Free Essay

Information Is Knowledge

In: English and Literature

Submitted By nidhi0212
Words 1436
Pages 6
Information is not knowledge, merely one of the raw materials needed to obtain it. Just as a pile of bricks is not a house -even though bricks are the raw materials necessary to build it- a pile of data is not a doctoral thesis, not even a newspaper article, although information is also the raw material you need to write them.
Nobody in their right mind would mistake a house for a pile of bricks. However, this rather clumsy equivalence between something necessary –but not sufficient– to obtain an end in itself is often found in the public discourse on knowledge and information. This causes serious damage when understanding and managing the processes for acquiring knowledgeand assessing the capacity for action and communication between people, all of which are essential issues for human coexistence, the economy, and one of the cornerstones ofsociety.
Before a pile of bricks can become a house we need a few more elements, but above all we need something fundamental, something that’s missing from the pile of bricks: order. The bricks in the pile are disordered, unlike the bricks in a house which are arranged in groups and joined together following a very complex order in order to achieve a specific end, namely to build a house.
Exactly the same thing happens with knowledge: information, data, and other items of information arranged haphazardly or in elementary groups (for example in a database) are like a pile of bricks and –although some people insist on claiming otherwise– are far from being knowledge in themselves. For that reason they cannot be used directly to understand the world and everything that goes on in it or to take the right decisions based on that knowledge; in the same way that a pile of bricks would be no use if we wanted to live in it.
Just as the transformation of a pile of bricks into a house requires an order -an architectural and construction design that joins them together and organizes them to form a structure destined to fulfill an end (its use as a house)- the transformation of a set of information into knowledge requires a mental representation, a conceptual structure, a model that links and organizes the data in such a way that they form a machine that enables them to be used for thinking and understanding.
Of course, both building a house out of bricks and shaping knowledge from information involve much more complex processes than this, but this is the essence. Therefore, it is just as stupid to assume that if we have information we have knowledge as it is to think that we have a house when we only have a pile of bricks. Or worse still, to believe that if you know how to get hold of or buy bricks you can have a magnificent house whenever you want… It is therefore a monumental error to claim that the information society is the same thing asthe knowledge society; and it is also a mistake to assume that the arrival of the first implies or automatically leads to achieving the second.
No such confusion exists in academic circles. In fact, even Wikipedia makes a clear distinction between the information society and the knowledge society. So, the problem is not the ignorance of academics and specialists, but the repetition ad infinitum in the public arena of a misleading -if not simply false- discourse that considers both concepts to be equivalent and adds to the general confusion, including that of a fair number of political and business leaders.
There is an obsessive insistence on demographics and technical aspects: number of users, quality of the networks…, no doubt important basic considerations, but which overlook the fact that this narrow view is leading them straight into a trap or -even worse- down the path of self-delusion. Because –for example– there is no point in having a high percentage of Internet connections if people go online only to play games, look at naked women, or do their shopping… This doesn’t mean that it is not important to have a high number of technologically well-connected users; quite the reverse: it allows a number of important things: e-mail, browsing web pages, important relationships over the social networks; it stimulates commerce, offers significant opportunities for learning, increases efficiency in official transactions, avoids travel… in addition to a long list of other advantages that of course include and imply easy access to information -to vast quantities of information. But none of the above is the same as having attained the knowledge society.
In a developed country like our own an important part of the population is already living in the information society, as it is relatively easy for them to obtain this information –the data– or to know where to get it (quite aside from the matter of the quality of that information; but for the sake of simplicity, let us forget this aspect -which is nonetheless far from trivial). Now, just as very few people know how to transform piles of bricks into houses, there are also very few people who know how to transform information into useful knowledge.
So what do we need to be able to arrive at the knowledge society without becoming stranded along the way, trying to live in a pile of bricks? Well basically, a rather rare commodity which –to judge by the evidence– very few of our leaders consider to be essential: a significant number of people who are capable of making good houses out of piles of bricks. Because in order to ensure that the available information is really useful and well utilized, we need people –and not just a few– who know how to transform it into useful mental representations for engaging with the world; that is to say, into knowledge. And here the problem ceases to be one of networks, bandwidths, speeds and equipment, and becomes something much more intangible, complicated and difficult to achieve: people’s training and culture.
The capacity for the efficient application of information and its transformation into useful knowledge is a growing function of users’ training and culture. Because even though the ingredients may be first-class, if the cook is bad, the meal will be bad too. And in this matter we should also differentiate two related but dissimilar elements: on the one hand, the technical capacity to operate in a particular sphere (for example professional), which tends to be known as training; and on the other, culture, which is the capacity to understand what the world is like and how it works, to think about it logically and methodically and to be able to contextualize the new information and combine it with the information already in our possession in order to arrive at representations and models of reality that allow us to interact and operate effectively with it.
The first is achieved with professional teaching and techniques (including direct practical application of specific knowledge) in its broadest sense, in everything from plumbing, pastry making and tree pruning, to medicine, engineering or law. The second with culture with a capital C: the study and practice of sciences -particularly mathematics- and humanities -especially philosophy. These are the tools that make it possible to think methodically and to manage and create models for understanding things. And what is the situation in Spain in this regard? Well, reasonably good in the first but absolutely terrible in the second. And the worst of it all is that our political and business leaders, many of whom are semi-literate about their responsibilities –and quite a few sensu stricto–, have fed into a technologistic -not technological! -culture with a lamentable lack of foresight, thereby inculcating in a large part of society the most absolute contempt for thought, theoretical knowledge, and any intellectual effort beyond mere course, clumsy and immediate practical exercise. And if most of the population subscribes to this view, however much information -all the bricks in the world- they have at their disposal, they are very unlikely to be able to build any satisfactory houses with them.
It is therefore highly probable that we will reach the much vaunted information society, but that we will be incapable of ever arriving at the knowledge society, and it is the latter that will allow us to change our productive model and cease to be a country dedicated above all to building houses with which to speculate, and to waiting on tourists. Santiago Graiño Knobel
Co-director of the Master’s Degree in Journalism and Communication of Science, Technology and Environment at Carlos III University in Madrid (Spain)…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Managing Communications Knowledge and Information

