Premium Essay

German Wars

In: Historical Events

Submitted By coolchik100
Words 1111
Pages 5
How far does the role of individuals explain the outbreak of the German Wars of
Unification?

The German Wars of Unification can be blamed on a myriad of reasons however the pragmatism of Otto Von Bismarck often allowed him to take advantage and shape the course of German history. Conversely it would be remiss to state that Bismarck was solely responsible for the German Wars of Unification, nationalist elements as well as growing calls for liberalism all spurred the way for the beginning of a German state. Compounding this was the economic prosperity of Prussia, as Prussia grew economically stronger it diminished Austria’s sphere of influence in the region. This would also spur calls for greater German unity whilst isolating Austria.

Prussian ambition can be first seen to rival Austria with the creation of the Zollverein. Prussia in 1818 created a law to integrate Prussian customs systems onto neighbouring small states, over the next fifteen years through a complex mixture of threats and concessions the Prussians managed to create a concrete policy that would lay the foundations for the Zollverein. In 1833 the Zollverein was created and most importantly Austria was firmly excluded. The importance of this is summed up in Metternich’s quote “a smaller rival confederation..which all too quickly will become accustomed to following its own objectives with its own means”. Metternich’s fears would eventually become a reality, this is reiterated by the historian Treitschke who states that the Zollverein was a herald for the ultimate conflict between Austria and Prussia. On the other hand the major downfall of the Zollverein was that it did not emphasise nationalist aspects, it was merely an economic tool which lacked the tenacity to unite the German states. This is most evident in 1866 when smaller German states would side with Austria against Prussia.

The…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

To What Extent Can German Nationalism Be Regarded as a Mass Movement in the Period Between the Beginning of the French Revolution and the End of World War 1.

...To what extent can German Nationalism be regarded as a mass movement in the period between the beginning of The French Revolution and the End of World War 1. In the early 1940’s popular military parades through German Streets by soldiers bearing the insignia of the National-Socialist party who preached the chauvinist nationalist ideals of German expansion and superiority were commonplace. However, only a century earlier Nationalism was a minor movement suffering near-constant repression. Indeed what is most surprising about the period 1789-1919 in relation to German Nationalism is the lack of support for an ideology that would later grip German hearts and minds across the nation. Certainly in instances of military conflict and threat support for nationalism can be seen to grow, yet without this military impetus it struggled for popularity, instead finding itself actively repressed by politicians or other rival ideologies. 1890-1919 can be seen as a rare period where German Nationalism did attract a mass following. Certainly this was most evident in the rise of colonial pressure groups carrying a chauvinist nationalist message, with the Kyfferhausen movement attracting 2.9 million members with its militaristic message. Similarly even the less famous pressure groups had significant membership with the Navy League, Eastern Marches association and Agrarian league containing a total of 2.25 million Germans bound together by a common interest in imperialism and National greatness...

Words: 2311 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

German

...Max Frisch wurde geboren 1911 in zürich und starb 1991 ebenfalls in zuerich. Studiert hat er germanistik an der uni zürich, er muss das jedoch 2 jahre spaeter unterbrechen da sein vater starb und er geld brauchte. Arbeiitete er bei der nzz und tagi. 1936 – 40 archittekten studium an der eth absolvieren während er sich weiterhin als schriftsteller tätigt Max Frisch (* 15. Mai 1911 in Zürich; † 4. April 1991 ebenda) war ein Schweizer Schriftsteller und Architekt. Mit Theaterstücken wie Biedermann und die Brandstifter oder Andorra sowie mit seinen drei großen Romanen Stiller, Homo faber und Mein Name sei Gantenbein erreichte Frisch ein breites Publikum und fand Eingang in den Schulkanon. Darüber hinaus veröffentlichte er Hörspiele, Erzählungen und Prosawerke sowie zwei, die Zeiträume von 1946 bis 1949 und 1966 bis 1971 umfassende, literarische Tagebücher. Der junge Max Frisch empfand bürgerliche und künstlerische Existenz als unvereinbar und war lange Zeit unsicher, welchen Lebensentwurf er wählen sollte. Infolgedessen absolvierte Frisch nach einem abgebrochenen Germanistik-Studium und ersten literarischen Arbeiten ein Studium der Architektur und arbeitete einige Jahre lang als Architekt. Erst nach dem Erfolg seines Romans Stiller entschied er sich endgültig für ein Dasein als Schriftsteller und verließ seine Familie, um sich ganz dem Schreiben widmen zu können Frischs erster Beitrag in der Neuen Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ) stammt aus dem Mai 1931. Als im März 1932 sein......

