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Ikea Case

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Método de Análisis de Casos de Ética Empresarial 1. ¿Cuál es el problema de ética empresarial que se presenta en el caso? El problema de ética empresarial en el caso de IKEA es de utilización de materia prima no amigable con el medio ambiente y con la salud de sus clientes, lo que provoco una caída en sus ventas. A raíz de nuevas leyes y exigencias de los clientes a cuestiones ambientales, IKEA decide generar mejores políticas de compra de sus productos para la venta en sus tiendas a nivel mundial. Uno de los principales dilemas éticos que de enfrenta la compañía es decidir si sigue expandiéndose debido al incremento de la demanda a nivel mundial, pero esta expansión trae consigo una mayor tala de árboles lo que contradice un poco al lema de la compañía el cual se basa en un cultura socialmente responsable. Y a pesar de que la compañía ha establecido políticas al respecto aun no puede decirse que IKEA utiliza en un 100% madera “protegida” en sus productos ya que muchos de sus proveedores aun no siguen las políticas “verdes” por asi llamarlo que poco a poco IKEA ha implementado a. ¿Cuál es el conflicto de valores y/o responsabilidades que existe? El dilema en el caso o conflicto era de seguir en el camino de comprar productos que sean peligrosos y causantes de enfermedades o crear una filosofía y responsabilidad ambiental en la empresa desde el proveedor, empleados y clientes. Además de la cuestión que se plantea al final del caso el cual IKEA sigue expandiéndose a nivel mundial pero dicha expansión contradice el lema de la compañía de ser una empresa ecológica ya que como su directivo establece a lo largo del texto IKEA no puede garantizar un 100% que la madera utilizada en sus productos provenga de bosques sustentables. b. ¿Quiénes son los “stakeholders” o implicados en el caso? Los implicados en el caso son el accionista principal Ingvar Kamprad y los directivos de la empresa. Ya que ellos son los que establecen las políticas de acción para que su compañía se considere altamente responsable de la naturaleza Y como implicados secundarios tenemos a los proveedores, clientes y gobierno ya que el primero de ellos debe de asegurarse de cumplir con las políticas de la compañía que le brinda trabajo y los segundos son los que pueden exigir que la empresa se responsabilicé por la tala de árboles necesarios para la elaboración de sus productos. Además está el gobierno que por medio de legislaciones puede verificar que la compañía utilice madera de bosques sustentables los cuales tratan de plantar la misma cantidad o si es necesario una mayor cantidad de árboles por aquellos que se han cortado para uso industrial c. ¿Cuáles son sus intereses?. Generar una cultura y filosofía ambiental en todo el entorno externo o interno de la empresa para ofrecer productos responsables con el medio ambiente y con la salud de los clientes, que a su vez se vea reflejado en la reducción de los costos de producción sin perder la calidad, incremento de las ventas y permanencia en el mercado. 2.- ¿Cuáles son las causas culturales, estructurales, estratégicas, etc. de este problema ético? Existen varias razones por las cuales se da este dilema ético. En cuanto a cultura, los consumidores empezaban a tener un cierto rechazo por algunos productos que no fueran amigables con la naturaleza, esto debido a su proveniencia. La materia prima principal de IKEA es la madera, la cual algunas veces venía de bosques protegidos. Aunado a las causas culturales, la principal causa estructural es que IKEA trata de contribuir e incentivar a sus proveedores que manejen cierto tipo de materia prima “permitida”, pero el problema principal es que sus proveedores son de países subdesarrollados, por lo cual la eficiencia no es su principal fortaleza, pero han trabajado establecer una conciencia en el tema. Para combatir con este problema ético, IKEA se ha dado a la tarea de crear diferentes programas para el uso correcto de desperdicio, la eficientización de procesos y establecimiento de estándares (IWAY) junto con 4SEA para proveedores.
3. ¿Cuál es la jerarquía de valores? ¿Por qué? A veces la teoría ética puede serle útil en decidir en esta jerarquía.

La jerarquía de valores de IKEA que fue identificada es la siguiente:

1) Respeto a la naturaleza 2) Perseverancia 3) Honestidad/Integridad 4) Humildad

Se identifica el respeto a la naturaleza como el principal valor ya que en el caso vemos muy claramente la dedicación por parte de IKEA en cuidar que la producción de sus muebles se haga de manera sustentable y que los materiales no sean tóxicos para el ambiente o para el consumidor. Este valor destaca por encima de los demás debido al gran número de ejemplos en el caso donde observamos a IKEA tomando medidas importantes para reducir su impacto negativo global en el medio ambiente. Ejemplos de estas actividades las podemos ver desde la formación del iWAY, small green steps, uso de energía alternativa en sus tiendas, y demás.

