Free Essay

Industrial Formwork

In: Other Topics

Words 1219
Pages 5

Interim Report by Group No 33

AUTHORED BY Abdul Basit Shaikh (CE-091) Shujaw Muhammad (CE-077) Irsa Komal (CE-104) Ali Hassan Hussaini (CE-093)

Table of Contents INTROUCTION ......................................................................................................................2-4 INDUSTIAL FORMWORK ................................................................................. 2 STUDY SCOPE & OBJECTIVES ........................................................................... 4 METHODOLOGY OF STUDY............................................................................... 4 STUDY DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 5-6 RESEARCH DESIGN .................................................................................................... 5 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION ......................................................... 5 DATA SOURCES ............................................................................................................. 6 SUMMARY........................................................................................................................................ 7 WORK DONE TO DATE ...................................................................................... 7 REMAINING WORK .................................................................................................. 7


There is a constant demand for carpenters in the construction trade. Today, expertise in working with various types of building materials is an indispensable requirement of a carpenter's job. Formwork and joinery are two such areas where skilled carpenters would find themselves working with diverse materials. Formwork involves constructing the forms into which concrete is poured, whereas joinery comprises of working with the wooden parts of a building, such as window frames and doors. Both jobs require further knowledge of working with wood, concrete, and other building materials such as steel reinforcement bars. This free online course will introduce the learner to the basic practices involved in formwork and joinery. The course explains the general types of concrete, concrete mixing information, and the test carried out to measure the workability of fresh concrete. The course also outlines the key components and terms associated with windows, exterior doors, and stairways used in residential construction. This course will be of great interest to all construction professionals who would like to learn more about the carpentry skills involved in finishing and closing off a structure. It will also be of interest to all learners who want to further develop their career in carpentry and the construction trade. A number of fundamental principles apply to all formwork. Consideration must be given to:      Acceptable tolerances permitted. Use of appropriate materials. Standards of workmanship. Construction for ease of erection and stripping. Care and maintenance of the formwork, so that the maximum number of reuses can be achieved.

Formwork is a temporary construction; however care must be taken to prevent d amage to permanent work. Three general principles govern formwork design and construc tion: Quality,Accuracy of the concrete shape and the Final finished surface quality. Personal safety of people,both carpenters and the public.EconomyThe structural frame is usually the most significant cost component, a dominant and critical factor in the time of construction.


SIZES Timber for formwork should satisfy the following requirement. It should be: 1. 2. 3. 4. Well-seasoned Light in weight. Easily workable with nails without splitting. Free from loose knots

Timber used for shuttering for exposed concrete work should have smooth and even surface on all faces which come in contact with concrete. Normal sizes of members for timber formwork: Sheeting for slabs, beam, and column side and beam bottom. 25 mm to 40mm thick Joints, ledges 50 x 70 mm to 50 x 150 mm Posts 75 x 100mm to 100 x 100 mm FORMULATIONS PERI FORMWORK LOAD CALCULATOR: Calculate formwork loads on the go: the PERI Formwork Load Calculator supports the professional user in calculating the correct fresh concrete pressure in connection with the related pouring rate for selected PERI wall formwork systems. Results can be sent via email.

INSTALLATION OF FORMWORK FOR DOOR AND WINDOW 1. Formwork for all the doors and windows can be installed, (a) As you install the wall. (b) When you have finished installing the wall. 2. There are various options available with respect to setting formwork around the windows and doors. You may choose either of the following:


(a) 18mm timber form work. (b) Polystyrene formwork. (c) Powder coated pressed steel form work.

Scope of study will be mainly based on following four parameters. Cost, Time, Quality and Quantity. Our research project will be focused on these objectives:
          

To determine the difference between the theoretical and practical work. To observe the types of Formwork used at different Industrial sites. Estimating the productivity of Formwork activity at different Industrial sites. After analyzing productivity, on the basis of our knowledge we have to recommend them to improve their productivity. Factors affecting and influencing the Formwork for Industrial sites. Study of the material use for the preparation of Formwork. To observe the better quality of Formwork required for Industrial sites. Tools and Equipment used to perform the Formwork and their efficient use. To estimate how much man power required for a certain Industrial Formwork. Estimation for amount of Formwork work as efficient. To observe the benefits and losses of mainly Industrial Formwork.

