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kosmologi, Hubbles lov mm 1. Angiv lysets hastighed i det tomme rum og længden af et lysår 2. Hvad er Big Bang ? 3. Undersøg hvad størrelsen pc (parsec) angiver og beregn selv størrelsen af 1 pc og 1 Mpc 4. Hvad er en galaxe ? (størrelse, antal stjerner osv...) Hvad hedder vores galaxe ?

5. Undersøg hvordan man bestemmer afstanden til og farten hvormed fjerne galaxer fjerner sig 6. Hvad er rødforskydning ? I hvilken sammenhæng anvendes kendskab til rødforskydning ? 7. Beregn rødforskydningen og hastighed for linjer der forskydes • • fra 500 nm til 520 nm fra 650 nm til 700 nm

8. Ved en given rødforskydning z kan  e beregnes ud fra  f ved formlen  e = f 1 z  • Beregn  e for to linjer i brintspektret når z = 0,15

9. Vis formlen fra opg. 8 10. Beregn hastigheden hvormed galaxer fjerner sig når de befinder sig i afstandene hhv 100 Mly og 2000 Mly

NGG maj 2012 fysikC/B kosmologi, Hubbles lov mm 11. Beregn afstanden til galaxer der fjerner sig med farten på hhv 50 km/s og 20000 km/s 12. Bestem rødforskydningen for galaxerne i opgaverne ovenfor

13. Bestemmelse af universets alder (ved konstant udvidelsesfart) Man kan vise at universets alder T 0 kan beregnes ved T 0= Hubblekonstanten • • • H 0= 22 km/s Mly 1 hvor H0 H 0 er

Angiv længden af 1 mio lysår (forkortes Mly) 1 1 Mly Udregn tallet T 0= H = 22 km/ s i sekunder og år (UNIVERSETS ALDER !!) 0 1 Vis formlen T 0= H 0

12. Forklar figuren nedenfor med tekst

NGG maj 2012 fysikC/B kosmologi, Hubbles lov mm 13. Hubblekonstanten og Universets alder

Figuren viser fem galakser (billederne til højre) med deres spektre (til venstre). Pilene på spektrene angiver rødforskydningen. a. Hvad er rødforskydning? Under hvert spektrum er angivet galaksens (radial-)hastighed i km/s, dvs. hvor hurtigt galaksen bevæger sig væk fra os. Imellem billederne er galaksernes afstande angivet i megaparsec (millioner parsec eller Mpc), hvor én parsec = 3,26 lysår. 1 lysår, 1 ly = 9,46 · 1015 m.

NGG maj 2012 fysikC/B kosmologi, Hubbles lov mm b. Omregn afstandene til galaxerne til lysår eller endnu bedre Mly ! c. Indtegn de fem galakser i en graf med afstanden (i Mly) ud af 1.-aksen og hastigheden (i km/s) op af 2.-aksen. Hvordan ligger punkterne? d. Bestem hældningen (Hubbles konstant e. Omregn H 0 ) og udtryk den i enheden km/s / Mly.

H 0 til enheden s-1. Vink: Indsæt talværdien i kilometer på Mly plads.

f. Bestem størrelsen

1 , der kaldes Hubble-tiden. Dels i sekunder og dels i mia. år. Denne H0 størrelse er en karakteristisk tidsskala for Universets alder, hvis udvidelseshastigheden har været nogenlunde konstant. Universets faktiske alder er ifølge en populær model: tunivers = 2/3 · H-1

g. Hvor meget bliver Universets alder ifølge din værdi af Hubble-konstanten? Sammenlign med de nyeste målinger der giver 13,7 mia. år.


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