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for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE® revised General Test

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Overview The mathematical symbols and terminology used in the Quantitative Reasoning measure of the test are conventional at the high school level, and most of these appear in the Math Review. Whenever nonstandard or special notation or terminology is used in a test question, it is explicitly introduced in the question. However, there are some particular assumptions about numbers and geometric figures that are made throughout the test. These assumptions appear in the test at the beginning of the Quantitative Reasoning sections, and they are elaborated below. Also, some notation and terminology, while standard at the high school level in many countries, may be different from those used in other countries or from those used at higher or lower levels of mathematics. Such notation and terminology are clarified below. Because it is impossible to ascertain which notation and terminology should be clarified for an individual test taker, more material than necessary may be included. Finally, there are some guidelines for how certain information given in test questions should be interpreted and used in the context of answering the questions—information such as certain words, phrases, quantities, mathematical expressions, and displays of data. These guidelines appear at the end.

Copyright © 2012 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logo, LISTENING. LEARNING. LEADING. and GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS).

Numbers and quantities • All numbers used in the test questions are real numbers. In particular, integers and both rational and irrational numbers are to be considered, but imaginary numbers are not. This is the main assumption regarding numbers. Also, all quantities are real numbers, although quantities may involve units of measurement. • Numbers are expressed in base 10 unless otherwise noted, using the 10 digits 0 through 9 and a period to the right of the ones digit, or units digit, for the decimal point. Also, in numbers that are 1,000 or greater, commas are used to separate groups of three digits to the left of the decimal point. • When a positive integer is described by the number of its digits, e.g., a two-digit integer, the digits that are counted include the ones digit and all the digits further to the left, where the left-most digit is not 0. For example, 5,000 is a four-digit integer, whereas 031 is not considered to be a three-digit integer. • Some other conventions involving numbers: one billion means 1,000,000,000, or 109 (not 1012 , as in some countries); one dozen means 12; the Greek letter p represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter and is approximately 3.14. • When a positive number is to be rounded to a certain decimal place and the number is halfway between the two nearest possibilities, the number should be rounded to the greater possibility. For example, 23.5 rounded to the nearest integer is 24, and 123.985 rounded to the nearest 0.01 is 123.99. When the number to be rounded is negative, the number should be rounded to the lesser possibility. For example, -36.5 rounded to the nearest integer is -37. • Repeating decimals are sometimes written with a bar over the digits that repeat, as in

25 = 2.083 12

and

1 = 0.142857. 7

• If r, s, and t are integers and rs = t , then r and s are factors, or divisors, of t; also, t is a multiple of r (and of s) and t is divisible by r (and by s). The factors of an integer include positive and negative integers. For example, -7 is a factor of 35, 8 is a factor of -40, and the integer 4 has six factors: -4, -2, -1, 1, 2, and 4. The terms factor, divisor, and divisible are used only when r, s, and t are integers. However, the term multiple can be used with any real numbers s and t provided r is an integer. For example, 1.2 is a multiple of 0.4, and -2p is a multiple of p . • The least common multiple of two nonzero integers a and b is the least positive integer that is a multiple of both a and b. The greatest common divisor (or greatest common factor) of a and b is the greatest positive integer that is a divisor of both a and b. • If an integer n is divided by a nonzero integer d resulting in a quotient q with remainder r, then n = qd + r , where 0 £ r < d . Furthermore, r = 0 if and only if n is a multiple of d. For example, when 20 is divided by 7, the quotient is 2 and the remainder is 6; when 21 is divided by 7, the quotient is 3 and the remainder is 0; and when -17 is divided by 7, the quotient is -3 and the remainder is 4. • A prime number is an integer greater than 1 that has only two positive divisors: 1 and itself. The first five prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11. A composite number is an integer greater than 1 that is not a prime number. The first five composite numbers are 4, 6, 8, 9, and 10. • Odd and even integers are not necessarily positive; for example, -7 is odd, and -18 and 0 are even. • The integer 0 is neither positive nor negative.

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Mathematical expressions, symbols, and variables • As is common in algebra, italic letters like x are used to denote numbers, constants, and variables. Letters are also used to label various objects, such as line , point P, function f, set S, list T, event E, random variable X, Brand X, City Y, and Company Z. The meaning of a letter is determined by the context. • When numbers, constants, or variables are given, their possible values are all real numbers unless otherwise restricted. It is common to restrict the possible values in various ways. Here are some examples: n is a nonzero integer; 1 £ x < p ; and T is the tens digits of a two-digit positive integer, so T is an integer from 1 to 9. • Standard mathematical symbols at the high school level are used. These include the arithmetic operations +, -, ¥, and ∏, though multiplication is usually denoted by juxtaposition, often with parentheses, e.g., 2y and (3)( 4.5) ; and division is usually denoted with a horizontal fraction bar, 1 3 w e.g., . Sometimes mixed numbers, or mixed fractions, are used, like 4 and -10 . These two 3 2 8 21 35 numbers are equal to and - , respectively. Exponents are also used, e.g., 210 = 1,024, 2 8 1 10 -2 = , and x 0 = 1 for all nonzero numbers x. 100 • Mathematical expressions are to be interpreted with respect to order of operations, which establishes which operations are performed before others in an expression. The order is as follows: parentheses; exponentiation; negation; multiplication and division (from left to right); addition and subtraction (from left to right). For example, the value of the expression 1 + 2 ¥ 4 is 9, because the

