Free Essay

Fibromyalgia

In: Other Topics

Submitted By bassettj720
Words 860
Pages 4
“Fibromyalgia is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by chronic widespread pain, abnormal pain processing, sleep disturbance, fatigue and often psychological distress” (Pain Physician, 2011). The central symptom of fibromyalgia, namely widespread pain appears to result from neuro-chemical imbalances including activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain which results in abnormalities in pain processing (Sept, 2011). The brains of fibromyalgia patients show functional and structural differences from those of healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether the brain anomalies cause fibromyalgia symptoms or are the product of an unknown underlying common cause. Some research suggests that these brain anomalies may be the result of childhood stress, or prolonged or severe stress (October 2008).
Fibromyalgia (also known as FM or FMS) is estimated to affect 2-4 % of the population (October 2007) with a female to male incidence ratio of approximately 9:1 (2009). The pain associated with fibromyalgia is described as a constant dull ache, typically arising from muscles. FM is characterized by additional pain when firm pressure in applied to specific areas of your body. These are called tender points and include the back of the head, between shoulder blades, top of shoulders, front sides of neck, upper chest, outer elbows, upper hips, sides of hips, and inner knees. In order to be diagnosed you must have 11 out of the 18 total tender points. Not all Fibromyalgia patients are not restricted to just pain, which leads to the term “fibromyalgia syndrome” for the condition. “Fibrofog” is another name for cognitive dysfunction such as problems with long and short term memory, short term memory consolidation, inability to multi-task, and impaired speed of performance.
The exact cause of Fibromyalgia is unknown but is believed to involve psychological, genetic, neurobiological and environmental factors. Central Sensitization is a theory that proposes that patients with fibromyalgia have an increased reactivity of pain-sensitive nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord which causes a lower threshold for pain. Some of the neurochemical abnormalities that occur in FMS also regulate mood, sleep, and energy. Although it is not guaranteed, FMS can be passed from mother to daughter like other rheumatic diseases. A persons’ genes regulate the way their own body processes pain stimuli. It is said that people with FMS have a certain gene or genes that cause them to react differently to pain stimuli that most people would not perceive as painful, although these genes have not been identified.
There are many ways people with Fibromyalgia can manage their symptoms. Regular exercise is very important because well toned muscles can reduce the pain of Fm. Endorphins and serotonin levels are raised by exercises, both of which lessen pain and boost moods. Walking, swimming, water aerobics, and biking are low or no-impact aerobic exercises that can help relax muscle pain without overtaxing them. A number of medications are also used to relieve symptoms of the condition. Anti-depressants used in small doses can help by relaxing muscles, and restoring often disturbed delta-wave, or deep sleep.
Alternative remedies like acupuncture, acupressure, massage, biofeedback, and yoga are considered unproven or experimental until repeated, controlled and with scientific studies show they work without dangerous side effects. Other techniques for reducing pain and stress such as meditation, hypnosis, and guided imagery or visualization can help relieve symptoms such as stress, depression, and pain. Natural remedies such as herbs and supplements are appealing to people with chronic conditions like Fibromyalgia. Although supplements offer convenience of popping a pill along with the idea that natural ingredients pose little danger, natural doesn’t always mean safer.
“There is no such thing as a “fibromyalgia diet.” No food, or combination of foods, has been proven to relieve symptoms. Yet some people do claim that they feel better when they eat—or avoid—certain types of foods. You may need to keep a food diary to find out which foods seem to trigger or improve your symptoms. Eating a balanced diet is a good idea for anyone—whether or not you have fibromyalgia. That diet should include fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and lean protein such as chicken or fish. Avoid unhealthy foods, including anything processed, fried, and high in saturated fats. Also, try to limit the amount of salt and sugar in your diet. Another benefit of eating a healthy diet is that it can help keep your weight under control. One Study in the journal Clinical Rheumatology found that obese people with fibromyalgia enjoyed a better quality life once they lost weight. They had less pain and depression, fewer tender points, and they slept better after taking off a few pounds. This study suggests that weight loss can be an important part of fibromyalgia treatment. Fibromyalgia can make you feel tired and worn out. Eating certain foods can give you more energy. Avoid sweets, which will only give you a quick sugar boost. Your body will burn right through them, and then you’ll crash. Instead, eat foods such as almonds, broccoli, beans, tofu, oatmeal, and whole grain bread. These foods will give you more energy to get through your day.” (Watson, 2013)…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Medical