La perseverancia es el segundo valor más importante de IKEA ya que lo observamos en varias situaciones del caso. Uno de los primeros ejemplos de este valor lo podemos ver desde la creación de la empresa por Ingvar Kamprad. Cualquier persona puede reconocer que una empresa del tamaño de IKEA no se construye sin un gran esfuerzo y perseverancia. Otro ejemplo lo podemos ver en la dedicación de IKEA para sacar nuevos diseños que cumplan con todos los requisitos de modelo tal como: compactibilidad, materiales reciclables y no tóxicos, que tenga más de un uso, etc. También lo vemos en la tenacidad de IKEA en programar auditorias as sus proveedores para asegurarse que estén cumpliendo con los 17 estándares del iWAY.

La honestidad y la integridad son los siguientes valores más importantes que notamos en la jerarquía. Estos valores no dejan de ser clave y sin ellos la funcionalidad de cualquier organización quedaría en peligro pero los colocamos en tercer lugar ya que la perseverancia es claramente un valor que revoluciono a IKEA. En el caso podemos claramente observar los valores de honestidad e integridad de IKEA. Muchos de los clientes si valoran mucho el enfoque ambiental que IKEA le ha dado a su producción y el hecho que IKEA haga todo lo posible para cumplir con estos rubros muestra gran integridad y honestidad. IKEA reconoce que debe mantenerse integro en sus actividades de acopio de materia prima para mantener a sus clientes satisfechos.

Finalmente reconocemos al valor de la humildad como el último valor más importante de IKEA. Este lo podemos observar cuando IKEA es demandada por exceso de uso de formaldehido en la producción de sus libreros. Después de perder 20% de sus ventas en Dinamarca y el daño a su reputación, IKEA reconoció su error y tomo acciones proactivas para reparar el daño. También, IKEA ha recibido críticas ya que a veces madera proveniente de áreas protegidas es utilizada en la producción. IKEA muestra humildad al reconocer que las cantidades de madera que se utilizan son enormes y menciona que no es fácil rastrear cada pedazo por lo cual no puede completamente garantizar que toda la madera es proveniente de áreas no protegidas. 4.- ¿Cuáles son los principios que se desprenden del problema y que deben ser respetados al solucionar el caso?
Primero tenemos que identificar cual es el problema principal del caso. El gran éxito de IKEA ha causado que la empresa tenga que acopiar cada vez mas materias primas para mantener el ritmo de crecimiento en la producción de sus muebles. Debido a que la mayoría de estos son fabricados a partir de madera, IKEA ha tenido que incorporar medidas para cuidar que la tala de árboles en el mundo sea cada vez más sustentable. La realidad es que si la empresa sigue creciendo al mismo ritmo, analistas mencionan que para el 2010 tendría que acopiar lo doble en materias primas lo cual causaría impacto importante en la deforestación mundial. Parte de este problema cae en que IKEA fomenta el frecuente remplazo de sus muebles causando que mas arboles sean talados.

Los principios universales que se desprenden del problema y que deben de ser respetados para solucionar el caso son los siguientes:

El Derecho a la Vida

El derecho a la vida es uno de los principios más notables dentro del problema. La utilización de recursos naturales, en este caso los arboles, genera una cuestión muy importante debido a la importancia de este recurso para la vida en nuestro planeta. Si este recurso es utilizado de manera no sustentable, la reducción de este generará desbalances en el ecosistema mundial lo cual pondrá en peligro la vitalidad de todo ser vivo. En este caso, la sobre utilización de la madera es quizás el problema que más se adhiere a este principio pero no es el único. Otro problema ligado al principio de la vida es el de los materiales peligrosos. En el caso también vimos que la utilización de materiales peligrosos era un tema de gran importancia ya que pone en riesgo la salud del consumidor. Este problema puede ser resuelto más fácilmente que el anterior ya que IKEA puede encontrar materiales sin químicos peligrosos pero este no deja de formar parte al principio del derecho de la vida.