expression is evaluated by first multiplying 2 and 4 and then adding 1 to the result. Also, -32 means “the negative of ‘3 squared’ ” because exponentiation takes precedence over negation. Therefore, -32 = -9, but ( -3)2 = 9 because parentheses take precedence over exponentiation.

• Here are examples of other standard symbols with their meanings:

x£ y xπ y xª y x x - x n!

x is less than or equal to y x and y are not equal x and y are approximately equal the absolute value of x the nonnegative square root of x, where x ≥ 0 the nonpositive square root of x, where x ≥ 0 the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n, where n is any positive integer and, as a special definition, 0! = 1. lines and m are parallel lines and m are perpendicular

m ^m

• Because all numbers are assumed to be real, some expressions are not defined. For example, for x is not defined; if x < 0, then x is not defined; and 00 is not every number x, the expression 0 defined. • Sometimes special symbols or notation are introduced in a question. Here are two examples: rs . The operation ‡ is defined for all integers r and s by r ‡ s = 1 + r2 1 The operation ∼ is defined for all nonzero numbers x by ∼ x = - . x

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• Sometimes juxtaposition of letters does not denote multiplication, as in “consider a three-digit integer denoted by XYZ, where X, Y, and Z are digits.” The meaning is taken from the context. • Standard function notation is used in the test. For example, “the function g is defined for all x ≥ 0 by g ( x ) = 2 x + x . ” If the domain of a function f is not given explicitly, it is assumed to be the set of all real numbers x for which f ( x ) is a real number. If f and g are two functions, then the composition of g with f is denoted by g ( f ( x )) . Geometry • In questions involving geometry, the conventions of plane (or Euclidean) geometry are followed, including the assumption that the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle is 180 degrees. • Lines are assumed to be “straight” lines that extend in both directions without end. • Angle measures are in degrees and are assumed to be positive and less than or equal to 360 degrees. • When a square, circle, polygon, or other closed geometric figure is described in words but not shown, the figure is assumed to enclose a convex region. It is also assumed that such a closed geometric figure is not just a single point or a line segment. For example, a quadrilateral cannot be any of the following:

• The phrase area of a rectangle means the area of the region enclosed by the rectangle. The same terminology applies to circles, triangles, and other closed figures. • The distance between a point and a line is the length of the perpendicular line segment from the point to the line, which is the shortest distance between the point and the line. Similarly, the distance between two parallel lines is the distance between a point on one line and the other line. • In a geometric context, the phrase similar triangles (or other figures) means that the figures have the same shape. See the Geometry section of the Math Review for further explanation of the terms similar and congruent. Geometric figures • Geometric figures consist of points, lines, line segments, curves (such as circles), angles, and regions; also included are labels, and markings or shadings that identify these objects or their sizes. A point is indicated by a dot, a label or the intersection of two or more lines or curves. Points, lines, angles, etc., that are shown as distinct are indeed distinct. All figures are assumed to lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated. • If points A, B, and C do not lie on the same line, then line segments AB and BC form two angles with vertex B—one angle with measure less than 180∞ and the other with measure greater than 180∞, as shown below. Unless otherwise indicated, angle ABC, also denoted by – ABC or –B, refers to the smaller of the two angles.

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• The notation AB may mean the line segment with endpoints A and B, or it may mean the length of the line segment. The meaning can be determined from the context. • Geometric figures are not necessarily drawn to scale. That is, you should not assume that quantities such as lengths and angle measures are as they appear in a figure. However, you should assume that lines shown as straight are actually straight, and when curves are shown, you should assume they are not straight. Also, assume that points on a line or a curve are in the order shown, points shown to be on opposite sides of a line or curve are so oriented, and more generally, assume all geometric objects are in the relative positions shown. For questions with geometric figures, you should base your answers on geometric reasoning, not on estimating or comparing quantities by sight or by measurement. • To illustrate some of these conventions, consider the geometric figure below.