...options and make a sound decision which is commensurate with the goals of the organization.” Self Powering Tips (2007-2010) Managerial role decision making.[Online] www.selfempoweringtips.com/decision-making/Managerial-Role-And-Decision-Making.htm (Accessed: 19 October 2012 15:48) Autocratic - The manager solves the decision himself on the basis of information available to him or given to him. Consultative - The manager shares the problem then makes a decision which may or may not reflect the influence of others. Participative - The manager shares the problem with his followers. Together they generate and evaluate ideas and attempt to reach agreement. The three stages of decision making consist of the introduction – the information of the product you are looking at purchasing. Once you have the all the product information you can then analyse and compare with other products on the market. After analysing the product you then make the decision whether the product is what the organisation is looking for and if it will be cost effective Strategic decisions are long term decisions that are normally made at director level and impact the organisation as a whole whether it is an introduction of a new policy or change to an existing policy. These decisions can impact on functional decisions made within the business. Managers......

Words: 441 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Managing Information Knowledge and Communication

... | | | |Assignment No. & title |1601, Managing Communications, Knowledge and Information | |This assignment covers the following assessment criteria | |Outcomes |Criteria | |LO1. Understand how to assess |1.1 discuss the range of decisions to be taken | |information and knowledge needs | | | |1.2 examine the information and knowledge needed to ensure effective taking | | |1.3 assess internal and external sources of information and understanding | | |1.4 justify recommendations for improvement | |LO2. Be able......

Words: 1036 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Managing Communications, Knowledge and Information

...range of decisions to be taken. AC 1.1. 1.2: Examine the information and knowledge needed to ensure effective decision taking AC 1.2. 1.3: List internal and external sources of information and understanding. Assess these sources and justify their suitability and reliability in relation to the business start up. AC 1.3 1.4: Recommend any improvements in the methods used in the selection and analysis of information needed for the business start ups. Justify your answer. AC 1.4 For the second part of the report you are required to develop strategies to increase your personal networking skills and your involvement in the decision making process. 1.5: Identify stakeholders for a decision-making process in relation to starting up above mentioned business. AC 2.1 1.6: Make contact with those identified and develop business relationships for your organisation. Discuss ways to make contact with these stakeholders and methods you should use to develop a business relationship with them. AC 2.2. 1.7: Prepare a plan on how to involve those identified in the decision making. AC 2.3. 1.8: Design strategies for future improvements in personal networking to widen involvement in the decision making process. AC 2.3. Task 2 Using the context of your current or previous workplace, prepare a report addressing the following: 2.1: Provide a brief business overview (business description, legal status, mission statement, general information, product/service description). You do not need to......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Managing Communication, Knowledge and Information