...Anywhere, NY; born 10/16/1975; mental health counselor Source of history: Contributor of data was client; alert and oriented to person, place, and time; engaged in interview, reliable Reason for seeking care: Client presents with cough with sputum production, sharp chest pain on inspiration, shortness of breath, body aches and fever, “my fever was 103.2 before coming in” History of present illness: Thirty-six-year-old male presents to office complaining of cough pain in chest, body aches and fever, states pains and fever started 6 days ago. Rates pain as 6 to 10 out of 10, continuous. Patient states he took his own temperature with an oral thermometer with temps ranging from 101.9 to 103.2. Past medical history: • Fibromyalgia • Epilepsy • Pericarditis • Heart Burn Past surgical history: Denies any past surgeries Childhood illnesses: • Chickenpox Accidents or injuries: • Car accident, 1992 History of hospitalizations: • Full cardiac workup, 2004 • Monitored 1994, due to black outs Immunizations: Up-to-date, including PPD and influenza, Hep B series 2011 Examinations/screening/diagnostic tests: (a) client indicates seeing PCP, cardiologist every six months, neurologist, and rheumatologist on yearly basis; however, client is aware of need to schedule appointments for 2011 (b) routine eye exam, 2011 (c) routine dental checkups every six months, teeth in good repair, last dental......

Words: 1939 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Fibromyalgia

...Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain in your muscles, ligaments and tendons, as well as fatigue and multiple tender points — places on your body where slight pressure causes pain. Fibromyalgia is more common in women than in men. Previously, fibromyalgia was known by other names such as fibrositis, chronic muscle pain syndrome, psychogenic rheumatism and tension myalgias. Although the intensity of your symptoms may vary, they'll probably never disappear completely. It may be reassuring to know, however, that fibromyalgia isn't progressive or life-threatening. Treatments and self-care steps can improve fibromyalgia symptoms and your general health. Signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia can vary, depending on the weather, stress, physical activity or even the time of day. Common signs and symptoms include: • Widespread pain. Fibromyalgia is characterized by pain in specific areas of your body when pressure is applied, including the back of your head, upper back and neck, upper chest, elbows, hips and knees. The pain generally persists for months at a time and is often accompanied by stiffness. • Fatigue and sleep disturbances. People with fibromyalgia often wake up tired and unrefreshed even though they seem to get plenty of sleep. Some studies suggest that this sleep problem is the result of a sleep disorder called alpha wave interrupted sleep pattern, a condition in which deep sleep is frequently interrupted by bursts of brain activity......

Words: 2374 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Pain and Hypnotherapy

...assignment I have chosen to discuss fibromyalgia Fybromyalgia simply means pain (algia) coming from muscles (my) and fibrous tissues (fibro) such as tendons and ligaments. It is usually accompanied by other symptoms in addition to the pains and is sometimes called fibromyalgia syndrome. It is a chronic persistant condition. “ The cause of fibromyalgia is not known....research has shown that people with fybromyalgaia have certain subtle changes in some chemicals in the brain and nervous system.....there seems to be a minor change in the level of neurotransmitters, the chemicals responsible for transmitting messages between nerves and brain cells. Research studies have shown that there is also an increased amount of a chemical substance called substance P in the cerebrospinal fluid and that this may be involved in the way pain messages are transmitted.” ( www.patient.co.uk/health/fybromyalgia) As the cause of fibromyalgia is thought to be from the processes in the brain and spinal cord there is little evidence that the disease is due to a problem with the peripheral muscles, tendons and ligaments although the pain is often felt there. Fybromyalgia affects one in fifty people, it usually develops between the ages of twenty five to fifty five and is more common in women. Common symptoms of fibromyalgia are pain, particularly in the neck and back, sensitivity to touch, joint sorenesss, tiredness, and problems sleeping. “ People diagnosed with fibromyalgia often experience chronic......

Words: 1891 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Predicting Patient Adherence

...thing to remember is that there is no cure for Fibromyalgia. The only thing you can do is aim to alleviate the symptoms and pain. With this being said it is an incurable syndrome characterized by generalized muscular pain, stiffness and chronic aching. There are also secondary unrelated symptoms. The name fibromyalgia is using the terms “fibrositis”, and “itis” which is the inflammation which is to muscles, and or pain in the muscles and connective tissues. Some additional signs/symptoms in association to fibromyalgia are anxiety, cardiovascular problems, chronic fatigue, aches and pains, depression, GI disturbances, IBS, memory problems “fibro fog”. When a patient with fibromyalgia syndrome describes this disease, they describe it as “ache all over”. They say their muscles feel like they have been pulled, torn or over worked causing pain. Most the time the pain and stiffness are worse in the early morning and in muscles that are regularly used. It is said that fibromyalgia is caused by a lot of factors that could be avoidable. Certain stress and or depression, traumatic experiences (accidents, divorce, illness). Then you have toxins being introduced into your body such as foods, air and water. Chronic fatigue or disruption of you sleep cycle. Almost every fibromyalgia case has had a personal experience with a long period of extreme stress or emotional trauma. These events are what “triggers” fibromyalgia. With all of this being said then there......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Building Mass