The following can be determined from the figure. o ABD and DBC are triangles, and points R, S, and T lie on the closed curve. o Points A, D, and C lie on a straight line, so ABC is a triangle with sides AB, BC, and AC. o Point D is a distinct point between points A and C. o Points A and S are on opposite sides of line m. o Point E is on BD. o AD < AC o ST = 9, DC = 6, and the measure of angle C is 35 degrees. o Angle ABC is a right angle, as indicated by the small square symbol at point B. o The measure of angle ABD is x degrees, and x < 90. o Line intersects the closed curve at points S and T, and the curve is tangent to AB at T. o The area of the region enclosed by the curve is greater than the area of triangle RST. The following cannot be determined from the figure. o AD > DC o The measures of angles BAD and BDA are equal. o The measure of angle DBC is less than x degrees. o The area of triangle ABD is greater than the area of triangle DBC. o Angle SRT is a right angle. o Line m is parallel to line AC.

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Coordinate systems • Coordinate systems, such as xy-planes and number lines, are drawn to scale. Therefore, you can read, estimate, or compare quantities in such figures by sight or by measurement, including geometric figures that appear in coordinate systems. • The positive direction of a number line is to the right. • As in geometry, distances in a coordinate system are nonnegative. • The rectangular coordinate plane, or rectangular coordinate system, commonly known as the xyplane, is shown below. The x-axis and y-axis intersect at the origin O, and they partition the plane into four quadrants. Each point in the xy-plane has coordinates ( x, y ) that give its location with respect to the axes; for example, the point P ( 2, -8) is located 2 units to the right of the y-axis and 8 units below the x-axis. The units on the x-axis have the same length as the units on the y-axis, unless otherwise noted.

• Intermediate grid lines or tick marks in a coordinate system are evenly spaced unless otherwise noted. • The term x-intercept refers to the x-coordinate of the point at which a graph in the xy-plane intersects the x-axis. The term y-intercept is used analogously. Sometimes the terms x-intercept and y-intercept refer to the actual intersection points. Sets, lists, and sequences • Sets of numbers or other elements appear in some questions. Some sets are infinite, such as the set of integers; other sets are finite and may have all of their elements listed within curly brackets, such as the set {2, 4, 6, 8}. When the elements of a set are given, repetitions are not counted as additional elements and the order of the elements is not relevant. Elements are also called members. A set with one or more members is called nonempty; there is a set with no members, called the empty set and denoted by ∆. If A and B are sets, then the intersection of A and B, denoted by A « B, is the set of elements that are in both A and B, and the union of A and B, denoted by A » B, is the set of elements that are in A or B, or both. If all of the elements in A are also in B, then A is a subset of B. By convention, the empty set is a subset of every set. If A and B have no elements in common, they are called disjoint sets or mutually exclusive sets.

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• Lists of numbers or other elements are also used in the test. When the elements of a list are given, repetitions are counted as additional elements and the order of the elements is relevant. For example, the list 3, 1, 2, 3, 3 contains five numbers, and the first, fourth, and last numbers in the list are each 3. • The terms data set and set of data are not sets in the mathematical sense given above. Rather they refer to a list of data because there may be repetitions in the data, and if there are repetitions, they would be relevant. • Sequences are lists that often have an infinite number of elements, or terms. The terms of a sequence are often represented by a fixed letter along with a subscript that indicates the order of a term in the sequence. For example, a1, a2 , a3 , .. . , an , . . . represents an infinite sequence in which the first term is a1, the second term is a2 , and more generally, the nth term is an for every positive

integer n. Sometimes the nth term of a sequence is given by a formula, such as bn = 2n + 1. Sometimes the first few terms of a sequence are given explicitly, as in the following sequence of consecutive even negative integers: -2, - 4, - 6, -8, -10, . . . .

• Sets of consecutive integers are sometimes described by indicating the first and last integer, as in “the integers from 0 to 9, inclusive.” This phrase refers to 10 integers, with or without “inclusive” at the end. Thus, the phrase “during the years from 1985 to 2005” refers to 21 years. Data and statistics • Numerical data are sometimes given in lists and sometimes displayed in other ways, such as in tables, bar graphs, or circle graphs. Various statistics, or measures of data, appear in questions: measures of central tendency—mean, median, and mode; measures of position—quartiles and percentiles; and measures of dispersion—standard deviation, range, and interquartile range. • The term average is used in two ways, with and without the qualification “(arithmetic mean).” For a list of data, the average (arithmetic mean) of the data is the sum of the data divided by the number of data. The term average does not refer to either median or mode in the test. Without the qualification of “arithmetic mean,” average can refer to a rate or the ratio of one quantity to another, as in “average number of miles per hour” or “average weight per truckload.” • When mean is used in the context of data, it means arithmetic mean. • The median of an odd number of data is the middle number when the data are listed in increasing order; the median of an even number of data is the arithmetic mean of the two middle numbers when the data are listed in increasing order. • For a list of data, the mode of the data is the most frequently occurring number in the list. Thus, there may be more than one mode for a list of data. • For data listed in increasing order, the first quartile, second quartile, and third quartile of the data are three numbers that divide the data into four groups that are roughly equal in size. The first group of numbers is from the least number up to the first quartile. The second group is from the first quartile up to the second quartile, which is also the median of the data. The third group is from the second quartile up to the third quartile, and the fourth group is from the third quartile up to the greatest number. Note that the four groups themselves are sometimes referred to as quartiles—first quartile, second quartile, third quartile, and fourth quartile. The latter usage is clarified by the word “in” as in the phrase “the cow’s weight is in the third quartile of the weights of the herd.” • For data listed in increasing order, the percentiles of the data are 99 numbers that divide the data into 100 groups that are roughly equal in size. The 25th percentile equals the first quartile; the 50th percentile equals the second quartile, or median; and the 75th percentile equals the third quartile. • For a list of data, where the arithmetic mean is denoted by m, the standard deviation of the data refers to the nonnegative square root of the mean of the squared differences between m and each of