Words: 373 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

German Big Buisness

...German Big Buisness The Aryanization of the German businesses was discussed through Pater Hayes’s article “Profits and Persucution: Corporate Involvement in the Holocaust”. Hayes looked into why German businessmen were initially skeptical of Hitler and what factors played into the role of overcoming these suspicions. Hayes also looked into why German the initial attitude of the German business community changed toward the anti-Sematic campaigns. Neil Gregor through his article, “Big Business and Racial Barbarism: Labour at Daimler-Benz 1939-1945”, explored the exploitation of slave labor through the Daimler-Benz corporation. Gregor specifically went into how Daimler-Benz was able to get around the Jewish forced labor clash against the Final Solution. Gregor also looked heavily into Daimler-Benz’s treatment of Jewish workers reflect their acceptance of Nazi Ideology. Aryanization was the forced expulsion of “non-Aryans”, mostly Jews, from business life in Nazi Germany and the areas Nazi Germany controlled. German businessmen were initially skeptical of this plan from Hitler for many reasons. Less than 1 percent of the Jewish businesses were big enough to attract the money of the big firms. A lot of these Germans actually served with the Jews in previous wars with. Some of the business men hanged out with Jews in their personal life. Intermarriage was not uncommon between these groups. Hitler himself avoided talking anti-Semitism when addressing corporate issues. Many of......

Words: 1099 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

German

...Deutschland = germany Neuseeland = new zealand Lesson 1 Zur zeit = now Leben = live Etwa = approximate Eltern = parents Denn = because Arbeiten = work Fragen = ask Im kurs = in class übrigens = by the way Machen = to do (was machen Sie? > Ich bin Ingenieur) Lesen = reading Jahre alt = year old Hausfrau = housewife Noch= still Zusammen = together Landwirte = farmer Also= auch Möchten = would like to Später = later Aller welt = all Hören = listen Nicht = not Warden = will / to become Leicht = easy berufstätig = working spielt = play klavier spielen = piano playing Oft= often Ledig = single Kauft= buy Verkauft= sell Spricht = speak Tennis spielen Machen = to do Übrigens: btw Sprechen = speak Deustch = german Schon gut = very good Feuer = fire Leider = unfortunately Liegt = lie (on) Lesson 2 Der Elektroherd = electric cooker Der Tisch = table Der Kugelschreiber = ball pen Der Taschenrechner = calculator Der Stecker = plug Der Topf = pot Der Stuhl = chair (Stuhle pl) Der Wasserhahn = tap Der Regal Das Foto = photo Das Waschbecken = sink (spüle) Das kochfeld = hob (灶台) Die Steckdose = socket Die Taschenlampe = torch Die Lampe = lamp Die Mine = lead Die Glühbirne = bulb Die Zahlen = number Die Batterien = battery Die Kamera = camera Schrank(sl), Schranke (pl) Regal (sl), Regale (pl) shelf Spüle (sl), Spülen (pl) sink Das ist ein Küchenschrank. Der Schrank......

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Outbreak of War in Europe in 1914 Was Due to an Aggressive German Foreign Policy Which Had Been Waged Since C.1900

...The outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive German foreign policy which had been waged since c.1900 Source X, though suggesting a variety of reason, places most blame on the German encirclement for the birth of the First World War in August 1914. Source V too highlights a selection of factor the war can be blamed on. It suggests German domestic tensions and fear of “civil war” to concern of encirclement via the triple entente started the war. Source W proposes that the outbreak of war was due to German aggression. The Naval race between Germany and Britain as well as general Weltpolitik is to blame for the start of war. Ultimately German aggression was key but caused by encirclement. Source W suggests that aggressive German Weltpolitik was a major contributing factor leading up to the start of the First World War. After seeing the success that his cousin had in England, Kaiser Wilhelm decided that he too wanted an empire and desired the restoration of “Germany’s place in the sun”. This called for a more aggressive stance on foreign policy. Keen on expanding “German actions going back to the 1890s had done much to create international tension” source W states. Germany was more likely to enter conflict with neighbouring countries to gain land and territory increasing German status and strength, due to extreme desire to expand. This is clear in German interest in morocco. During the 1905-11 Moroccan crises, German-French relations reached new tensions...