     

Initial study is to be conducted through research from internet and books. Information will also be collected from site visit. Interviews from different personals related with formwork activity. Compilation of results through different software. Interpretation of results from theoretical and graphical observations. Formation of final report.



Performa is designed consisting of two parts: 1. This part contains the information spaces to be collected regarding the industrial formwork. Thus, it includes site category, site address, the initiation and expected completion period of project and the basic information of the supervisor. 2. This part consists of all the analysis parameters of site. The quality and the quantity of the work within certain time, utilization of resources, monitoring quality of work all the parameters would be analyzed through. It also includes a list of questions that are to be answered during and after the keen observation of the formwork on Industrial sites. Note: The sample of questionnaire has been attached with a file.


Collection for data is a term used to describe a process of preparing data for an interpretation. Our informative data has been collected by these two ways: FIRST WAY (Primary):The first way is for primary data collection, based on site visit for Physical survey through prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire is to be filled on the basis of site observations. SECOND WAY (Secondary): The second way is for secondary data collection, based on the information which is available on different websites of internet, available, research papers related to the topic and presentations. The data is collected in the form of documents, facts and figures, charts, tables which are available on internet.


The data collection methodology will be proceed as mentioned below,     Preparation of pro forma. Designing of a questionnaire/excel sheet for observation of field work. Observing different methods used at different sites. Interviewing the site engineers, contractors and the labor supervisors regarding the formwork activity.  Most of the information is to be gathered through the research secondary sources.

     

Literature Review based on Industrial Formwork. Research paper available on Internet. Observations on site. The foremen and workers were interviews. Interview from supervisors, consultants & engineers. Interview form Vice-Chairman North Karachi Trade & Development Association.


     

Background study. Objective of study has been focused. Targeted audience has been identified. Site visit with data selection. Understanding of data collection methodology. Design of Performa has been completed.

     

Further visits of Industrial site Interviews from the supervisors Keen observation of Formwork activity on different industrial sites. Compilation of data collected from sites Analyzing of data through different software and self-interpretation. Final report formation.


Similar Documents

Free Essay

Industrial Revolution

...Industrial Revolution – A step to new era The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes. The Industrial Revolution began over 200 years ago. It changed the way in which many products, including cloth and textiles, were manufactured. It is called a "revolution" beacuse the changes it caused were great and sudden. It greatly affected the way people lived and worked. This revolution helped to bring about the modern world we know today in many ways. The Industrial Revolution was a major change in the nature of production in which machines replaced tools and steam and other energy sources replaced human or animal power. The Industrial......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Industrial Production

...Industrial Project Management: A Handbook of Planning, Scheduling & Evaluation Techniques Dr. Miltiadis A. Boboulos Eng. Lazar Peshev Chapter 1 Decision modelling in management 1.1. Decision Modelling Modelling decisions in management is a process of developing models reflecting the interrelations between relevant factors in a real situation. The model is reality presented in a simplified form. Modelling is a specific method and means of comprehension. It is applied in company management to study various activity alternatives using developed models. Every individual model comprises various components, variables, parameters, relations, limitations and criteria [1]. • Components correspond to the elements of the system under study. • Variables are used to describe the relations between individual components of the model. They can have more than a single value [2]. • Parameters characterize the influence that various variables have in the model. They are constant for every individual model, i.e. they have just a single value [2]. • Relations reflect the links, relations and interaction between various components, variables and parameters in the model [3]. • Limitations point out the variation limits and can be either placed in space and time, can be single-value or multi-value, one-sided or double-sided, global or local, etc [4]. • Criteria are means of evaluation, comparison and selection. They are objective and subjective, qualitative and quantitative [4]. The model...

