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Indigenous Australian Aboriginals

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The Dreaming
The Dreaming is a term penned by famous anthropologist W.H. Stanner in 1956. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) It defines the conception of mystical spirits of the universe and encompasses everything within. This concept allows for explanations about the ‘Ancestral Beings’ and their travels, creating everything we see today. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) In customary principles, these ‘Ancestral Beings’ hold the power to arbitrate and guide the Aboriginal people’s lives. Indigenous Australians are the oldest inhabitants of the land with the most extensive practise of religion and customs, what we know as the Dreaming. (Edwards, 1998)
The role and function of the Dreaming is to teach the Aboriginal people about the norms and mores of the sacred laws. Also known as customary law, these guidelines are an integral part of the Aboriginal culture as it maintains societal normalities. (ALRC, 1986) The Dreaming is a philosophy that binds every aspect of life together, it assists in knowing the past, present and future, and how to make conscious decisions to ensure the world continues triumphantly.
According to Korff (2015) white man cannot comprehend the depth of the Dreaming, as it is more an analogy for providing identity and spiritualism to individuals. The diversity within the various communities explains how in-depth the spirituality is and how important this religion is to each Aboriginal person. Each tribe has their own definition and reason behind the Dreaming.
The Ngarinyan kin refer to it as ‘Ungud’; the Pitjantatjar know the dreaming as ‘Tjukurpa’, and Yolngu as ‘Wongar’. (Edwards, 1998) The Bundjalung community believe the Dreaming is personal and calls their totem (place of which his spirit came), ‘his Dreaming’. (Peters, M.E, 2016) The Dreaming provides guidelines for each society; resources, survival skills and gender responsibilities. Hence, the Dreaming determined the socio economic endurance of differing kinship. (Edwards, 1998) Kinship
In Aboriginal culture, kinship is defined as an individual’s responsibility within the immediate and extended family; it emphasizes identity and safeguards common unity. Kinship is a social structure connected by a bond with blood and class relations, the surroundings and the environment. Kinship involves teaching, offers security and provides certainty. Aboriginal kinship systems are based upon the Dreaming, and utilise this as a code of conduct, a model for daily life. (Fryer-Smith, 2002)
These kinship laws also regulate economic and social matters, by providing group cohesion in order to be sustainable within their region. Kinship obligations include food gathering, distribution and sharing. Aboriginal people believe kinship is about community as a family and offers a ‘mental map’ of social relationships and behaviours. Kinship systems dictated marriages between opposite moieties which ensured the clean lineage of each community. (Fryer-Smith, 2002)
With over 600 language groups each tribe was independent and diverse. The Pitjantjatjara word for father is ‘mama’. In Bundjalung it is ‘mahman’ for father. Relationships were a fundamental part of the communities, maintaining these associations centred on reciprocity. Gift giving was an integral part of kinship as it allowed for peaceful inter-relations and displayed respect to members of the group. (Broome, 1994)
Aboriginal kinship systems are distinct; a structure for identity, relationships and group unity. (Bourne & Bourne, 1995) The Dreaming guides kinship giving the person a position in society. Kinship dictates socio economic growth by community collaboration.
Economic Organisation
Economic organisation within the Aboriginal community was how they divided the labour, manufactured tools, utilised resources, and traded with others. Australian Aboriginal people were semi-nomadic, hunter, gatherer and cultivators who learnt how to develop resources in their own territory. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) The land was seen as an offering from the Dreaming. Aboriginal society was a combination of the environment, religion, community, and economy. (Britannica, 2016)
The role and function of the economic organisation was to nurture the legacy of the Dreaming. This was an integral part of Aboriginal survival. Intimate knowledge of the environment and locality allowed Australian Aborigines to navigate and improve hunting skills. This heavy responsibility supported the economy and religious rituals. (Britannica, 2016)
The Dreaming Trail (trade route) opened up pathways for economic diversity. By supplementing lifestyle and socio-economic growth with other tribes allowed for cultural learning and a broader awareness of the Dreaming. Ocean dwellers exchanged shells. Desert dwellers created kangaroo-skin water bags whilst skull cups were crafted and exchanged from South Australia. (Britannica, 2016)
Kinship dictates socio- economic organisation by roles of men and women working interdependent and independently to survive. The Dreaming also allows for useful sustainability and equilibrium the Aboriginal people can live by. It can therefore be noted that the Dreaming, kinship and socio-economic organisation work harmoniously together. (Yarraga, 2013)