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

German Essays

...people. They had no sincerity or humility. o Does Wiesel convey a sense of what separates acceptable representation of the Holocaust from unacceptable ones? • He says that questions are useful with open interpretation. It is the answers that he protests because of their basis. The subject is a mystery. Otherwise we should leave them alone and learn to be silent. He wants people to maintain humility. o How does Wiesel handle the difficult issue of Jewish passivity; how does he make sense of it in the end? • Jews went to death in protest. They turned passivity into active punishing of the world. The elders told the young people not to resist, but to be obedient. There was silence in the outside world. • Days of Nightmare o There is a war going on, children and old people have to flea. o Jews had to send their fellow Jews to death but it was better than having “them” do it o At least the Jews would sympathize with the other Jews as they were being stripped of their loved ones. • One Year in Treblinka o .Who is Wiernick? What was he before he went into the camps? • He was a poor Polish man who lived alone. o How does he write about Treblinka? What kinds of reflections or thoughts on his experiences does he give us as he relates his experiences? How is his writing different from Levi’s, Amery’s, and Wiesel’s? • Weirnick’s writing is purely description. He goes into immense detail about the camp, describing every detail of every building including the size of......

Words: 5545 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

German

...Kulturstadtrat Mailath-Pokorny stehen hinter dem Projekt. Das Projekt hat genug Geld. Es erhält Subventionen von der Kulturkommission Leopoldstadt, vom Nationalfonds und vom Zukunftsfonds. Patenschaften können für die persönlichen Steine übernommen werden. Die Bausteine finanzieren die Erklärungstafeln und Wegmarkierungen. Eine Station auf dem Tempelgasse Eine Station auf dem Tempelgasse „Steine der Erinnerung“ ist ein Projekt, das an die jüdischen Opfer, welche im 2. Bezirk lebten, mahnt. Es gibt eine Station auf der Praterstraße. Die Station hat den Namen von den Schauspielern der jüdischen Bühnen. Zum Beispiel war Else Traube eine Schauspielerin, die 1942 deportiert und 1943 in Auschwitz ermordet wurde. Es gibt eine Station, die die Namen von jüdischen Kindern hat. Beispielsweise war Bella Stepper ein Kind, das 1942 nach Riga deportiert wurde, als sie 3 Jahre alt war. Es wird durch das Projekt erzielt, dass möglichst viele Menschen in das Projekt eingebunden werden. Das Projekt gibt den Ermordeten wieder einen Platz in ihrem Heimatbezirk. So sind sie und ihr Schicksal nicht vergessen. Es hilft auch der Familie von den Ermodeten Ruhe zu finden. Das Projekt leistet Bewusstseinsarbeit für die Menschen, die vorübergehen, regt sie zum Nachdenken und auch zur Auseinandersetzung mit der Vergangenheit an. Am 11. November 2007 wurde der 2. Teil des Weges der Erinnerung an Platz des ehemaligen Leopoldstädter Tempels eröffnet. Irma Schwager hielte eine berührende Rede als......

Words: 514 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

German Reparations and the Treaty of Versailles

...evident through the experiences of German Soldier, Ernst Simmel; he writes, “when I speak about the war as an event, as the cause of illness, I anticipate something has revealed... namely that it is not only the bloody war which leaves such devastating traces in those who took part in it. Rather, it is also the difficult conflict in which the individual finds himself in his fight against a world transformed by war. Either in the trenches or at home can befall a single organ, or it may encompass the entire person” (Simmel, 1918). For Ernst, and millions of other participants, the war had forever changed their world, including the foundation of their country. An armistice was finally signed on November 11, 1918. Allied nations didn’t hesitate to execute their idea of justice for Germany. By January 1919, hundreds of Allied leaders and their staffs assembled in Paris. They formed committees in which every aspect of the war would be examined, evaluated and weighed. The mass gathering of worldwide leadership entered the history books as the Paris Peace Conference, from which, the Treaty of Versailles was created. These meeting were unusual in nature; being the first in which vast collections of world leaders would gather with high hopes of producing a treaty that would prevent forthcoming war – a war having been “fought to end all wars.” Additionally, pressing and long standing economic and political matters that had surfaced as a result of the war were to be addressed (Weitz,......