...organisation. I am focusing on a bricks and mortar business. A business plan is usually drafted by start-up businesses a range of information can be found in this document. Task 1 1.1: Discuss a range of decisions to be taken * What source of finance to use to start the business * How to find suppliers * The location * What strategies to put in place to deal with the competition Finance There are different sources of finance available for starting up a new business. The organisation needs to know the range of sources of finance and how it will affect the business in the long and short term. Sources of Finance could be Internal or external. Information on sources of external finances are available in different forms e.g. if it’s a bank loan information can be found on the banks website, leaflets or from a bank personnel. Information includes rates of interest to be paid on bank loan over what period of time. Suppliers The relationship between an organisation and its supplier is very important, as suppliers ensure both the price and quality of the product you sell. The supplier’s price dictates how much you sell your product for and the amount of profit you make. Information on suppliers can be found at trade shows in the form of direct information (person to person), industry contact (word of mouth), yellow pages (written information) or websites. Location It is important to find the appropriate location to start a new business. This can be done......

Words: 2160 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Information Knowledge

...Information With the introduction of internet based companies many people have moved to storing or using critical information to different media devices. In the past most information was stored in lock boxes or other storage devices, but over the last few years a lot of these forms of information have been stored on devices such as home computers, handheld devices, or laptops. With these abilities to store personal information comes more risk than most people realize, but with new technology and awareness many new ways have emerged to secure this information. Many software companies have helped to develop ways to monitor these devices in real time as well as develop abilities to encrypt sensitive information. And as an added feature these files can be sent with encryption features to ensure safe delivery through the World Wide Web.And as an added feature these files can be sent with encryption features to ensure safe delivery through the World Wide Web. Many other features such as firewall prevention help to protect internet based devices from visiting sites that at high risk of data breaches and malware. With knowledge of these risks the responsibility still falls in the hand of the user to make sure personal data is used in a safe way to prevent a loss of valuable information that may be used to harm the user through either personal data or corporate material. Many computers know have software that helps to detect data breaches as well malware. This field is ever growing......

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Managing Communication Knowledge and Information

...London School of Business & Management BTEC Levels 4 & 5 HND Business Centre No Unit No & Unit Title 79829 Unit 16: Managing Communications, Knowledge and Information HND Business Year 1 ( BTEC Level 4 ) Dr Knowledge Mpofu Improving Heathrow Airport - 3rd Runway Plans: Individual Assignment MCKI Assignment 24th September 2014 09th January 2015 Course Title Lecturer’s Name Assignment Title & Type Assignment Title Date Set Due Date Semester / Academic Year September 2014 Semester Unit Outcomes Covered: LO1. Understand how to assess information and knowledge needs LO2. Be able to create strategies to increase personal networking to widen involvement in the decision-making process LO3. Be able to develop communication processes LO4. Be able to improve systems relating to information and knowledge . GRADING OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE Outcomes/ Grade Descriptors AC1.1 AC1.2 AC1.3 AC1.4 AC2.1 AC2.2 AC2.3 AC2.4 AC3.1 AC3.2 AC3.3 AC3.4 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Outcomes/ Grade Descriptors AC4.1 √ AC4.2 √ AC4.3 √ M1 √ M2 √ M3 √ D1 √ D2 √ D3 √ Assessor: Signature: ______________ Date: ___/___/___ Tutor Notes Dr Knowledge Mpofu September 2014 Semester 1 Key Points:  Your assignment/report should be submitted by the deadline.  The assignment must be your own work and original in all answers to the tasks.  All sources used should be correctly referenced in Harvard format.  You will......

Words: 2931 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Information and Knowledge Management for Factiva

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Knowledge Management is a process where organization gathers shared knowledge from available resources like databases, paper and human minds and contributes it to places that help in generating large reimburses. In this assignment, our objective is not only to understand how Knowledge Management functions in the company but also to analyze the challenges and current strategies that the company is facing. We have studied the Knowledge Management system of company named – FACTIVA, USA. Factiva is one of the top companies in US, formed in 1999. Factiva in past was popularly known as Dow Jones Reuters Business Interactive. In late 2006 Dow Jones bought out Reuter’s stake in Factiva for $160 million. Factiva’s aim is to help its customers with straight facts and figures. Factiva is a leading provider of News Articles and Business Information. Mr. Clare Hart, the President, presently heads Factiva. Factiva’s web – based service provides a collection of information from 14000 Sources such as The Financial Times, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Yomiuri Shimbun and Etc. it also contains 400 Newswire Services (Dow Jones Factiva, 2010). In this assignment we have discussed and analyzed Knowledge Management, its current position and functioning and its challenges with ways given to improve the drawbacks of the company. The structure of the assignment begins with the introduction followed by the questions and answers about the Knowledge Management System......