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the data. This statistic is also known as the population standard deviation and is not to be confused with the sample standard deviation.

• For a list of data, the range of the data is the greatest number in the list minus the least number. The interquartile range of the data is the third quartile minus the first quartile. Data distributions and probability distributions • Some questions display data in frequency distributions, where discrete data values are repeated with various frequencies, or where preestablished intervals of possible values are assigned frequencies corresponding to the numbers of data in the intervals. For example, the lifetimes, rounded to the nearest hour, of 300 lightbulbs could be in the following 10 intervals: 501–550 hours, 551–600 hours, 601–650 hours, . . . , 951–1,000 hours; consequently, each of the intervals would have a number, or frequency, of lifetimes, and the sum of the 10 frequencies is 300. • Questions may involve relative frequency distributions, where each frequency of a frequency distribution is divided by the total number of data in the distribution, resulting in a relative frequency. In the example above, the 10 frequencies of the 10 intervals would each be divided by 300, yielding 10 relative frequencies. • When a question refers to a random selection or a random sample, all possible samples of equal size have the same probability of being selected unless there is information to the contrary. • Some questions describe probability experiments, or random experiments, that have a finite number of possible outcomes. In a random experiment, any particular set of outcomes is called an event, and every event E has a probability, denoted by P ( E ) , where 0 £ P ( E ) £ 1. If each outcome of an experiment is equally likely, then the probability of an event E is defined as the following ratio:

P (E ) =

the number of outcomes in the event E . the number of possible outcomes in the experiment

• If E and F are two events in an experiment, then “E and F ” is an event, which is the set of outcomes that are in the intersection of events E and F. Another event is “E or F,” which is the set of outcomes that are in the union of events E and F. • If E and F are two events and E and F are mutually exclusive, then P ( E and F ) = 0. • If E and F are two events such that the occurrence of either event does not affect the occurrence of the other, then E and F are said to be independent events. Events E and F are independent if and only if P ( E and F ) = P ( E ) P ( F ) . • A random variable is a variable that represents values resulting from a random experiment. The values of the random variable may be the actual outcomes of the experiment if the outcomes are numerical, or the random variable may be related to the outcomes more indirectly. In either case, random variables can be used to describe events in terms of numbers. • A random variable from an experiment with only a finite number of possible outcomes also has only a finite number of values and is called a discrete random variable. When the values of a random variable form a continuous interval of real numbers, such as all of the numbers between 0 and 2, the random variable is called a continuous random variable. • Every value of a discrete random variable X, say X = a, has a probability denoted by P ( a ) . A histogram (or a table) showing all of the values of X and their probabilities P ( X ) is called the probability distribution of X. The mean of the random variable X is the sum of the products X P ( X ) for all values of X. • The mean of a random variable X is also called the expected value of X or the mean of the probability distribution of X.

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• For a continuous random variable X, every interval of values, say a £ X £ b, has a probability, which is denoted by P ( a £ X £ b ) . The probability distribution of X is a curve in the xy-plane that mimics the tops of the bars of a histogram, only smoother. The curve is the graph of a function f whose values are nonnegative and whose graph is therefore above the x-axis. The curve y = f ( x ) is related to the probability of each interval a £ X £ b in the following way: P ( a £ X £ b ) is equal to the area of the region that is below the curve, above the x-axis, and between the vertical lines x = a and x = b. The area of the entire region under the curve is 1. • The mean of a continuous random variable X is the point m on the x-axis at which region under the distribution curve would perfectly balance if a fulcrum were placed at x = m. The median of X is the point M on the x-axis at which the line x = M divides the region under the distribution curve into two regions of equal area. • The standard deviation of a random variable X is a measure of dispersion, which indicates how spread out the probability distribution of X is from its mean. It is also called the standard deviation of the probability distribution of X. • The most important probability distribution is the normal distribution, whose distribution curve is shaped like a bell. A random variable X with this distribution is called normally distributed. The curve is symmetric about the line x = m, where m is the mean as well as the median. The right and left tails of the distribution become ever closer to the x-axis but never touch it. • The standard normal distribution has mean 0 and standard deviation 1. The following figure shows the distribution, including approximate probabilities corresponding to the six intervals shown.