Words: 2697 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

German

...must move the instrument in the opposite direction from the desired target on the monitor to interact with the site of interest.” (Surg) Surg explains that with this, hand-eye coordination is then compromised with this limitation. The desire to overcome these limitations is what drives the motivation to develop surgical robotics, to expand the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. In most countries many of the current and projected technological advancements in surgical care often come with deep rooted legal or virtuous implications. Some of these repercussions may be perceived as advantageous, while the effects of others may be more open to debate. In Germany the legal implications are none because of the Social Medicine Platform, Germans cannot sue their health care system. Other countries, such as Canada view this technology as any other surgical procedure, thereby the “legal basis for professional liability remains exactly the same, and litigation with the use of robotic surgery may be complex” (ANGIOL 2010). In cases involving a liability, not only are the physicians and hospitals liable but also the manufacturer of the robotic technology. Ethical issues surrounding robotic surgery would include maintenance, safety of equipment and confidentiality. With the quick introduction of ground-breaking technologies in the surgical circle, such as computer-enhanced robotic assisted surgery, the challenging complications in various aspects, including medical, legal......

Words: 4024 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Germans Support for Hitler

...Essay Topic: “Up to 1939, why did many Germans support Hitler and his Nazi dictatorship? “ In modern day history, Hitler is widely viewed as one of the world’s worst political leaders as his racial, fascist and totalitarian actions directly contributed to the outbreak of World War II which posed detrimental consequences on the entire world. From a second-hand analytical view, Hitler is perceived as an epitome of evil and the world still continues to battle the effects of the election of such a monstrous leader by German citizens. However, it is evident that the reasons why Germans supported Hitler and his Nazi dictatorship up to 1939 can be justified. Thus, as a result of his many favorable leadership qualities and characteristics (his excellent oratorical skills together with his promises to the German people, organization of the Nazi party and his intense propaganda), the Great Economic Depression of 1929 after the Collapse of Wall Street, the ineptitude of the Weimar Constitution, and ultimately the fear of communism, Germans continued to support Hitler up to 1939. By 1939, Adolf Hitler had become a very inspirational and charismatic leader as his great skill in public speaking had won over the loyalty and support of many German nationals. Hitler filled German people with a sense of hope that had been long lost for a very long time. Hitler attempted to please all aspects of life as he promised exactly what each group wanted. He promised to pay farmers higher prices for...

Words: 1607 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

German Expressionism

...ART WORLD Art House: An Introduction to German Expressionist Films Alissa Darsa, Thursday, December 26, 2013 Robert Wiene, Stills for The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (three works) (1919). Gelatin silver print, sold at Christie's New York. Welcome to the first article in Art House, a series detailing the evolution of art house films, and their impact on the relationship between art and cinema. The term art house refers to films that are artistic or experimental in nature, and are generally not part of the commercial mainstream. It is interesting to note that unlike many other forms of avant-garde, filmic avant-garde does not typically generate the profits earned by its musical, visual, and literary counterparts. Most artists who have produced avant-garde films have had to rely on other artistic media as a source of income, including Andy Warhol (American, 1928–1987).1 However, there are several films that have crossed over into the realm of mainstream cinema, and have been both financially successful as well as stylistically influential. This article focuses on German Expressionism, one of the earliest artistic genres to influence filmmaking, and one that arguably paved the way for many other avant-garde styles and techniques. Walter Reimann & Hermann Warm, Le docteur à la foire (from The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari) (1919). Sold at Binoche Renaud-Giquello & Associés. German Expressionism is an artistic genre that originated in Europe in the 1920s, and is broadly......

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

‘German Aggression Was Responsible for the Outbreak of a General European War in August 1914.’ How Far Do You Agree with This Judgement?

...the display of German aggression inevitably contributed to the outbreak of general European tensions, and war in 1914. The use of strategies such as the Anglo-German Naval Race, as stated in Joll’s source, highlighted the aggression by Germany prior to war. Moreover, this type of tactic also demonstrated the desire and hunger Germany obtained for continental power, another factor towards European tensions. The sources in question both support and contest the set statement, to an extent. Sources 1 and 3 by Corrigan and Joll, respectively, argue how Germany’s use of tactics agitated European powers, thus causing war. However, Source 2 by Turner disagrees with the statement, arguing how other European powers were to blame for the outbreak of general war. Nevertheless, all sources will be taken into account and analysed with the support of other relevant in the build-up to war, before reaching a final judgement. Corrigan’s source thoroughly argues how Germany used the tactic of aggression to stipulate war. Corrigan includes the historian within the source, Fischer, to highlight how Germany were to blame for general war. Fischer states that “at least as early as 1906, Germany had in place a plan for an aggressive war based on the premise that Germany would have to fight Russia and France simultaneously”. The quote demonstrates how Germany aimed to use methods of aggression to agitate other nations. Additonally, the quote also implies how Germany had been planning for war for a......