...Life is becoming more and more stressful as an American. Our bodies are producing more and more cortisol. People are eating more and more starchy foods and foods that are more processed. This is why America is getting fatter and fatter. It is possible to have elevated cortisol levels and not have an excessive amount of belly fat. Over a period of years, the fat deposits on the inside of your arteries causing coronary artery disease. In some individuals, elevated cortisol levels are being associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Most people with fibromyalgia have higher pain levels than someone who has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or rheumatoid arthritis. | | Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a debilitating chronic syndrome (constellation of signs and symptoms) characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms. It is not contagious, and recent studies suggest that people with fibromyalgia may be genetically predisposed. | | Stress During Sleep We stress even when we sleep and that makes it more difficult to function the next day. Several hours before you get up in the morning, a very tiny portion of your brain, located in the cerebrum, called the hypothalamus, sends a signal to stimulate your adrenal glands. After you have awakened, cortisol levels begin to rise. Most heart attacks and strokes occur between 6 am and 8 am in the morning and are often related to the increased rise of cortisol. It is obvious......

Words: 2434 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Fibromyalgia Today

...Fibromyalgia is a common and potentially disabling condition predominantly affectinhg young to middle-aged women.1 Fibromyalgia has a varied and fluctuating clinical spectrum. The symptoms of Fibromyalgia are musculoskeletal pain and tenderness, sleep issues and significant levels of fatigue. The other key symptoms include cognitive disturbances, particularly problems with concentration, memory, and high distress levels.2 Fibromyalgia can be considered part of a group of clinical syndromes, including chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities and irritable bowel syndrome, whose clinical features reflect similar pathophysiological processes – termed by some as ‘central sensitivity syndromes’.3 These different diagnoses are used depending on the predominant clinical features. For example, patients with fatigue as their most severe symptom may receive a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. Fibromyalgia has been thought to be caused by the development of changes in the central nervous system (CNS)4,5 that alter the processing of afferent sensory input, and can be grouped together under the term ‘central sensitisation’.6 Central sensitisation changes are often triggered by long-standing psychological or physical stress.7 These changes result in the intensity of usually non-painful stimuli being amplified and experienced as painful. Other effects include abnormality in the sleep cycle, where patients are unable to achieve deep, restorative, stage IV non-REM...

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chronic Pain

...Therapeutic Exercise Prescription Concepts Applied to Patients Diagnosed With Fibromyalgia Pain is defined as an “unpleasant feeling, conveyed to the brain by sensory neurons” (Medical Dictionary, 2013). Pain is a subjective interpretation, which describes location, intensity and nature of sensory information resulted from noxious stimulation of nerve endings. The emotional response and other various conscious or unconscious responses add to the concept of pain. Acute pain usually results from tissue damage and it usually ends once the injury is healed. Chronic pain is a long term condition related to a persistent or degenerative disease or it doesn’t have an identifiable cause. Although there are different opinions about when a patient can be declared as suffering from chronic pain (after six months or twelve months), the presence of such sensation after the healing period usually leads to this diagnosis. One of the diseases with a generalized chronic pain as a symptom, which continues to generate many debates in the medical world, is fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia, a disorder that affects the overall system and has an effect of generalized chronic pain, will be delineated in this paper, including its causes, manifestation, and part of the process of managing this disease in which a kinesiologist would have a central role. Fibromyalgia, estimated to affect 4% of the population, is a compilation of symptoms accompanying pain, which include fatigue, stiffness and sleep......