References 1. Australian Aborigine. (2016). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 March 2016 from http://www.britannica.com/topic/Australian-Aborigine

2. Australian Law Reform Commission. (ALRC) (1986) Report 31; Aboriginal Customary Laws and Notion of “Punishment”. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/21.%20Aboriginal%20Customary%20Laws%20and%20Sentencing/aboriginal-customary-laws-and-notion-%E2%80%98puni

3. Broome, R. (1994) Aboriginal Australians. 2nd ed., (Sydney: Allen and Unwin), pp. 9-21. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/courses/lawdemo/WEBREAD/BROOME9.htm

4. Bourke, E, and Bourke, C. (1995) Families and cultural diversity in Australia. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://aifs.gov.au/publications/families-and-cultural-diversity-australia/3-aboriginal-families-australia

5. Edwards, B. (1988) Living the Dreaming in C. Bourke, E. Bourke, &B. Edwards (Eds.) Aboriginal Australia; an introductory reader in Aboriginal studies (2nd ed. ) St Lucia, Qld University of Queensland Press. Retrieved 17 March 2016 from http://doms.csu.edu.au/csu/logon.do?.page=file%2Fbeb676ea-fb0b-4378-bc60-20f0329eb707%2F1%2Fedwards-b1.pdf

6. Fryer-Smith, S (2002). Chapter 2: Aspects of Traditional Aboriginal Australia
Aboriginal Benchbook for Western Australian Courts, Australian Institute of Judicial
Administration, Carlton, Vic.

7. Korff, J. (2016) Aboriginal Economy. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/economy/#axzz432AS7bq4

8. Peters, M.E (2016) Bundjalung people. In ‘On top of the hill’. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://onthehillgilayjun.blogspot.com.au/p/bunda.html

9. Welch, D. (2016) Traditional life; social organisation. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://www.aboriginalculture.com.au/socialorganisation.shtml

10. Yarraga, M. (2013) Aboriginal Trade Routes. Retrieved 19 March 2016 from http://www.indigenousaustralia.info/culture/trade-routes.html