Words: 36750 - Pages: 147

Premium Essay

Industrial Relationship

...Situation Analysis of Trade Unions and Industrial Relations in Bangladesh: A Country Profile • Balasundaram Nimalathasan (Department of Accounting, University of Jaffna, Jaffna, Sri Lanka) • Abu Taher (Department of Management Studies, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh) Abstract Industrial Relations (IR) is an inter-disciplinary field that encompasses the study of all aspects of people at work. IR is a fascinating subject for the study understanding discussion and practice, as it covers the whole range of human relations within industry. IR is a combination of various social sciences, the cumulative effect of which is to grease the wheels of industry and society. Sound IR can only be based on human relations and good human relations dictate that human beings should be treated humanely, which includes respect for human dignity, fair sealing and concern for the human beings physical and social needs. The research is based on desk study. Moreover, the recommendation would be helpful to the practitioners, researchers, planners, policy makers and academicians, who are involved in the concerned area. Keywords: Situational Analysis; Trade Unions and Industrial Relations 1. Introduction Trade unionism is the core of industrial relations. Primarily it is also referred to as phenomenon of the capitalist society, where in trade unions seek to remove the power imbalance between the buyer (i.e., employer) and individual seller (i.e....

Words: 5942 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay


...UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION CONCEPT The term ‘Industrial Relations’ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’. “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”. By “relations” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen.” | | | | The term industrial relations explain the relationship between employees and management which stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship. Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. Industrial relations are basically the interactions between employers, employees and the government, and the institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated. The term industrial relations have a broad as well as a narrow outlook. Originally, industrial relations were broadly defined to include the relationships and interactions between employers and employees. From this perspective, industrial relations cover all aspects of the employment relationship, including human resource management, employee relations, and union-management (or labor) relations. Now its meaning has become more specific and restricted. Accordingly, industrial relations pertains to the study and practice of collective...

Words: 23312 - Pages: 94

Premium Essay

Industrial Relations

...1. INTRODUCTION Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modern industrial society. Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labours and harmonious relationships. Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees (labour) and employers (management). Concept of Industrial Relations: The term ‘Industrial Relations’ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’. “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”. By “relations” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen.” The term industrial relations explain the relationship between employees and management which stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship. Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. Industrial relations are basically the interactions between employers, employees and the government, and the institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated. The term industrial relations have a broad as well as a narrow outlook. Originally, industrial relations were broadly defined to include the......

Words: 3918 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Industrial Revoluion

...The industrial revolution was the period between the mid 1700s to the mid 1800s that was full of technological advancements. The steam engine was refined and put into commercial use during this time period, thus revolutionizing the power industry. Machines were created that increased agricultural production immensely. And the foundations for the communication methods of today were set. The grounds for most of the technology we know of today was created in this time period. The reason that steam power was pushed into society then was because of the textile industry. The sheep provided the wool, but it had to be transported to water powered mills built near streams and rivers; this caused an issue with textile cost because transportation was so expensive1. “In 1698, British inventor Thomas Savery patented a steam-powered pump, which he described as an ‘engine to raise water by fire.’1 “ The perfecting of the steam engine is what many believe marks the beginning of the industrial revolution. Steam meant that factories could be built anywhere and were not bound to rivers for water power, or open fields for wind operation. Transportation was a very large industry that was taken over my steam power. Steam engines were compact enough to move out of factory work by the early 1800’s1. The first steam powered locomotive was on rails in Britain in 1804, this was the first time things were transported over land purely by non-human or animal means1. “The United States was the......

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Industrial Revolution

...Feb 18th 201 201302644 TERM PAPER OUTLINE Thesis The Industrial Revolution introduced technological advancements in manufacturing output, agricultural output, and social growth. These advancements came at a price of public health and safety, paid by the lower and middle class. Progressive economic growth was not achieved until after these issues were resolved. Argument Statement 1 Children as young as 6 years old were forced to work up to 19 hours a day in harsh conditions. The safety of children was often neglected, resulting in injury and death. The treatment of children was often cruel and unusual. Many faced beatings and various forms of punishment to ensure good productivity. * Through closer examination, the text proves that entire families were forced to work long hours, with little or no pay to ensure survival. * In 1833 a factory act was passed allowing a maximum number of hours for certain age groups, allowing for more satisfied and productive employees. Argument Statement 2 By the 1820s, Britain saw their population double in the industrial hubs. The increase in population and decreased standards of living meant civilians were confronted with disease. * As raw sewage and chemical bi-products from factories made its way into drinking water, Cholera began to infest the population killing thousands. Argument Statement 3 Because of the high demands for labor during the revolution, all family members were required to......