Graphical representations of data • Graphical data presentations, such as bar graphs, circle graphs, and line graphs, are drawn to scale; therefore, you can read, estimate, or compare data values by sight or by measurement. • Standard conventions apply to graphs of data unless otherwise indicated. For example, a circle graph represents 100 percent of the data indicated in the graph’s title, and the areas of the individual sectors are proportional to the percents they represent. Scales, grid lines, dots, bars, shadings, solid and dashed lines, legends, etc., are used on graphs to indicate the data. Sometimes, scales that do not begin at 0 are used, and sometimes broken scales are used. • In Venn diagrams, various sets of objects are represented by circular regions and by regions formed by intersections of the circles. In some Venn diagrams, all of the circles are inside a rectangular region that represents a universal set. A number placed in a region is the number of elements in the subset represented by the smallest region containing the number, unless otherwise noted. Sometimes a number is placed above a circle to indicate the number of elements in the entire circle. Miscellaneous Guidelines for Interpreting and Using Information in Test Questions • Numbers given in a question are to be used as exact numbers, even though in some real-life settings they are likely to have been rounded. For example, if a question states that “30 percent of the company’s profit was from health products,” then 30 is to be used as an exact number; it is not to be treated as though it were a nearby number, say 29 or 30.1, that has been rounded up or down. • An integer that is given as the number of certain objects, whether in a real-life or pure-math setting, is to be taken as the total number of such objects. For example, if a question states that “a bag

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contains 50 marbles, and 23 of the marbles are red,” then 50 is to be taken as the total number of marbles in the bag and 23 is to be taken as the total number of red marbles in the bag, so that the other 27 marbles are not red. Fractions and percents are understood in a similar way, so “one-fifth, or 20 percent, of the 50 marbles in the bag are green” means 10 marbles in the bag are green and 40 marbles are not green.

• When a multiple-choice question asks for an approximate quantity without stipulating a degree of approximation, the correct answer is the choice that is closest in value to the quantity that can be computed from the information given. • Unless otherwise indicated, the phrase “difference between two quantities” is assumed to mean “positive difference,” that is, the greater quantity minus the lesser quantity. For example, “for which two consecutive years was the difference in annual rainfall least?” means “for which two consecutive years was the absolute value of the difference in annual rainfall least?” • When the term profit is used in a question, it refers to gross profit, which is the sales revenue minus the cost of production. The profit does not involve any other amounts unless they are explicitly given. • The common meaning of terms such as months and years and other everyday terms are assumed in questions where the terms appear. • In questions involving real-life scenarios in which a variable is given to represent a number of existing objects or another nonnegative amount, the context implies that the variable is greater than 0. For example, “Jane sold x rugs and deposited her profit of y dollars into her savings account” implies that x and y are greater than 0. • Some quantities may involve units, such as inches, pounds, and Celsius degrees, while other quantities are pure numbers. Any units of measurement, such as English units or metric units, may be used. However, if an answer to a question requires converting one unit of measurement to another, then the relationship between the units is given in the question, unless the relationship is a common one, such as the relationships between minutes and hours, dollars and cents, and metric units like centimeters and meters. • In any question, there may be some information that is not needed for obtaining the correct answer. • When reading questions, do not introduce unwarranted assumptions. For example, if a question describes a trip that begins and ends at certain times, the intended answer will assume that the times are unaffected by crossing time zones or by changes to the local time for daylight savings, unless those matters are explicitly mentioned. As another example, do not consider sales taxes on purchases unless explicitly mentioned. • The display of data in a Data Interpretation set of questions is the same for each question in the set. Also, the display may contain more than one graph or table. Each question will refer to some of the data, but it may happen that some part of the data will have no question that refers to it. • In a Data Interpretation set of questions, each question should be considered separately from the others. No information except what is given in the display of data should be carried over from one question to another. • In many questions, mathematical expressions and words appear together in a phrase. In such a phrase, each mathematical expression should be interpreted separately from the words before it is interpreted along with the words. For example, if n is an integer, then the phrase “the sum of the first two consecutive integers greater than n + 6 ” means ( n + 7 ) + ( n + 8) ; it does not mean “the sum of the first two consecutive integers greater than n” plus 6, or ( n + 1) + ( n + 2) + 6. That is, the expression n + 6 should be interpreted first, separately from the words. However, in a phrase like “the function g is defined for all x ≥ 0, ” the phrase “for all x ≥ 0 ” is a mathematical shorthand for “for all numbers x such that x ≥ 0. ”