Words: 5850 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Managing, Communications, Knowledge and Information

...multinational conglomerate corporation which operate through the different segments e.g. energy, technology infrastructure, capital finance, consumer and industrial. [1]. Management of the GE Co. and CS Corporation concerned to improve employee productivity and empowerment by improving communication and cooperation among the different component of the business. For this reason, they need to develop appropriate communication strategies within the organisation. Report is prepared covering various related topics to produce communication strategies to contribute to the GE Co. business growth. This report on the GE Co. and CS Corporation is subdivided by the four Tasks (Task 1 to Task 4). Task 1 This task cover the assessment of information and knowledge needs internally and externally to improve decision making and taking process within the General Electric and Cypress Semiconductor Corporation. 1.1 Range of decisions to be taken Decision is a choice made between one or more alternatives (Robbins et al., 2004). According to George and Jones, decision making may be defined as "the process by which members of an organisation usually choose a specific course of action to respond to both problems and opportunities" [2]. Various types of decision such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured are in details below. [2] Structured decisions Structured decisions are repetitive and routine problems for which standard solution exist. Structured problems are routinely......

Words: 3864 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Managing Communication Knowledge and Information

...precisely would I like to achieve this objective? What are conceivable option methods for accomplishing the same? Performance Objectives at Work 1.2 When it comes of appraising the performance NHS mostly depend on the knowledge and skills framework commonly known as the SKF. The KSF now makes it less requesting for staff to recognize the focal point capacities that they need to do their job and their headway needs. The key characteristics are (Simplified Knowledge and Skills Framework (KSF), 2014): Spotlights on six focal point estimations covering the key districts that apply to every occupation. These have been re-formed so they are shorter, less troublesome and easier to get it. They now have instances of practices and exercises to help examination trades, that exhibit whether the estimation is being met or not. The six estimations are: Correspondence Individual and people headway Wellbeing, security and security Organization change Quality Adjust and grouped qualities. And as I am going to appraise my performance I found out that: My communication skills are moderate according to my co-employees. My personal development is on a progressive mode. My knowledge of health, safety and security is quite good as I had a sound knowledge in my college. My service quality is not up to the mark yet as I made quite a few mistakes the previous year. Recommendations for Own Improvement 1.3 Here are some recommendations that I need to follow to improve......

Words: 4523 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Managing Communication Knowledge and Information

...qualitative characteristics of financial reporting in its series of statements of financial accounting concepts. The FASB's on accounting practice are issued as "Statements of Financial Accounting Standards" (SFAS). * Accounting Principles and Practices: In the United States. accounting is focused very much on large corporations and the interests of investors, though the needs of creditors and other users are recognized. The relevance of information to business decisions is paramount and subject to the constraint of reliability. | Cont. * Financial Statements: A typical U.S. annual report and accounts comprises a - * consolidated income statement; * balance sheet and; * cash flow statement . * Financial statements in the United States tend to be quite detailed; they are also supplemented by fairly extensive notes. The balance sheet is usually presented in a two-sided format. The annual report is required to include a management discussion and analysis of financial results and typically includes additional narrative information about business operations. U.S. accounts usually present the income statement before the balance sheet. | Cont. * In contrast to the United Kingdom, the balance sheet tends to look like a statement of balances rather than a statement of financial position where assets are classified into groups under subheadings such as "net current assets." * The cash flow statement is a relatively recent development replacing the......

Words: 7560 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Data, Information, and Knowledge

... Professor: Donald Wilcoxen Brandy Camus February 17, 2016 Re-use - “ This task was originally submitted during my last session. IT190-1601A Introduction To IT, Professor William Nelson, January 2016.” Hello Everyone, My name is Brandy Camus and I am 37 years old. I live in Sugar Creek, Mo .But, I am originally from New Orleans , Louisiana . I Have two beautiful daughters age 14 ½ and 16 years old and they are now freshmen in High School. I am enrolled in Bachelor’s of Science and Information Technology. I have tried the college thing when my girls were younger but, had to put it on hold. I want to show my girls that no matter how old you may be you can follow your dreams and achieve you goals. Also, that you can do whatever set your mind to. In my spare time when I have some I like to draw, read, and spend time with my daughters. What I plan to achieve is my goal to get my degree and prove to myself that I can still do it. Also, to make a better life for my daughters and myself . The advice that I can give my fellow classmates is that there are all types of challenges in life such as going to school, raising a family, and or in the job world. But, if you face your fears and go forward you can conquer anything...