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Caiti Kimmorley JST 123 Assignment 1 Document for Professional Peers Due date; 21 March
12016 Submitted date; 21 January 2016 I declare that this assignment is my own work and I am aware of CSU’s requirements on Academic Integrity. I also acknowledge that CSU may use electronic plagiarism detection tools. I have run this assessment through TURNITIN and provide the report. Signed Caiti Kimmorley The
Dreaming The Dreaming is a term penned by famous anthropologist W.H. Stanner in 1956. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) It defines the conception of mystical spirits of the universe and encompasses everything within. This concept allows for explanations about the ‘Ancestral Beings’ and their travels, creating everything we see today. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) In customary principles, these ‘Ancestral Beings’ hold the power to arbitrate and guide the Aboriginal people’s lives. Indigenous Australians are the oldest inhabitants of the land with the most extensive practise of religion and customs, what we know as the Dreaming. (Edwards, 1998) The role and function of the Dreaming is to teach the Aboriginal people about the norms and mores of the sacred laws. Also known as customary law, these guidelines are an integral part of the Aboriginal culture as it maintains societal normalities. (ALRC, 1986) The Dreaming is a philosophy that binds every aspect of life together, it assists in knowing the past, present and future, and how to make conscious decisions to ensure the world continues triumphantly. According to Korff (2015) white man cannot comprehend the depth of the Dreaming, as it is more an analogy for providing identity and spiritualism to individuals. The diversity within the various communities explains how in-depth the spirituality is and how important this religion is to each Aboriginal person. Each tribe has their own definition and reason behind the Dreaming. The Ngarinyan kin refer to it as ‘Ungud’; the Pitjantatjar know the dreaming as ‘Tjukurpa’, and Yolngu as ‘Wongar’. (Edwards, 1998) The Bundjalung community believe the Dreaming is personal and calls their totem (place of which his spirit came), ‘his Dreaming’. (Peters, M.E, 2016) The Dreaming provides guidelines for each society; resources, survival skills and gender responsibilities. Hence, the Dreaming determined the socio economic endurance of differing kinship. (Edwards, 1998) Kinship In Aboriginal culture, kinship is defined as an individual’s responsibility within the immediate and extended family; it emphasizes identity and safeguards common unity. Kinship is a social structure connected by a bond with blood and class relations, the surroundings and the environment. Kinship involves teaching, offers security and provides certainty. Aboriginal kinship systems are based upon the Dreaming, and utilise this as a code of conduct, a model for daily life. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) These kinship laws also regulate economic and social matters, by providing group cohesion in order to be sustainable within their region. Kinship obligations include food gathering, distribution and sharing. Aboriginal people believe kinship is about community as a family and offers a ‘mental map’ of social relationships and behaviours. Kinship systems dictated marriages between opposite moieties which ensured the clean lineage of each community. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) With over 600 language groups each tribe was independent and diverse. The Pitjantjatjara word for father is ‘mama’. In Bundjalung it is ‘mahman’ for father. Relationships were a fundamental part of the communities, maintaining these associations centred on reciprocity. Gift giving was an integral part of kinship as it allowed for peaceful inter-relations and displayed respect to members of the group. (Broome, 1994) Aboriginal kinship systems are distinct; a structure for identity, relationships and group unity. (Bourne & Bourne, 1995) The Dreaming guides kinship giving the person a position in society. Kinship dictates socio economic growth by community collaboration. Economic Organisation Economic organisation within the Aboriginal community was how they divided the labour, manufactured tools, utilised resources, and traded with others. Australian Aboriginal people were semi-nomadic, hunter, gatherer and cultivators who learnt how to develop resources in their own territory. (Fryer-Smith, 2002) The land was seen as an offering from the Dreaming. Aboriginal society was a combination of the environment, religion, community, and economy. (Britannica, 2016) The role and function of the economic organisation was to nurture the legacy of the Dreaming. This was an integral part of Aboriginal survival. Intimate knowledge of the environment and locality allowed Australian Aborigines to navigate and improve hunting skills. This heavy responsibility supported the economy and religious rituals. (Britannica, 2016) The Dreaming Trail (trade route) opened up pathways for economic diversity. By supplementing lifestyle and socio-economic growth with other tribes allowed for cultural learning and a broader awareness of the Dreaming. Ocean dwellers exchanged shells. Desert dwellers created kangaroo- skin water bags whilst skull cups were crafted and exchanged from South Australia. (Britannica, 2016) Kinship dictates socio- economic organisation by roles of men and women working interdependent and independently to survive. The Dreaming also allows for useful sustainability and equilibrium the Aboriginal people can live by. It can therefore be noted that the Dreaming, kinship and socio- economic organisation work harmoniously together. (Yarraga, 2013) References 1. Australian Aborigine. (2016). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 March 2016 from http://www.britannica.com/topic/Australian-Aborigine 2.
11Australian Law Reform Commission. (ALRC) (1986) Report 31;
3Aboriginal Customary Laws and Notion of “Punishment”. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/21. Aboriginal Customary Laws and Sentencing/aboriginal-customary-laws-and-notion-‘puni
3.
5Broome, R. (1994) Aboriginal Australians. 2nd ed., (Sydney: Allen and Unwin), pp. 9- 21. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/courses/lawdemo/WEBREAD/BROOME9.htm
4.
4Bourke, E, and Bourke, C. (1995) Families and cultural diversity in Australia. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://aifs.gov.au/publications/families-and- cultural-diversity-australia/3-aboriginal-families-australia
5.
2Edwards, B. (1988) Living the Dreaming in C. Bourke, E. Bourke,&B. Edwards (Eds.) Aboriginal Australia; an introductory reader in Aboriginal studies (2nd ed. ) St Lucia, Qld University of Queensland Press. Retrieved 17 March 2016 from http://doms .csu.edu.au/ csu/logon.do?.page=file/beb676ea-fb0b-4378-bc60- 6. 7. 20f0329eb707/1/edwards-b1.pdf
6Fryer-Smith, S (2002). Chapter 2: Aspects of Traditional Aboriginal Australia Aboriginal Benchbook for Western Australian Courts, Australian Institute of Judicial Administration, Carlton,
Vic. Korff, J. (2016) Aboriginal Economy. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/economy/#axzz432AS7bq4 8. Peters, M.E (2016) Bundjalung people. In
8‘On top of the hill’. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://onthehillgilayjun.blogspot.com.au/p/bunda.html
9.
7Welch, D. (2016) Traditional life; social organisation. Retrieved 16 March 2016 from http://www.aboriginalculture.com.au/socialorganisation.shtml
10. Yarraga, M. (2013)
9Aboriginal Trade Routes. Retrieved 19 March 2016 from http://www.indigenousaustralia.info/culture/trade-routes.html
10Indigenous Australian Cultures Indigenous Australian Cultures Indigenous Australian Cultures Indigenous Australian Cultures
1Caiti Kimmorley 11522025 1 Caiti Kimmorley 11522025 2 Caiti Kimmorley 11522025 3 Caiti Kimmorley 11522025
4…...

