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How Does Transport Influence Land Use and Development

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How does transport influence land use and development. Discuss and elaborate.

1.0 Transport influence Land Use

Transport often been related to the physical activity by regarding to the accessibility and the mobility of transportation planning. It occurs the planning for land development in the future and propose of road network in range of the district. For example in the local plan and state plan has derive the development for the road linkages and network toward making the land use based on the access way. In state and local plan land use planning has showed that normally the highly and high development access way may produce the main land use such as commercial, housing and administration especially in the middle of the city. Beside that in the area were has low development of traffic and access way may produce the micro land use such as industry and agriculture. The interrelationships between transportation and land use remain contentious despite extensive research. In particular, the influence of transportation system performance on land use development, although recognized as a lagged relationship.

In addition, the land use been influenced because of certain problem that need to be overcome especially on traffic congestion. In response, communities are beginning to implement new approaches to transportation planning, such as better coordinating land use and transportation; increasing the availability of high quality transit service; creating redundancy, resiliency and connectivity within their road networks; and ensuring connectivity between pedestrian, bike, transit, and road facilities. In short, they are coupling a multi-modal approach to transportation with supportive development patterns, to create a variety of transportation options.

Concerned that traffic congestion and urban sprawl are overwhelming the human scale of city area, an increasing number of planners and even politician are promoting the reorganization and redesign of cities as a means of reducing the problems associated with an auto dominated transportation system. Plan and neighborhood development forms that emphasize pedestrian comfort and convenience, these advocates argue, will promote increase walking and transit use, thereby reducing auto use and freeway congestion because such forms will necessarily be more compact in helping reign in sprawl.

1.1 Transportation, Activity Systems and Land Use

Figure 1.0: Transportation and Activity

Activities have spatial locations creating a land use pattern, which is influenced by the existing urban form and spatial structure. This form is strongly related to the types of activities that can roughly be divided in three major classes:

1.1.1 Routine Activities.
This class of activities is occurring regularly and is thus predictable. They involve journey to work (residential to industrial / commercial / administrative) and shopping (residential to retailing). The land use pattern generated is thus stable and coherent. Generally, these activities are zonal and links are from areas to areas.

1.1.2 Institutional Activities.
Most institutions are located at specific points and generally have links with individuals. This activity system is linked to an urban environment where links are occurring irregularly and according to the lifestyle (students, sports, leisure, etc.) or special needs (health).

1.1.3 Production Activities.
This involves a complex network of relationships between firms, such as control, distribution, warehousing and sub-contracting. This activity system can be linked to a specific urban environment, but also to a region, nation, or even the world. Some activities are strongly linked to the local urban area, while others are far more linked to the global economy. The land use pattern of an activity may thus be linked to an external (international) process.

These activity systems underline the importance of linkages between land uses, which require movements of people, freight and information. The results of these linkages are land use patterns.

2.0 Transport has influenced development activity

2.1 Socio economic changes
Transport systems are closely related to socio-economic changes. The mobility of people and freight and levels of territorial accessibility are at the core of this relationship. Economic opportunities are likely to arise where transportation infrastructures are able to answer mobility needs and insure access to markets and resources. From the industrial revolution in the 19th century to globalization and economic integration processes of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, regions of the world have been affected differently by economic development. International, regional and local transportation systems alike have become fundamental components of economic activities. A growing share of the wealth is thus linked to trade and distribution. However, even if transportation has positive impacts on socio-economic systems, there are also negative consequences such as congestion, accidents and mobility gaps.

Transportation is also a commercial activity derived from operational attributes such as transportation costs, capacity, efficiency, reliability and speed. Transportation systems are evolving within a complex set of relationships between transport supply, mainly the operational capacity of the network, and transport demand, the mobility requirements of an economy.

Transportation is essential to modern economies, and that sector is almost totally depend on oil as a source of energy. The ability to freely and inexpensively move goods and people is a fundamental link in the economic chain. Today, large changes in the price or supply of oil send shock waves rolling through the world's financial institutions. Transportation is the most rapidly growing consumer of the world's energy, and the largest share of transportation's energy goes to passenger travel. In developed countries, passenger travel accounts for about 70% of the total energy consumed by transportation. 2.2 Environmental
Transport activities have resulted in growing levels of motorization and congestion. As a result, the transportation sector is becoming increasingly linked to environmental problems. With a technology relying heavily on the combustion of hydrocarbons, notably with the internal combustion engine, the impacts of transportation over environmental systems has increased with motorization. This has reached a point where transportation activities are a dominant factor behind the emission of most pollutants and thus their impacts on the environment.

For example In a typical U.S. city, motor vehicle emissions account for 30% 50% of hydrocarbon, 80%-90% of carbon monoxide, and 40%-60% of nitrogen oxide emissions. Cars and light trucks are responsible for about 20% of the nation's carbon dioxide, which is a powerful greenhouse gas

3.1.1 Accessibility Transport creates an accessibility to generate trip from where people live and where people travel. It often happens in forecasting the demand and development sprawl. Trip generation is the first step in the conventional four-step transportation forecasting process widely used for forecasting travel demands. It predicts the number of trips originating in or destined for a particular traffic analysis zone. In the main trip generation analysis is focused on residences, and that trip generation is thought of as a function of the social and economic attributes of households. At the level of the traffic analysis zone, the language is that of land uses "producing" or generating trips. Zones are also destinations of trips, trip attractors. The analysis of attractors focuses on nonresidential land uses. In transportation, accessibility refers to the ease of reaching destinations. People who are in places that are highly accessible can reach many other activities or destinations quickly, people in inaccessible places can reach many fewer places in the same amount of time. Road network that connect between town and city create gravity model of development pattern which strongly locate which place will get high impact on development. It is sure that the trip were been made by people are strongly 3.1.2 Linear development along the road. In oversea the the Department for Transport have mandated that each local authority produce an Accessibility Plan. An Accessibility Plan sets out how each local authority plans to improve access to employment, learning, health care, food shops and other services of local importance, particularly for disadvantaged groups and areas. Accessibility targets are defined in the accessibility plans, these are often the distance or time to access services by different modes of transport including walking, cycling and public transport. The development along the road increase by the trip maker. People travel along the road making the demand on the facilities, accommodation, Business area to make it as traveler needs. High priority to building roads, particularly high-quality roads that connect industrial centers. This report evaluates the contribution roads have made to poverty reduction and economic growth in China over the last two decades. 3.1.3 Road network create the design of land use and development. Road network will reduce the transportation costs to the future residents enough to justify the additional to the master plan. Benefit from improved road network may be capitalized into land sales prices.…...

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