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Industrial Relations

...TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Page: 3 Collective Bargaining and the Employer Page 3-4 The Employment Relationship Page 4-5 Trade Unions & Collective Bargaining Page 5-6 Conclusion Page 6-7 Bibliography Page 8 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Collective bargaining is the most effective means of giving workers the right to representation in decisions affecting their working lives’ (Donovan, 1968: 54). Discuss Introduction: While Collective Bargaining is a Democratic right of all workers, recent trends have indicated a significant reduction in Trade Union membership. Such a trend is in contrast with recent management directives to integrate employee’s opinion at organisational level. This report attempts to define Collective Bargaining and the approaches undertaken by Employers to manage the area. The Employment Relationship is then studied with a particular emphasis on the structure and balance of power between the Employer and Employee’s. The contribution of the Trade Union movement to the Collective Bargaining issue is then discussed. This Report is then concluded with a definitive view on the role of Collective Bargaining on workers lives. Existing literature will be used to support arguments throughout......

Words: 2196 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Industrial Engineering

...Ensayo del Video En el video que vimos durante la clase aprendimos bastante sobre el progreso que surge en la producción en masa. Como pionero de esta acción tenemos a Henry Ford ya que el busco formas de mejorar la producción de sus vehículos y con esto se entro a una nueva era de la Ingeniería Industrial. Se detallaba como Henry Ford empieza a modificar el sistema, haciendo toma de tiempos de cada operación a realizar y observando que movimientos tenía que realizar el operador para concluir la tarea. Al modificar este sistema observo que se perdía demasiado tiempo en buscar las piezas y la solución fue hacer una red de cadenas y transporte. Así mismo también fue el que creo las líneas de ensamblaje en el año 1913, esto consistía que ahora el producto en este caso el carro se movilizaba adonde el trabajador estaba y este realizaba la misma tarea en su punto de trabajo, al realizar esto ya no se requería de mano de obra especializada. Al querer aumentar su producción cada vez más fue observando que otros cambios podían hacer, por consecuencia creo lo que son los turnos de trabajo para que la producción no cesara. Algo que le beneficio bastante en el pasado fue que el observo que habían bastante inmigrantes en el país en esa época, por lo tanto aprovecho esto para realizar una competencia dentro de los trabajadores. Otro punto importante es que los operarios tenía buena paga ya que le pagaba 5 dólares al día a cada trabajador, por lo tanto toda persona quería trabajar dentro......

Words: 924 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...better benefit plans and creating an overall better working environment to ensure that their workers do not find a unionized environment to be more favourable. References Suffield, Larry. Labour Relations Labour Relations: PH Series in Human Resources Management. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2012. Print. "Join Us." Why Join a Union | USW. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 June 2014. . Joseph, Chris. Desmond Media. "The Advantages of a Unionized Workplace." Small Business. Hearst Newspaper LLC, 2014. Web. 05 June 2014. . Centre for Public Legal Education Alberta. June 2005. 06 June 2014 . Morton, Desmond. Canada's Labour History : York University. 06 June 2014 . Taylor, Don and Bradley Dow. Industrial Relation Centre: Queens University. 06 June 2014 ....

Words: 2556 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Industrial Relations

...INDUSTRIAL/LABOUR RELATIONS Meaning of Industrial Relations Means an Employer-employee relationships that are covered specifically under collective bargaining and industrial relation laws. It refers to all types of relationships between employer and employee, trade union and management, workers and union and between employee and employee. It also includes all sorts of relationships at both formal and informal levels in the organization. In broader sense industrial relations means all such relationships that a business enterprise maintains with various sections of society including employee, state, customers and public in industries contact. Parties in Industrial Relation Three main parties are directly involved in industrial relations: Employers: Employers possess certain rights vis-à-vis labors. They have the right to hire and fire them. Management can also affect workers’ interests by exercising their right to relocate, close or merge the factory or to introduce technological changes. Employees: Workers seek to improve the terms and conditions of their employment. They exchange views with management and voice their grievances. They also want to share decision making powers of management. Workers generally unite to form unions against the management and get support from these unions. Government: The central and state government influences and regulates industrial relations through laws, rules, agreements, awards of court and the like. It also includes third parties and......