Words: 1222 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Case Study - German Hyperinflation

...Case Study German Hyperinflation Table of Content: Introduction, History – P.3 What Caused The Hyperinflation – P.5 The Hyperinflation 1922-1923 – P.6 The Solution, Lessons Learnt – P.7 References – P.6 Introduction: We were asked to choose any topic that is related to banking and economics. And the topic I chose for this is: The German Hyperinflation. I’m going to discuss how the hyperinflation started in Germany, what happened at the peak on this hyperinflation. Then we’re going to see what caused it. And how did Germany solve the problem and stopped this inflation. Lastly, what are the lessons learnt from this hyperinflation. History: By the end of World War 1 Germany had been punished to pay reparations because of the war. Germany had to pay £6,600,000,000 (which is larger than Germany’s GDP) and by signing the Treaty of Versailles Germany agreed to installments of 2 billion, the first was paid in 1921, though, it was paid mostly by actual materials such as coal and iron. But Germany couldn’t pay the second installment. The allies didn’t believe it, and on 1922 France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr, which is the most valuable industrial area in Germany. The German government ordered workers to strike and people to resist the invaders. This led to killing 132 people and expelling 150,000 from their homes. And because Ruhr is the most valuable industrial area in Germany, the strike made Germany suffer. The striker had to be paid to,......

Words: 800 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

German

...findest das Bild im Berlinkompendium (S. 6 im PDF): 1. Wähle 3 Personen auf dem Bild aus und beschreibe sie. 1. Die erste Person sieht aus wie eine Obdachlose. Er sitzt auf der Straße mit seinem Hut und bettelt um Geld. Er sieht wirklich erschöpft. Es ist nach dem ersten Weltkrieg, so gab es wirtschaftliche Probleme in der Gesellschaft. 2. Diese Person sieht wirklich hinterhältig und Er sieht wirklich schlau. Viele Menschen haben nicht viele Geld, und gezwungen war, zu stehlen. 3. Die Letzte Person, die aussieht wie ein Polizist. Er sieht wirklich verwirrt. Vielleicht ist es, weil es so viele Menschen. Er ist da, um zu kümmern sich um all die anderen. 2. Welchen Gesamteindruck bekommst du von der Großstadt, wenn du dieses Bild siehst? Begründe deinen Eindruck (Analyse)! Dieses Bild sieht sehr gestresst aus. Es ist in Deutschland an der Friedrichstraße. Es gibt sehr viele Leute an einem Ort zusammen. Das Bild ist gemalt nach dem ersten Weltkrieg. Nach dem ersten Weltkrieg war Deutschland geprägt durch die schlechte Wirtschaftslage, Arbeitslosigkeit und politischen Dissens. Sie können auch sehen, aus dem Bild. Es sind Obdachlose und Straßenhändler. Es sieht nicht wie ein Ort, den ich würde sein wollen. 3. Beschreibe mit Hilfe von Modalverben dein Verhältnis zu der Großstadt Aarhus. Was kann man in Aarhus? Was soll/muss man in Aarhus? Was darf man in Aarhus? Was magst du an Aarhus? Was willst du in Aarhus (erleben)? Ich denke, dass......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

German

...von dem Herrn Altenkirch. •  | richtig (correct answer) |   Herr Altenkirch bekommt oft Besuch.   | •  | Falsch (correct answer, your response) | Herr Altenkirch arbeitet auch im Theater. •  | falsch (correct answer, your response) |   Herr Altenkirch wohnt in Hauptstraße Nr. 7, 18 Brandenburg/ Havel. •  | Richtig (correct answer, your response) |   Die Erzählerin schreibt Herrn Altenkirch viele Postkarten. •  | Falsch (correct answer, your response) |   Herr Altenkirch hat ein Telefon. •  | Falsch (correct answer, your response) |   Am Ende der Geschichte schreibt die Erzählerin, das viel Post und Postkarten oft im Briefkasten von Herrn Altenkirch lagen. •  | Falsch (correct answer, your response) | Es war der Erzählerin so unangenehm, ihre Schuhe von einem alten Mann putzen zu lassen. •  | Richtig (correct answer, your response) |   Die Erzählerin und Herr Altenkirch aßen zusammen Frühstück . •  | Richtig (correct answer, your response) |...

Words: 335 - Pages: 2