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Discussion 2
Locke wrote that all men have a natural right to life, liberty, and property or the fruits of their labor which Jeffersonchanged to "the pursuit of happiness" when he wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Locke also wrote that government is an instrument of the people's will, and the people have the right to rebel if the government proves to be tyrannical or defective. This argument has been used by many revolutionaries, but Jefferson was one of the first to use Locke's ideas to justify revolution.
6. How did industrialization change the work environment? How did industrialization affect cultural exchanges and social change around the globe in the nineteenth century?
After the industrialization, the work environment was very harsh and tragic. Laborers were paid very low and had very few or even no any benefits for working with dangerous machines. Their lives were dark and terrible. For example, the work conditions were recorded: "The process of purifying iron, demanded that workers toiled amidst temperatures as high as 130 degrees in the coolest part of the ironworks. Though the hours worked by people did not change, the labor force was poorly paid and made to work harder without rest. They had to work for about 10 to 14 hours a day, six days a week, in harsh conditions. The monotony of the job made them even more unbearable. The relationship between the employers and employee became impersonal and cold, making the employers unmindful of the condition of their employees. Accidents on the job also occurred regularly; however, there were no worker’s compensation at all." Otherwise, the industrialization had caused many great effects on the social changes. Before that, people had worked in agriculture, and most things were done by hand. The advent of industrialization and the new laws "which required all the grounds be fenced in at the owner’s expense" had left many farmers unemployed. With the appearance of machines and factories, people jumped from the countryside to towns, cities to find new chances. Therefore, all family members had to work, even children. Culture was also affected by industrialization. There were many artistic movements during the period of Britain’s industrialization, each of which is a reaction to the feelings of the time. These feelings translated into the Romantic movement, which encouraged individualism, freedom and emotion.

Effects of the Industrial Revolution http://webs.bcp.org/sites/vcleary/ModernWorldHistoryTextbook/IndustrialRevolution/IREffects.html Industrialization made great effects on social change. Before industrialization people worked in agriculture and everything was done by hand. The advent of industrialization and the new laws which required all the grounds be fenced in at the owner’s expense had left many farmers unemployed. With the creation of machines and factories, people moved from the countryside to towns and cities in order to search for new jobs. As a result, everyone in the family had to work, even children.Culture was also affected by industrialization.There were many artistic movements during the period of Britain’s industrialization, each of which is a reaction to the feelings of the time. These feelings translated into the Romantic movement, which encouraged individualism, freedom and emotion.

Discussion 3
6. Did Mexico experience a real revolution in the early twentieth century? How does this experience distinguish Mexico from other Latin American countries? What caused the turmoil?
The history of Mexico is one that has been marked by conflict and frequent change. Although the native people fought violently to preserve their independence and their fundamental rights in the 1800's revolution, only until the first quarter of the twentieth century did Mexico experience a real revolution. This revolution was perhaps one of the most important revolutions that had taken place in recent history because it was not a revolution led by factions battling for governmental control, or the bourgeoisie thinkers developing new ideas. Instead, it was a revolution led by simple men rising up and asserting their fundamental rights, and succeeding. The revolution was not only essential to the evolution of human rights and democracy and Mexico, but was also significant as it was one of the first successful third world revolutions. To an extent the revolution laid the groundwork for allowing democracy to emerge from authoritarianism in other third world nations. The turmoil was caused by the opposition to Porfirio Diaz, who used dictatorial powers to control Mexico. During the Diaz years, elections became meaningless. Diaz offered land, power, or political favors to anyone who supported him. As a result, Mexicans from many walks of life began to protest Diaz’s harsh rule in the early twentieth century. Farmer wanted land; workers wanted fairer wages and better working conditions; and idealistic liberals wanted liberty. Therefore, a variety of political parties opposed to Diaz began to form.

Discussion 4
2. What are some of the main differences between fascism and communism? Explain using specific examples.
Communism is a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state; whereas, Fascism is a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition.There is, in theory, no leader in the political system of Communism; and the people themselves should be calling all the shots. Fascism, on the other hand, is generally directed by one charismatic leader who has absolute power, both socially and military. Hitler was a fascist ruler. He controlled most-to-all areas of the German state and used propaganda and indoctrination along with the SS to destroy dissenters and the like. Communism rejects all religions and metaphysics, while Fascism is a civic religion, which means thecitizenworship the state through nationalism. The state only supports religious organizations that are nationally or historically tied to that state. For example, the Iron Guard in Romania supported the Romanian Orthodox church.In Communism, there are no class distinctions, because everyone’s needs are served equally, whereas in Fascism there are strict social-class separations and those perceived as “inferior” may be outright eliminated.Communists abolished the right of seizing control of private property and industry, thereby abolishing the capitalist class. In contrast, this right is permitted in Fascism. All members of state in Communism are considered equal and all class distinctions are eliminated; whilst, Fascism upholds a strict class structure, ensuring that every member of society has a specific, unchangeable role. Often in fascist societies a certain racial group is considered superior; and national and ethnic unity is encouraged at the expense of individuality. For example, Hitler's fascist regime glorified the Aryan race and called for the extermination of Jews during World War II.

Discussion 5

13. Why is the AIDS pandemic a serious political, social, and economic concern in African nations?
AIDS pandemic has a lot of impact on the social life in African. The family unit is breaking down all over South Africa. Children’s lives are shattered as adult dies of AIDS. The pandemic not only causes children to lose their parents or guardians, but sometimes their childhood as well. With the responsibilities they face, there is little time to learn and even less time to play. When the parents are sick, the oldest child has to look after their sick parents, their siblings and everything in their house as well as earn an income and produce food. They have to struggle even more after their parents die.Grandparents often step into care for children, but they may not be healthy or strong enough to do. HIV and AIDS pandemic also have a devastating effect on the economy of African nations. AIDS adds to food insecurity in many areas, as agricultural work is neglected or abandoned due to household illness, and thus diminishes the country’s agricultural output. Moreover, taking care of a person sick with AIDS is not only an emotional strain for household members, but also a major strain on household resources. Loss of income, additional care-related expenses, the reduced ability of caregivers to work, and mounting medical fees push affected households deeper into poverty. The financial burden of death can also be considerable, with some families in South Africa easily spending seven times their total household monthly income on a funeral. Furthermore, AIDS limits the ability of African countries to attract industries that depend on low-cost labor and makes investments in African businesses less desirable.AIDS pandemic also causes some political problem in African nations. Sexual violence, whether by known or unknown perpetrators, is linked with common forms of social and political violence that have long been part of the daily life of townships and inner city areas. Many women in the townships are forced to use their bodies as an ordinary economic resource outside the context of prostitution but within the culture of male violence.…...

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