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Gcse Pe Notes

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HRF components
• Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina.
• Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance.
• Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired.
• Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further.
• Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone. It helps sportspeople depending on the type of sport they play, eg heavy rugby players are more effective in the scrum than lightweight players, but light long distance runners will always beat heavyweights.

SRF components
• Agility - the ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control. This helps team players dodge their opponents.
• Balance - the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance).
• Co-ordination - the ability to use two or more body parts together. This helps all athletes to move smoothly and quickly especially when also having to control a ball.
• Power - the ability to use strength at speed. This helps athletes to jump high, throw far or sprint quickly. Power = Strength x Speed.
• Reaction time - the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement.
• Speed is the rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move.

SPORT
• Specificity – training must be matched to the needs of the sporting activity to improve fitness in the body parts the sport uses.
• Progression – start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise and keep overloading.
• Overload - fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. You must work hard.
• Reversibility – any adaptation that takes place as a result of training will be reversed when you stop training. If you take a break or don’t train often enough you will lose fitness.
• Tedium – training programs must vary to avoid boredom
FITT
• Frequency - decide how often to train.
• Intensity - choose how hard to train around your body’s ability.
• Time - decide for how long to train.
• Type - decide which methods of training to use.

Risk Assessment
• Frequency: how often do injuries occur in the activity?
• Severity: how serious are the injuries?
• Precautions: how could you help to minimise the risk of injury?
• The authorities are responsible for: the rules - to reduce dangerous play; referees - to check the environment and on fair play; and insisting on protective equipment and removal of jewellery
• The players are responsible for: being fit enough; using correct technique; wearing the right clothing and equipment; warming up and cooling down

Muscles
• Eccentric contraction– the phase where the muscle lengthens (lowering phase)
• Concentric contraction– the phase where the muscle contacts and shortens (lifting phase)
• Isometric contraction– muscle stays the same length (not moving)
• Agonist muscle – the prime mover (the muscle that contracts and shortens)
• Antagonist muscle – the secondary mover (the muscle the relaxes and lengthens)
• Flexion – makes the hinge joint smaller e.g. The lifting phase of a biceps curl would be flexion.
• Extension – makes the hinge joint larger e.g. The lowering phase of a biceps curl would be extension.

Skill
• KNAPP’S Definition – the learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty often with the minimum outlay of time or energy. Skill is learned. Learning has a permanent change in performance. Performance is a temporary action.
• Efficient – effortless
• Co-ordinated - fluid movement
• Controlled – control over movement
• Good technique – follows a correct model
• Aesthetic – looks good
• Learning – practised until perfection
• Consistent – repeated correctly
• Predetermined – has goal not a fluke
• Open skill – skills where the form of action is determined by the environment and so is constantly changing
• Closed skill – a skill performed in a fixed environment e.g. discuss throw

• Discrete skill – skills with a clear beginning and end
• Serial skill – several distinct elements joined to form an integrated movement – triple jump/
• Continuous skill – skills with no obvious beginnings and endings

Methods of practice
• Whole – the whole skill is practiced e.g. High jump or triple jump.
• Fixed – a certain movement is practiced repeatedly, known as a drill. Closed skills are best for this as it allows the motor sequence to be perfected
• Variable – practicing a skill in a variety of different contexts and experiencing full range of situations in which the technique could be used in competition. E.g. in a basketball layup you could introduce a defender or come in at a different angle.
• Part – a complex skill or dangerous skill can be broken down into sections, and the section that is the hardest can be focused on to develop the whole skill.

Stages of learning
• Cognitive – skill-learning goals are set and learning has begun; improvements are fast but movements uncoordinated; demands high attention and concentration.
• Associative – motor programs and subroutines are developed relevant to sport; consistency, co-ordination, timing and anticipation improve; error detection and correction is practiced; and improvement is less rapid.
• Autonomous – performance is automatic, performed easily without stress; high proficiency and habitual performance and attention demands reduced; and emphasis tactics and strategy.

Methods of training
• Continuous- long, slow, distance training: working at the same pace between 30 mins and 2 hours and working in the aerobic training zone at 60-80% of MHR. It improves stamina, HRE, reduces body fat and maintains fitness in the off-season. – High intensity continuous: working for a short period of time at 80-95% of MHR close to competition pace in anaerobic training zone. It improves anaerobic capacity and muscular endurance.
• Interval - training using alternating periods of very hard exercises and rest. You can vary time/distance, intensity, type of exercise and number of rests/ exercise periods. Can improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Improves performance of games players.
• Fartlek – involves changes in speed and type of terrain working at a minimum of 30 mins. Can improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
• Flexibility – stretching and moving a joint just beyond it point of resistance by stretching the tendons and ligaments surrounding the joint. Reduces the likelihood of injuries and allows us to use strength through a full range of movement.

Benefits of a warm up
• Prevent injury to muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
• Prepare the body for specific exercises.
• Increase blood flow and temperature of muscles so they will react quicker.
• Allow a greater range of movement of joints.

Health fitness and exercise
• Health – a state of complete physical, mental and social well being not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
• Fitness – the ability f the body to carry out every day activities without excessive fatigue and with enough energy left for emergencies/ the ability to meet the demands of your environment and lifestyle.
• Exercise – a form a activity carried out primarily to improve health and fitness. Social benefits being leadership skills and making friends. Mental benefits being a reduce in stress and increase in confidence. Physical benefits being improved capacity to carry out everyday tasks (reducing the likelihood of illness/injury) and improved physique.…...

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