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

– Information and Knowledge Management Systems

...Tim Rosenberg – Information and Knowledge Management Systems – 6003008 The increasing complexity faced with global supply chains require companies to process information at high speeds. In order for supply chain staff to provide more consistent ways of processing data, complex IT strategies need to be integrated into the corporation. With a constantly changing supplier landscape, supply chain professionals need to be well versed in the companies Knowledge Management systems and processes. The ability to convert data into knowledge at high speeds will keep your corporation competitive. Whenever there is a new business unit opened corporations rely heavily on accurate purchasing, production, and customer service information in order to function properly. With the Board’s decision to vertically integrate the institution by opening a new business unit, the corporation needs to retain the knowledge that is captured throughout the parent company. It is also essential that both business units act interchangeably and share processes. For this to happen their needs to be a common system where information can be stored and accessed instantly anywhere in the world. I am proposing to the Board a switch to an IT service with integrated cloud based solutions, Oracle E-Business suites. Allowing information to flow freely between units will insure the corporation maintains a high ROI on their latest capital expenditure. The issue with the current ERP system is that it is incompatible...

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Information Knowledge Management

...Management Development Institute of Singapore SUBJECT Information and Knowledge Management LECTURE Mr. Jeffrey Tan COURSE Master of Business Administration TITLE Assignment 1 – Group 6– Asian Development Bank Batch Code MBWD5 1128B S/No | Name of Group Member(full name as in the attendance file) | Fin No. | Serial No. in marksheet | Signature | 1 | AZEEZ MUBARAK RASHEED KHAN | G1099053Q | | | 2 | DAMODRAN DINESH | G1097995T | | | 3 | GANDIKOTA ANANTHAKUMAR SHREYA ANANTH | G1098020N | | | 4 | MOHAMMAD RABIQ | G1101334T | | | 5 | RAJENDRAN NAGARAJAN | G1103538N | | | Submitted on Due Date? YES (submitted on 9.12.2011) Submitted soft copy? YES (submitted on 9.12.2011) * jefftanasgn@gmail.com Word limit observed YES (No of words: 3678) List of Abbreviations IMF | International Monitory Fund | COP | Communities of practice | DMC | Developing member country | estar | Electronic storage and retrieval system | C-cube | Electronic platform | PCP | Public Communication Policy | ECG-Net | Evaluation Cooperation Group Network | KM | Knowledge management | KPS | Knowledge Product Service | eBook | Electronic Book | kHub | Knowledge Hub | iLab | Information laboratory | ADB | Asian Development Bank | EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Knowledge management is a process where organization gathers shared knowledge from available resources like databases, paper &......

Words: 3804 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Knowledge Information Systems

...There have been intensive discussions in the academic field over the past several years over whether or not Knowledge Management is important to our society. Scholars and observers from many disparate subjects, such as sociology, economics or management science agree that nowadays “knowledge” is at the centre of the stage. In support to that statement, researchers have identified one key ability that is common to all successful organizations: the effective creation of relevant business knowledge and the timely dissemination of that knowledge to those members of the organization who need it (Bowman, 2002). Worldwide Chocolate Limited started out as a small chocolate bar manufacturer but knew a rapid expansion in a relatively small period of time. My subsequent report will highlight the fact that only through the implementation of a Knowledge Information System will WCL be able to preserve its core values: maintaining a high quality of product, continuous innovation and good customer service. WCL needs to improve the communication between its various departments, it has to perfect its knowledge on the different sources of supply it uses and it also has to preserve its quick response to customer needs. The linchpin of all these changes is knowledge: WCL will have to leverage knowledge in order to gain a competitive advantage. The firm currently has eight central departments, namely: Accounting, Marketing, Human Resource Management, Research and Design, Sales,......

Words: 4437 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Information Knowledge Management

...HEINZ Name: Manjit Singh NCC ID: 00125191 Centre: NABT (Newcastle upon Tyne) Table of Contents Introduction 1 Strategic information of Heinz 2 SWOT Analysis 4 Porter’s Five Forces 5 E-Business Planning 6 Knowledge management 9 Customer relationship management 9 Conclusions 10 References 12 Introduction H J Heinz Company began its operation in the food industry in the year 1869, founded by Henry J. Heinz in......

Words: 3222 - Pages: 13