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...北京新东方 GRE/GMAT 一对一课程，提分显著！咨询：010-62605555 美加研究生留学直通车 TOEFL/GRE/GMAT 冲分课程：http://bj.xdf.cn/publish/portal24/tab19365/ 请加“高智威”老师新浪微博 发邮件给高智威老师：zhiw.gao@gmail.com 咨询 GMAT/GRE 学习以及出国留学申请事宜 高智威 GRE 填空机经高频词汇 更新至 2013 年 2 月 序号 1 2 单词 preference progress 词 性 n. n. 所考含义 偏好 发展 释义 the act of preferring : the state of being preferred a forward or onward movement (as to an objective or to a goal) : ADVANCE of any of several light or medium grayish colors ranging in hue from yellow to orange simultaneous and contradictory attitudes or feelings (as attraction and repulsion) toward an object, person, or action JOYFUL: experiencing, causing, or showing joy : HAPPY showing or characterized by condescension : PATRONIZING to look on with scorn avoiding obvious emphasis or embellishment the period of one's greatest strength,vigor or prosperity in or into conflict with PLAY DOWN, DE-EMPHASIZE to refuse to take notice of to pay no attention to : treat as unworthy of regard or notice appropriate to one's mood, inclinations, or disposition a number greater than half of a total POPULAR：of or relating to the general public ABSOLUTE:of, relating to, or being an autocracy to undermine or destroy the force, value, or effectiveness of （inflation undercuts consumer buying power） removal or lightening of something oppressive, painful, or distressing being adverse often by reason of hostility or malevolence to make evident : EMPHASIZE, STRESS 3 lurid adj. 斑斓的 4 5 6 7 8 9 10...

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...Download GRE Big Book Word List GRE Big Book Word List abase v. To lower in position, estimation, or the like; degrade. abbess n. The lady superior of a nunnery. abbey n. The group of buildings which collectively form the dwelling-place of a society of monks or nuns. abbot n. The superior of a community of monks. abdicate v. To give up (royal power or the like). abdomen n. In mammals, the visceral cavity between the diaphragm and the pelvic floor; the belly. abdominal n. Of, pertaining to, or situated on the abdomen. abduction n. A carrying away of a person against his will, or illegally. abed adv. In bed; on a bed. aberration n. Deviation from a right, customary, or prescribed course. abet v. To aid, promote, or encourage the commission of (an offense). abeyance n. A state of suspension or temporary inaction. abhorrence n. The act of detesting extremely. abhorrent adj. Very repugnant; hateful. abidance n. An abiding. abject adj. Sunk to a low condition. abjure v. To recant, renounce, repudiate under oath. able-bodied adj. Competent for physical service. ablution n. A washing or cleansing, especially of the body. abnegate v. To renounce (a right or privilege). abnormal adj. Not conformed to the ordinary rule or standard. abominable adj. Very hateful. abominate v. To hate violently. abomination n. A very detestable act or practice. aboriginal adj. Primitive; unsophisticated. aborigines n. The original of earliest known inhabitants of a......

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...GRE VERBAL MADE EASY (MAMA EASY) Page 1 PREFACE This “made easy” has been prepared to meet the requirements of those GRE aspirants, who find it very difficult to learn isolated(unrelated) words. It is true that its very tough to learn isolated words. This guide might help you to prepare in easier way by using groups of “related” words. I prepared this to meet my own requirements during my preparation for the GRE on sep 6, 2002. My friend Balaji.R has played an EQUAL role in preparing this file. It is with his full consent that I am uploading this file on the net. This file is a result of our hard work for 47 days(Jun 01 2002 to July 17 2002)..This guide has helped me a lot. So I thought it “might” help others as well. Thats why I am uploading this. BTW, for those of you who are curious to know, My GRE score is 2200 (V-690, A-710, Q-800). Thanks goes to Prof.James of datamatics coaching centre, Chennai. Because, this file is actually a soft copy of what he teaches in class(Of course, its NOT my work. I only typed out whatever prof.James spoke.. Thats all). I know that there are some inadvertent mistakes in this file. Kindly excuse me for that. HOW TO USE THIS FILE: 1) First of all, if you are a datamatics student this file might be extremely useful. For others, it might be helpful, only if you are prepared to work very hard. 2) Please get a hard copy of this file. Print it out. Get it hard bound.(Thats what I did). This helps because you can write some sentences......

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...Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization. List 1 GRE Verbal 750 Quantitative 800, AW 5.5 2008 10 Princeton, MIT, M. Fin Unit 1 ABANDON A B D I C AT E ABASE ABERRANT ABASH ABET A B AT E A B E YA N C E A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR abandon [ 1 n. ] carefree, freedom from constraint added spices to the stew with complete abandon unconstraint, uninhibitedness, unrestraint 2 v. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon herself to a life of complete idleness abandon oneself to emotion indulge, surrender, give up 3 v. to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment abandon the ship/homes salvage 4 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) NASA the bad weather forced NASA to abandon the launch abort, drop, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off keep, continue, maintain, carry on abase [ 1 v. ] to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem was unwilling to abase himself by pleading guilty to a crime that he did not commit debauch, degrade, profane, vitiate, discredit, foul, smirch, take down elevate, ennoble, uplift, aggrandize, canonize, deify, exalt abash [ 1 vt. ] to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of ,disconcert, embarrass Nothing could abash him. discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, nonplus, mortify embolden abate [ 1 v. ] to reduce in degree or intensity / abate his rage/pain taper off intensify 2......