Words: 4452 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Industrial Revolution

... The Industrial Revolution started around 1750. It began in Britain and it spread throughout the World. England was known as “the world’s workshop” because at that point in time, England was the major manufacturing center of the World. It took about ten years for the Industrial Revolution to spread to other places. It spread to America. The Industrial Revolution was favorable to the American colonies by bringing the factory system to America, supplying more employment which increased urban growth, and raising the national economy. Americans developed and profited from a variety of inventions that produced goods and materials faster and cheaper. The Industrial Revolution was an ongoing effort over many decades to increase production by using machines rather than the power of humans or animals. Groups of spinners and weavers gradually began working together in buildings known as mills, usually located on a stream or river, using the power of flowing water to run their tools. The British inventions took an immense impact on the American Industrial Revolution. Inventions like the spinning jenny, the water frame, and the power loom helped mechanize the processes of spinning and weaving cloth. An invention that played an important part in the revolution was the steam engine. The creation of the steam engine was credited to James Watt. James Watt developed the first practical steam engine in Britain between 1765 and 1785. The steam engine made it possible to pump water......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Industrial Revolution

...Assignment 1.1: Industrialization after the Civil War Thesis and Outline Crystal Nix Strayer University May14 , 2015 The Industrial Revolution changed America in a major way. The Revolution affected government and people’s way of life as a whole. After the Civil War was the period of industrialization. It was the period where industrial cities were built, many jobs were created, and certain people gained a great amount of wealth. It was an important time in history where African Americans and women gained equal rights and there were many advancements in technology. Society, economy, and politics were three signifigant aspects that were changed by industrialization after the Civil War. Before this era most Americans worked for themselves on farms or owned businesses. Soon people began leaving farms to move into cities to work in factories. Assembly lines were introduced during this era. They made it possible to mass produce products. These jobs were usually monotonous and dangerous. On an assembly each worker was responsible for specific part of the product. They no longer had the freedom or working for themselves. Employers hired unskilled labor which most of the time were women and children. Americans now were working for someone else and were working long hours for little pay and treated miserably, which led to horrible working conditions. Iron and steel had become big business during this time. The economy had grown due to the new industries that......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Industrial Revolution

...Kent Horii 4/22/15 Block 4 ITSMW Potter Most revolutionary progresses are social based When you think of national progress, what would you think of? Economical, Political, or Societal? Actually, although people believe that most reforms or progress is for the benevolence of all three of these elements equally, revolutions such as the Industrial Revolution are more driven towards the success of the economics. The industrial revolution itself caused a massive uprising of ideas based on engineering for the sole purpose of convenience, and made a huge gap between the rich, the middle, and the poor, and classified the middle and the poor as the working classes and most of the topics went to the working class. However, this is more unlikely to be a political progress since the convenience and affordable factor all went to boost England’s economy and have the society afford them for cheaper. The progress of the Industrial Revolution was based on socioeconomic reasons because, due to the Industrial revolution, England’s economy increased, rate of employment for unemployed workers increased because of the ability to mass produce products using the newly invented machines to create a better economy for corporations, and a lot of products could be produced in cheap prices because mass production was possible and this increased the standard of living to modernization. Another example of socioeconomic progress is the French Revolution. The French revolutionists and poor......

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Industrial Relations

...Industrial Relations Sidney and Beatrice Webb defined a trade union ‘as a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment.’ Introduction Trade unions have been described as ‘organisations of workers set up to improve the status, pay and conditions of employment of their members’, and associations of workers who by means of collective bargaining endeavour to improve their working conditions, and economic and social position.’ (Salamon, M, 1992, p.77) Employees in Ireland have a right under the Constitution to join a trade union. Trade unions can provide important sources of information and protection in relation to employment matters, as well as negotiating with employees for better pay and conditions. Employers are not legally obliged to negotiate with a union on behalf of an employee member, unless agreed, previously. This does not prevent, however, a dispute about trade union recognition from being a lawful dispute. The Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU) is the umbrella organisation for trade unions, in Ireland. They represent a variety of employees’ interests, both in Ireland and Northern Ireland. ICTU also run a website which facilitates people in joining a union. It can be made a condition of employment, that the worker must join a certain union upon accepting a job offer and remain in that union while the employee is in that job. There is a view that this may be constitutional, but it has......

Words: 3029 - Pages: 13