Solidaridad

Otro principio que se desprende del problema del caso es el principio de solidaridad el cual busca principalmente el bien común. En el caso nos es claro que IKEA es una empresa que busca solidaridad ya que logra producir un bien que la gente le gusta comprar para crecer como empresa mientras que cuidan los métodos de producción para asegurar que el medio ambiente no se vea afectado por ellos. Así es como ha venido operado IKEA pero ahora se enfrenta a un problema donde sus prácticas verdes actuales no son suficientemente fuertes como para cumplir con este principio. La fuerte expansión mundial de IKEA requiere aún más madera y aunque hayan logrado cada vez ser más eficientes con el uso de este recurso, las cantidades utilizarían tendrían un impacto sustancial negativo en el medio ambiente. IKEA tendrá que encontrar la manera de utilizar menos madera para producir los mismos muebles de tal manera que realmente exista sustentabilidad en el uso de este recurso natural. Si no realiza estos ajustes estará infringiendo este principio.

Justicia

Pudiéramos argumentar que el principio de la justicia también juega parte en esta problemática debido a que si IKEA sigue con su mismo ritmo de crecimiento y mismas prácticas se estará enriqueciendo a coste de la salud de los demás considerando que la tala no sustentable de árboles traerá problemas de salud para la población general.

5.- ¿Cuáles son las alternativas de solución? Entre estas alternativas, ¿cuál es la solución administrativa que ustedes escogen, basado en los principios universales (#4), para lograr la jerarquía de valores propuesta (#3) y corregir las causas (#2). Sustenta la solución propuesta (con argumentos y referencias apropiadas).

Entre las soluciones planteadas por Ikea la empresa se ha dado la tarea de ser sustentable optando las siguientes políticas en la producción de sus muebles.

* Control ambiental en las sucursales: Cada tienda de IKEA cuenta con un lista de control ambiental la cual verifica que se cubran los tópicos principales como los entrenamientos a empleados y el manejo de residuos; el cual se basa en encontrar mejores formas de deshacerse de los residuos, alentar a los colegas a usar métodos de transporte más amigables con el medio ambiente y a la difusión de la conciencia ambiental a través de las tiendas y sus clientes. Además están diseñadas para que cuenten con instalaciones sustentables como son los paneles solares, uso de energía alternativa y el uso de bolsas ecológicas en lugar que las bolsas comunes de plástico. Ikea busca fomentar en sus clientes las practicas ecológicas de tal manera que cobra a sus clientes por el uso de bolsa de plástico para que estos se inclinen mas por el uso de las ecológicas. * Utiliza adecuadas prácticas forestales para la adquisición de madera, la cual no debe de provenir de bosques naturales o de alto valor de conservación y en ciertos tipos de maderas deben de contar con la certificación que avale de donde proviene. * En cuanto al diseño del producto se aseguran que el material del cual está formado sea libre de sustancias que causen alergias o que sean nocivos con la salud. * Utilización del método “the eWheel”, el cual consiste en evaluar el impacto ambiental que tienen los materiales del producto y verificar que estos sean amigables con la naturaleza, además se verifican que el producto pueda ser reciclado en un futuro cercano en caso de ser necesario. Todo esto para evitar la tala excesiva de árboles. * El envío de la mercancía lo hacen a través de paquetes planos, para que al transportarlos puedan enviar más paquetes en un solo viaje y de esta manera reducir las emisiones de CO2 de sus camiones.
En cuanto al dilema ético el equipo propone lo siguiente:
Creemos que como Ikea es una empresa socialmente responsable y comprometida con la naturaleza una alternativa de solución será que la empresa ponga un límite en cuanto su expansión a nivel global. Ya que como se mencionó en un principio el dilema ético que enfrenta la compañía es expandirse vs la situación en donde la tala de árboles se duplicaría. Si la empresa dedica tanto tiempo en la implementación de políticas “verdes” debido a su gran preocupación por la naturaleza también puede plantearse la idea de hasta donde IKEA llegaría en cuanto expansión para que no generará un conflicto de interese. Es por eso que IKEA deberá poner un límite en la apertura de sucursales.
Otra alternativa de solución puede ser incluir productos con materiales sustitutos a la madera de tal manera que controlarían un poco la tala de árboles por parte de la compañía, los materiales pueden ser: el polietileno que se considera un material verde ya que proviene de las cajas de leche recicladas. (TyT, 2008)
Consideramos que dichas alternativas van muy de la mano con los principios éticos mencionados previamente en el escrito ya que ambas promueven, el derecho a la vida y la solidaridad ya que cuidando la tala de árboles la compañía se une a la preocupación de las comunidades cercanas de los bosques utilizados para dichas actividades
Bibliografía:
TyT. (2008, Octubre 10). Sustituto del hierro, concreto y madera… polietileno de alta densidad. Retrieved from http://tytenlinea.com/sustituto-del-hierro-concreto-y-madera…-polietileno-de-alta-densidad/…...