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...//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////GRE VOCABULARY * McGraw-Hill’s CONQUERING THE NEW GRE Verbal and Writing (2011) 에 나오는 단어 1. abjure 주의, 의견을 버리다. He never did adjure his belief in the big bang theory. 2. abnegate (권리등을) 버리다. 자제하다. The king will abnegate power to his son, the prince. 3. accede 취임하다, 동의하다. Will the boss accede to her worker's demands? 4. accolade 칭찬, 명예 My father won an accolade for bravery in wartime. 5. acrimonious (말, 태도가) 매서운, 격렬한 Their divorce was acrimonious; only the lawyers won. 6. adroitly 교묘하게, Our waiter adroitly balanced several trays at once. 7. aegis 보호, 옹호 He negotiated under the aegis of the prime minister. 8. altruistic 애타주의 Giving away her favorite coat was an altruistic act. 9. ambience 환경, (장소의)분위기 I like the ambience at that tiny corner cafe. 10. anodyne 진통의, 진통제 The singsong music had an anodyne effect. 11. apostate 배신 Having left the church, he was called an apostate. 12. asperity 꺼칠꺼칠함 She spoke with asperity, but her eyes were twinkling. 13. assiduous 근면한 The carpenter was assiduous in lining up the .... 14. auspices 후원, 찬조 The club functions under the auspices of the college. 15. avarice 탐욕 Midas lost his only daughter to his avarice for gold. 16. bacchanal 큰술잔치, 야단법석 Chaperones kept the prom from being a bacchanal. 17. bastion 요새 The D.A.'s office is our bastion against crime. 18. beatific 축복을 주는 Accepting her award, she gave a beatific smile. 19. behemoth 거대기업 The elephant is the......

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...This article is about the study of topics, such as quantity and structure. For other uses, see Mathematics (disambiguation). "Math" redirects here. For other uses, see Math (disambiguation). Euclid (holding calipers), Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens.[1] Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers),[2] structure,[3] space,[2] and change.[4][5][6] There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics.[7][8] Mathematicians seek out patterns[9][10] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become......

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...can see how to split up the original equation into its factor pair, this is the quickest and allows you to solve the problem in one step. Week 9 capstone part 1 Has the content in this course allowed you to think of math as a useful tool? If so, how? What concepts investigated in this course can apply to your personal and professional life? In the course, I have learned about polynomials, rational expressions, radical equations, and quadratic equations. Quadratic equations seem to have the most real life applications -- in things such as ticket sales, bike repairs, and modeling. Rational expressions are also important, if I know how long it takes me to clean my sons room, and know how long it takes him to clean his own room. I can use rational expressions to determine how long it will take the two of us working together to clean his room. The Math lab site was useful in some ways, since it allowed me to check my answers to the problems immediately. However, especially in math 117, it was too sensitive to formatting of the equations and answers. I sometimes put an answer into the math lab that I knew was right, but it marked it wrong because of the math lab expecting slightly different formatting Week 9 capstone part 2 I really didn't use center for math excellence because i found that MML was more convenient for me. I think that MML reassures you that you’re doing the problem correctly. MML is extra support because it carefully walks you through the problem visually......

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...and solve problems in everyday life”. In my everyday life I have to keep the balance in my check book, pay bills, take care of kids, run my house, cook, clean etc. With cooking I am using math, measuring how much food to make for four people (I still haven’t mastered that one). With bills I am using math, how much each company gets, to how much money I have to spare (which these days is not much). In my everyday life I do use some form of a math. It might not be how I was taught, but I have learned to adapt to my surroundings and do math how I know it be used, the basic ways, none of that fancy stuff. For my weakest ability I would say I fall into “Confidence with Mathematics”. Math has never been one of my favorite subjects to learn. It is like my brain knows I have to learn it, but it puts up a wall and doesn’t allow the information to stay in there. The handout “The Case for Quantitative Literacy” states I should be at ease with applying quantitative methods, and comfortable with quantitative ideas. To be honest this class scares the crap out of me, and I am worried I won’t do well in this class. The handout also says confidence is the opposite of “Math Anxiety”, well I can assure you I have plenty of anxiety right now with this class. I have never been a confident person with math, I guess I doubt my abilities, because once I get over my fears and anxiety I do fine. I just have to mentally get myself there and usually it’s towards the end of the class. There are......

