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Ge150

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Cover page: Unit 2 Lab 2.1.1 States of Matter
.
Survey of the Sciences
Week 2
Assignment 2 – Lab 2.1.1 – States of Matter
Date of assignment: 12/18/2013
Date turned in: 01/15/2014

Liquid at over 650K | Liquid under 650K | The molecules appear to be faster and more spread apart | Molecules are even faster, mostly touching and mostly compact | Gas at over 1540K | Gas at under 300K | Faster and mostly apart and randomly touching | Slower, more clustered and in ring shapes and mostly touching with less space apart | Solid at 350 – 360K and over 600K | Solid at under 10K | Moving from one position to another at accelerated pace but mostly touching at an even faster rate and mostly spread apart | Less movement, but still clustered and connected in ring forms |

Solid is at 157K and appears to be moving slower and less close but compact in rings. Liquid is at 328K and appears to be closely bonded but moving around much faster. Gas is at 809K and appears to be moving much faster and occupying more space than solid and liquid. But when the temperature is reduced to about 97K the rate of movement decreases and the molecules get more clustered and compact, the reaction in liquid is almost the same as gas when the temperature is reduced to the same 97K. The reaction in solid liquid and gas stages of water are almost constant at a reduced temperature of 97K. Only the solid state resembles itself in heated and cooled stages. The others have different resemblance.

In conclusion, movements in different stages of matter differ depending on the temperature and the reactions are different as well.

Cover page: Unit 4 Lab 1

Survey of the Sciences
Assignment –Unit 4 Lab 1: Flame Spectroscopy
LAB REPORT
Date of assignment: 01/15/2014
Date turned in: 01/15/2014

I was familiarized with the concepts of linear and angular momentums based on newton’s laws stating that unless external forces act on any system, the change will always be a zero and that any object in a rotating movement will continue to rotate unless a twisting force of torque interferes to make it stop. Gravity according to Isaac Newton states that when objects are dropped, they must at some point in time fall (to the ground). I also got the measurements formulas for the force of gravity in comparison to weight and distance. Newton’s law of universal gravitation was also put into perspective. It also gives understanding as to why and how the moon wouldn’t fall down to earth because of the force holding it in place (gravity). Formulas for measuring force, mass and gravity are also discussed.
Gravity and motion are very vital in how things move around and the direction of travels. Also the impacts that are brought upon them as well as the force they impact onto other objects or forms of matter around them. There is also the relationship between the “Big G” and the “little g” as they relay universal constant and gravitation and the earth’s gravitational acceleration.

Lab Report
Using Gravitational Force as a Measurement Tool

Answer the following questions about the results of this activity. Record your answers in the boxes.
Send your completed lab report to your instructor. Don’t forget to save your lab report to your computer!

Activity 1
Record your data from Activity 1 in the boxes below. Enter the data for the sample you used in each trial (5000 rpm, 10000 rpm, etc…) in the appropriate columns and the corresponding g-force, number of layers, and position of layers position results.

You will need to use the following formula to assist with your laboratory report: * G-force =0 00001118 x radius of centrifuge arm x (rpm)2 * The radius of the centrifuge arm for this instrument is 10 cm.

Speed | 5000 rpm | 10000 rpm | 15000 rpm | 20000 rpm | G-force | 2795 | 11180 | 251550 | 447200 | Number of Layers | 5 | 9 | 10 | 6 | Position of Layers | | | | | 1. Explain what happens to the G-force as the speed of the centrifuge increases.The soil levels tend to increase and thin out

The soil levels tend to increase and thin out

2. Which is likely the best speed to separate the components of this soil sample? Why?15000rpms because the G-force is greater and separation is much faster and highly distinguishable at this time

15000rpms because the G-force is greater and separation is much faster and highly distinguishable at this time

3. Describe in which layers you are likely to find the organic matter, gravel, sand, silt, and clay at the following speeds: a. 5000 rpm b. 15000 rpmAt the bottom layer since those are heavier and have a tendency to sink or fall at the bottom

At the bottom layer since those are heavier and have a tendency to sink or fall at the bottom

|

Activity 2
Record your data from Activity 2 in the boxes below. Enter the data for the sample you used in each trial (0.5, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 grams/ liter cesium chloride) in the appropriate columns with the corresponding g-force, number of layers, and position of layers results.