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...A Case Study on IKEA in 2013: Furniture Retailer to the World Prepared for: Md. Rashedur Rahman Assistant Professor Department of International Business University of Dhaka Prepared by: SL No | Name | ID No | 1. | Ummay Sumayea Kotha | 8015-16036 | 2. | Md. Abu Syed Khan | 8015-16070 | 3. | Md. Naoshad Jaman Chowdhury | 8015-Th16082 | Section: A, Theory and Practice of International Business (EIB- 510) Department of International Business. Date of submission: August 02, 2015 Case Study - IKEA in 2013: Furniture retailer to the world Elevatory Pitch: This case is focused on IKEA, which is now another name of success. Because it started small by a person named Ingvar Kamprad but at first it wasn’t a furniture retailer. He used to sell other products, later he added furniture to his product line. His furniture business boomed because he was the one offering better products and a lower price. During that time furniture used to be expensive in Sweden so his easy on the pocket priced furnitures became a hit. At first it was an order based service later on they opened the first ever self service store of their kind. Their business expended to other countries as well. Things were going right but challenges were present too. Because different countries had different cultures so it becomes tough for them to get along in North American culture. But they managed it by becoming......

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Ikea Case Study

...Question 1. - What has allowed IKEA to be successful with a relatively standardised product and product line in a business with strong cultural influence? Did adaptations to this strategy in the North American market constitute a defeat to their approach? Background and the "Ikea concept" World's largest home furnishings retail chain. Achieved international expansion in 3 major phases. Summarised its mission as to offer a wide variety, good design, good value, for "young people of all ages". Determination to maintain a standardised product strategy. Does not own manufacturing facilities. Ikea owns distribution and designs furniture. Manufacturers are subcontracted. Cost leadership strategy through high volume production and standardised items. Ikea consumers expected to supply their time for assembling work after purchase, thus becoming "prosumers". What has allowed IKEA to be successful? They were customer focused. As they were not selling through dealers - could obtain feedback directly from customers. Also, Ikea sees itself not so much as a retailer but as a central star of services. What are these universally appealing values and why were these, together with the standardised assortment, successful in so many countries worldwide? It appears that the countries Ikea entered through international expansion had already had a growing number of potential customers who were not tied to a traditional furniture image. They preferred practicality, good value, simplicity,......

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Ikea Case Study

...Executive Summary Background IKEA, the world’s largest home furnishings retail chain, was founded in 1943 by a Swedish entrepreneur Ingvar Kamprad. IKEA offers standardized products worldwide that are Scandinavian in design worldwide. The unique idea of this famous brand is to offer the option of assembling products to customers. The design of the furniture is very modern and light as it is made of particleboard. The products are of contemporary design and function with the concept that is based on low price. High quality, convenience, affordability, consistency, functionality and good design are the essence of this world class home furnishing retailer. Challenges IKEA faced many challenges in terms of culture and business practices as well as socio-economic and political conditions in China. The biggest challenges were pricing, copycat producers and cheap labor cost for assembled furniture. Alternatives To make the price more affordable for Chinese consumers IKEA has developed manufacturing units in China and collects raw materials locally. Due to country specific environment IKEA chose franchising in China. Because of cheap labor cost of Chinese assembled furniture IKEA offers reasonable fee-based assembling services. IKEA has built its stores near public transportation lines inside cities since only 20% of customers own cars in Shanghai. Recommendations IKEA needs to find more local suppliers to keep price lower. To understand local culture and purchasing habit,...

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Closing Case-Ikea

...MGNT 3650 June 12, 2011 Chapter 1 Closing Case-IKEA How has the globalization of markets benefited IKEA? Globalization of markets has benefited IKEA by making it easy to expand into different countries. Now that the whole world has excess to the internet, everyone is basically wearing and listening to the same things. This is very beneficial to IKEA because there isn’t a lot the company has to do with the style they originally started in Sweden. With the globalization of markets it makes it easier for customers to buy products from IKEA online or at the warehouse with their country “social” demographics and culture in mind. “The worldwide success of a growing list of products that have become household names is evidence that consumers the worlds over, despite deep-rooted cultural differences, are becoming more and more alike - or, as the author puts it, "homogenized." In consequence, he contends, the traditional MNC's strategy of tailoring its products to the needs of multiple markets may put it at a severe disadvantage vis-a-vis competitors who apply marketing imagination to the task of developing advanced, functional, reliable standardized products, at the right price, on a global scale.” How has the globalization of production benefited IKEA? This has saved IKEA time and money. IKEA has producers to supply each of its big markets; it helps by knowing the styles of each market. For example the producer......

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