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Intro to Statistics Cheat Sheet

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Submitted By kayla90
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Statistics Cheat Sheet Proportion = Frequency x 100 = Percentage Total No | Z score (standardised value)-how many sds from the mean the value liesZ score = data value – mean Standard deviation | Metric Data = ExploreCategory = Frequencies | Bigger sample size will give a narrower confidence interval range (more specific) outliers affect the mean but not the median – this is why the median is preferred here. | | Reports -Only give confidence interval if signicant-All values to 2 dec pts except the p-value Experimental = IV is manipulated to see the effect on the DV
Observational = Information just observed & recorded | P-Value Significant Figurep-value < 0.05 = Significantp-value < 0.05 = Not Significant
The probability that our test statistic takes the observed value Always leave at 3 decimal places | Levene’s Test-Used to test if equal variancesIf significant (<0.05)– use equal variances not assumed rowIf not significant (>0.05)– use equal variances assumed row | Dependent Variable = the variable in which we expect to see a changeIndependent Variable = The variable which we expect to have an effect on the dependent variable Example: There will be a statistically significant difference in graduation rates of at-risk high-school seniors who participate in an intensive study program as opposed to at-risk high-school seniors who do not participate in the intensive study program." (LaFountain & Bartos, 2002, p. 57)IV: Participation in intensive study program. DV: Graduation rates. | Nuisance variable
- Associated with the DV
- Never the IV-Must Vary | Confounding Factor = a nuisance variable associated with both the DV & the IV
-Alters the logic of the experiment (cannot tell if it is the IV or the nuisance variable that is having an effect on the DV | Control by Nuisance variables & confounding factors…...

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