is the preferred alt. Pref Matrix Advantages: Allows managers to incorp multiple criteria into their decision-making. Allows manager to incorporate relative importance of different criteria. Pref Matrix Disadv: Subjective approach req man judgment that may not reflect the diff btwn alts. Man states weights before examining alts, may not know what’s important. Pref Matrix Criticism: Allows one very low score to be overridden by high scores on other factors. May cause managers to ignore important signals. Decision-Making Environments: Decision making under certainty. Decision making under......

Words: 2086 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Cheat Sheet

...importance of topic; startle audience; arouse curiosity; question audience; begin with quotation; tell story Credibility – Perception of speaker’s qualifications Goodwill – Perception of whether speaker has best interests of audience in mind Preview statement – Statement in intro identifying main points of body Preparing intro – Be concise (10-20%); look for materials as you research; be creative; finalize after body is done; work out content, delivery in detail Conclusion – Signal end of speech; reinforce central idea Crescendo ending – Building to zenith of power intensity Dissolve ending – Generating emotional appeal by fading to dramatic final statement Reinforcing central idea – Summarize speech; end with quotation; make dramatic statement; refer to intro Preparing conclusion – Look for materials while researching; conclude with bang, not whimper; be brief (5-10%); work out content, delivery in detail Preparation outline – Detailed outline developed during speech preparation Prep. outline contents – Title; specific purpose; central idea; introduction; main points; sub points; connectives; conclusion; bibliography Preparation outline – Guidelines: state specific purpose; identify central idea; label intro, body, conclusion; use consistent pattern of symbolization, indentation; state main points, sub points in full sentences; label transitions, internal summaries, internal previews; attach bibliography; provide title Visual framework – symbolization &......

Words: 1430 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Acc331 Cheat Sheet

...ACC331 Cheat Sheet Exam 1 Chapter 1 Horizontal Equity- equally situated persons pay equal taxes. Where income tax wins. Vertical Equity- Persons with different amounts of income pay different amounts of tax. 16th amendment-the congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. Statute of Limitations- federal 3 years regular, 6 years-omit>25% of gross income, none-fraud. State may be different, Michigan regular is 4. FICA(federal insurance contributions act)-social security tax -social security 6.2% 2010 4.2% 2011. Base amount is 106,800 -medicare 1.45% FUTA(federal unemployment tax act) 6.2% on first $7,000 of wages Chapter 3 Basic Tax Structure -Economic income (+)only place where u add stuff when determining GI -Gross Income -Adjusted Gross Income (-) -Taxable Income (-) -Tax (-) -Tax Due (-) Tax Formula for Individuals Income Less:exclusions GI Less:deductions for AGI Adjusted Gross Income Less: the greater of Total itemized deductions Or standard deduction Less: personal and dependency exemptions Taxable income Tax on taxable income Less:tax credits Tax due (or refund) *economic income---- exclusions *gross income—deductions for AGI AGI -itemized deductions or standard deduction *itemized deductions are related to production or collection of income and management of property held for......

Words: 2469 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Statistics Work Sheet

...we reject the Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, unequal variance) Prada Oracle 12.170 14.875 mean 1.056 2.208 std. dev. 10 12 n 16 df -2.7050 difference (Prada - Oracle) 0.7196 standard error of difference 0 hypothesized difference -3.76 t .0017 p-value (two-tailed) -4.2304 confidence interval 95.% lower -1.1796 confidence interval 95.% upper 1.5254 margin of error From the results, we are able to conclude that the difference in the mean times is -2.7050. This tableis the results from an independent t-test, showing the differences between Prada and Oracle. The independent sample t-test is used to compare the mean difference between two groups and in this case, the difference in mean times is -2.7050. If the value of the test statistic is beyond a critical value then there is less than a 5% chance we would obtain that outcome if the null hypothesis were correct, so in this case we reject the null hypothesis...

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Geography Cheat Sheet

...Geography Test 4 Cheat Sheet Mineral- inorganic naturally occurring substance with a distinct chemical formula and a distinct crystalline form Rock-Aggregate of multiple grains of the same minerals Earth’s crust is made up of 8 elements oxygen 47% silicon 28% Al 8% Fe 5% Calcium 3.6% Sodium 2.8% Potassium 2.7% Magnesium 2% Every mineral has physical characteristics that aid in identification Hardness scale 1-10 chalk (1) and diamond (10) Luster-How shiny Cleavage-how it breaks Rocks are held together by a chemical bond Most common is oxygen and silica SiO2 which has 92% of the Earth’s crust. Granite is silicate. CaCO3 limestone forms in warm waters 3 types of rocks: Igneous- molten rock that has cooled and solidified Felsic- rock that is light color and light weight Mafic- heavy rocks are dark given it has a lot of metal Sedimentary-derive from accumulated sediment fragment of rocks ex: limestone, clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulder Metamorphic- rock that has been changed and does not go into an igneous state Limestone=marble Sandstone-quartzite Fluvial process- River process Igneous(cools fast)- small crystal Igneous(cools slow)- large crystals Sedimentary- erodes, is transported, and later becomes rocks, sandstone and metamorphic (crystalline structure changed due to heat and pressure) Erosion- Process by which particles are separated from original site and deposit at a new site Arid and semiarid- wind and water are the main sources of......

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5