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...List of 100 difficult words that appear most frequently in GRE Sl.No. Word Meaning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Equivocal/Equivocate/Equivocation Tractable (Intractable) Placate (Implacable) Miser Engender Dogma(tic)(tism(tist) Garrulous (Garrulity) Homogeneous (Homogenize) Laconic Quiescence (Quiescent) Anomalous Venerate (ion) Assuage Misanthrope (-ic) Digress(ive) 16. 17. 18. Corroborate (ion) Buttress Antipathy 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Disabuse Feigned (Unfeigned) Banal(ity) Desiccate (ion) Diatribe Pedant(ic)(ry) Guile(less) Eulogy (-ize) Fawn(ing) Aberrant/aberration Heresy/Heretic(al) 30. 31. 32. Obdurate Prevaricate(-ion) Embellish(ment) 33. Pragmatic/Pragmatism 34. Precipitate Ambiguous, open to two interpretations Obedient, yielding To soothe or pacify Person who is extremely stingy To produce, cause, bring out Rigidly fixed in opinion, opinionated Very talkative Composed of identical parts Using few words Inactivity, stillness Irregular or deviating from the norm To respect To make less severe, ease, relieve Person who hates human beings To turn aside; to stray from the main point To confirm, verify To reinforce or support Dislike, hostility, extreme opposition or aversion To free from error or misconception Pretended Trite and overly commom To dry completely, dehydrate Bitter verbal......

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...RECORD EXAMINATIONS® Introduction to the Verbal Reasoning Measure Copyright © 2009 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logo, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, and GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States and other countries. Introduction to the Verbal Reasoning Measure This document describes the types of questions contained in the Verbal Reasoning sections, gives you strategies for answering them, and presents some worked examples. Purpose and Format of the Verbal Reasoning Section The Verbal Reasoning section of the GRE measures your ability to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize information obtained from it, to analyze relationships among component parts of sentences, and to recognize relationships among words and concepts. Verbal Reasoning questions appear in several formats, each of which is discussed in detail below. About half of the section requires you to read passages and answer questions on those passages. The other half requires you to read, interpret, and complete existing sentences, groups of sentences, -1- or paragraphs. All of the questions are multiple choice, with the number of choices varying, depending on the type of question. Verbal Reasoning Question Types The GRE Verbal Reasoning section contains three types of questions: Reading Comprehension, Text Completion, and Sentence Equivalence. In this section you will study each of these question......

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...to Earn a High GRE Score The following is a guide to scoring high on the GRE test. If you follow these steps, your GRE score will improve. 1. Relax: Preparing for the GRE can be stressful. Try to focus on the task at hand and not so much on everything else you have to do. If you take GRE test prep step-by-step, day-by-day, and give yourself breaks when your body needs them, you'll be able to concentrate on GRE studies a lot better. 2. GRE Diagnostic Test: Begin GRE test prep with a GRE practice test to find out what you're good at, and more importantly, what you're not good at. Correct your completed practice test and evaluate the questions you missed. What kind of questions did you miss? Are they mostly Quantitative or mostly Verbal? What score would you give yourself on Analytical Writing? Did you miss a lot of analogies but do well on reading comprehension? With this information you'll be able to focus your GRE test prep studies on your weaknesses. 3. GRE Study Plan: With your GRE weaknesses in mind, make a very specific study plan for yourself. You should know what, how, and when you are going to study for the GRE test. Put your study plan somewhere in plain view, and make sure you stick to your plan. Try to keep GRE test prep interesting by planning to study different things in different ways. For example, study GRE vocabulary from flash cards one day, from a list the second day, and by reading and learning words in context the third day. 4. GRE......

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...Barron GRE word list - A abase abash abate abbreviate abdicate aberrant aberration abet abeyance abhor abide abject abjure ablution abnegation abode abolish abominable abominate aboriginal abortive abrasive abridge abrogate abscission abscond absolute absolve abstain lower; degrade; humiliate; make humble; make (oneself) lose self-respect embarrass subside or moderate shorten renounce; give up (position, right, or responsibility) abnormal or deviant deviation from the normal; mental disorder assist usually in doing something wrong; encourage suspended action detest; hate Dwell; abide by: comply with; put up with; tolerate; Ex. abide by the rules; Ex. I can't abide rude people. (of a condition) wretched; as low as possible; lacking pride; very humble; showing lack of self-respect; Ex. abject apology renounce upon oath washing renunciation; self-sacrifice; self-abnegation dwelling place; home cancel; put an end to detestable; extremely unpleasant loathe; hate being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native; indigenous; N. aborigine unsuccessful; fruitless rubbing away; tending to grind down condense or shorten abolish cutting off; separation depart secretly and hide complete; totally unlimited; having complete power; certain; not relative; Ex. absolute honesty/ruler; CF. absolutism pardon (an offense) refrain; withhold from participation; intentionally not use one's vote; abstemious abstinence abstract abstruse abusive abut abysmal abyss academic accede......

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