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...Indigenous Australian Cultures The Dreaming The Dreaming is a time before now, long ago, where spirits that lay dormant under the flat desolate plains of the earth's crust, rose up and took the form of humans and animals. These spirits then roamed the earth performing tasks such as hunting, fighting, building and grazing. Through their roaming and tasks they created and became the current formations, animals, stars, humans and things around us that we see in our world today (Bourke, Bourke & Edwards, 1998). This idea leads the Aboriginals to believe they are tethered to everything in existence. For the Aboriginal groups to gain a further knowledge on what happened during "The Dreaming" Goddard & Wierzbicka (2015) state the Aboriginals must rely on the dreams of the elders. No dream can be changed. Groups of Aboriginals all over Australia speak a different languages. Stories record that this is because the spirits they descend from appointed them their current dialect, meaning every group comes from a certain part of Australia and has their own stories about The Dreaming spirits they descend from that is spoken in their tongue (Bourke, Bourke & Edwards, 1998). Over all, The Dreaming at it's very core is the foundation that the Aboriginals draw upon to create law and rules to abide by, kinships which will determine things like what land you own, obligations, friends and so on, along with giving cultural value and a belief system to Aboriginal groups across......

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Life Insurance Price Discrimination on Indigenous Australians

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Promoting Health - Health Inequalities of the Australian Indigenous Population

...states that the indigenous peoples of Australia are one of the most disadvantaged indigenous groups in the developed world. The health of the Indigenous population of Australia is an increasingly pressing issue. Current research and statistics reveals great inequality in many areas of health care and health status between the Aboriginal people and the general population of Australia. Couzos and Murray (2008, p. 29) report that the Indigenous population has “the worst health status of any identifiable group in Australia, and the poorest access to health systems.” This paper will examine the underlying historical contexts and contributing factors that have lead to the current disparity between the health of the Indigenous Australians and non-Indigenous Australians. Furthermore, the high prevalence of chronic health issues such as diabetes will be analysed and community health initiatives that are needed or currently being enacted will be identified. Many reasons for the current appalling state of health and wellbeing of the Australian Aboriginal people can be explained by examining their recent history to the devastating impacts of colonisation, genocidal policy, loss of land and years of oppression. These several hundred years of cultural destruction, dispossession and social and political upheaval have resulted in generations of trauma and grief (Burke, 2006, para. 4). As reported by Forsyth (2007, p. 35-36), government policies enacted towards the indigenous population in......

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