Cesium Chloridegrams/liter | 0.5 | 1.5 | 2.0 | 2.5 | Number of Layers | 4 | 10 | 10 | 12 | Position of Layers | Spread out(thicker) | More spread and more layers | More spread out and more layers | Spread out, thinner and more layers as well |

4. Explain what happens to the drag as the cesium chloride concentration increases.The soil gets more spread out, more layers are produced and the soil/layers become thinner as well

The soil gets more spread out, more layers are produced and the soil/layers become thinner as well

5. Which is likely the best cesium chloride concentration to separate the components of this soil sample? Why?At 2.5 because at this level, the particles separate better

At 2.5 because at this level, the particles separate better

6. Describe in which layers you are likely to find the organic matter, gravel, sand, silt, and clay at the following speeds: c. 0.5 grams/liter of cesium chloride d. 2.5 grams/liter of cesium chlorideOrganic matter are most likely to be found at 0.5 grams/liter cesium chloride since these particles sink and would most likely be found at the bottom/sink

Organic matter are most likely to be found at 0.5 grams/liter cesium chloride since these particles sink and would most likely be found at the bottom/sink

7. Explain any differences in the thickness of similar bands at the different cesium chloride concentrations.At 0.5, it is much thicker, less thick at 1.5, much less thicker at 2.0 and a lot less thick at 2.5

At 0.5, it is much thicker, less thick at 1.5, much less thicker at 2.0 and a lot less thick at 2.5

8. Based on the data from Activities 1 and 2, which is likely the best speed and cesium chloride concentration combination to distinguish different types of soils? Why?At 20000 rpms and 2.5

At 20000 rpms and 2.5

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These experiments show how scientists manipulate the variables of a centrifuge in a better separation of mixtures. This is determined by changing the speeds of the centrifuge and by altering the thickness of the solutions in the centrifuge test tubes. The densities of different soil samples/particles are key determinants as well.
Using angular momentum in the manufacture or designing of car tires will help in maintaining balance and stability as well as aerodynamics and direction of motion and the relativity between matter and gravity and angular momentum’s effects.
Unit 2. Exercise 1 – Chapter 2 * Scientists today are faced with the tremendous burden of proving their work beyond all reasonable doubts. Such experiment/research as the one having to with cloning and genetic harvesting that has led to the creation of “Dolly the sheep” has had widespread criticism from mainstream and religious entities calling it unreligious and unethical in some arenas. * Since momentum tells us the measurement of how hard it is to stop a moving and hence, if the bowling ball was heavy, then it would be harder to come to a stop even when it has knocked down the pins. Whereas in a game of pool, momentum is conserved; that is, if one ball stops dead after the collision, the other ball will continue away with all the momentum. If the moving ball continues or is deflected then both balls will carry a portion of the momentum from the collision. * Inertia and gravity could be reasons why a cup punched with holes will not leak water when dropped from an elevated position.

Unit 2. Exercise 1 – Chapter 3 * When you rub your hands together vigorously, you feel the heat building up and in this process; you are converting kinetic energy into heat energy. * I would definitely purchase the one that is expensive to buy and cheaper to run because it will save me more money in the long haul and will also be more environmentally friendly and very energy efficient as well.

Unit 2. Exercise 1 – Chapter 4
Discussion Questions * Heat has a directionality; it always flows/travel from hot to cold * Cogeneration does not violate the law but it does violate the first law and no, the second law only forbids efficiency equal to 100 %. Yes, the second law also forbids high efficiency and finally yes, waste heat can't be converted into mechanical work.
Investigation Questions * This involves using sustainable practices during the construction process. Example: using recycled materials and reducing the energy/resource needs of the house. Having energy efficient status; i.e. the amount of electricity used from electric companies. And this is very highly considered in new construction * These devices work because most of them are equipped with thermal/heat seeking and infrared technology that can locate a body through their heat index…...

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