Words: 2194 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Fibromyalgia

...Introduction It is approximated that 3 to 17 million Americans [have] fibromyalgia.(New Harvard Guide to Women's Health, 2004). Fibromyalgia is a debilitating disease that attacks people of every age, race, and gender. It is a disease that may develop out of nowhere, or be brought on by a stressful event. With it comes pain, both physically and psychologically. There is hope though as there are several ways to try and alleviate the pain, or reduce the symptoms. Medications are available, and of course there is always hope for a cure. This disease does not only affect those afflicted, but their families and loved ones too. Cause Fibromyalgia can manifest in a person for many different reasons. One of the major causes of the disease is stress. It can be from simple everyday stresses, like working a tough job, or worrying about how to make ends meet. Other stresses are more physical, such as car crashes or childbirth, both of which put immense strain on the physical body. Another cause is Post- Traumatic Stress disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress can be the result of horrible events, such as war or abusive childhoods. In other cases the disease can simply manifest one day out of the blue (Fibromyalgia & Chronic Myofascial Syndrome, 1996). It is a disease that can hit any gender, but about 80% of known cases are women in their fifties (New Harvard Guide to Women's Health, 2004). Symptoms Many cases of Fibromyalgia are undocumented, mainly because some people don’t even know......

Words: 2700 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Fibromyalgia: the Pathophysiology

...Fibromyalgia: The Pathophysiology Abstract The mystery surrounding fibromyalgia has been long and tedious. At first neurology did not want to claim it saying it was a psychiatric problem, then psychiatric said no the pain of the disease gives you depression and anxiety , and they pushed it off to musculoskeletal system. Where ever it starts, for the patient, the pain is real, it’s their perception. It’s not up to us to judge, but up to us to help ease the pain, and hopefully one day find a cure. But first we must understand how it manifests. With no concrete scientific evidence and only theories to date, we can at least see ways to help ease the pain; therapies to help make the patients more active and have a better quality of life. Fibromyalgia: The Pathophysiology Much debate of Fibromyalgia has existed since the first diagnosis. Some people are lead to believe that it replaced Chronic Pain Syndrome and/or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Did it, we will examine that here. Depending on who you talk to Fibromyalgia exists, Endocrinology says no and Neurology says yes. Who’s right, which is what we will find out? What we do know; “Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal syndrome characterized by widespread joint and muscle pain, fatigue, and tender points” (McCance RN & Huether RN, 2010, p. 1606). If that is Fibromyalgia does that not describe Chronic Pain Syndrome? Well yes and no, Chronic Pain Syndrome usually stays, is always with you all the time, whereas......

Words: 2388 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Fibromyalgia

...Fibromyalgia Jamie A Cothran Mod 04 writing assignement   Fibromyalgia: The Pathophysiology Abstract The mystery surrounding fibromyalgia has been long and tedious. At first neurology did not want to claim it saying it was a psychiatric problem, then psychiatric said no the pain of the disease gives you depression and anxiety , and they pushed it off to musculoskeletal system. Where ever it starts, for the patient, the pain is real, it’s their perception. It’s not up to us to judge, but up to us to help ease the pain, and hopefully one day find a cure. But first we must understand how it manifests. With no concrete scientific evidence and only theories to date, we can at least see ways to help ease the pain; therapies to help make the patients more active and have a better quality of life. Fibromyalgia: The Pathophysiology Much debate of Fibromyalgia has existed since the first diagnosis. Some people are lead to believe that it replaced Chronic Pain Syndrome and/or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Did it, we will examine that here. Depending on who you talk to Fibromyalgia exists, Endocrinology says no and Neurology says yes. Who’s right, which is what we will find out? What we do know; “Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal syndrome characterized by widespread joint and muscle pain, fatigue, and tender points” (McCance RN & Huether RN, 2010, p. 1606). If that is Fibromyalgia does that not describe Chronic Pain Syndrome? Well yes and no,......

Words: 2377 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Fibromyalgia

...Many people do not realize what effects your body can get when it does not have the proper physical needs to stay strong and healthy. One of the effects is a rheumatic syndrome called fibromyalgia, also known as Fibrositis and Myofasical pain syndrome. This syndrome is diagnosed with a history of at least three months of widespread pain and tenderness in eleven to eighteen of tender-point sites. These points include: the neck, the shoulders, the chest, the rib cage, the lower back, the thighs, the knees, the arms (mainly the elbows), and the buttocks. The pain in these areas is defined as an overwhelming characteristic of fibromyalgia and is long standing. Fibromyalgia affects any age group but commonly in the age range of 60 years old if not older. Women are commonly affected by fibromyalgia, than men. More than 3 million United States cases per year. Medically manageable treatment can help. Requires a medical diagnosis, hardly requires lab tests or imaging. Chronic, and can last for years. Some symptoms people may experience pain in the muscles, elbow, back, neck, or abdomen, can occur at night, can be chronic, throbbing, sharp, or diffuse, sever. Sleep disturbances, difficult falling asleep, or sleepiness. Sensitive to pain, pins, and needles. It’s a wide spread muscle pain and tenderness. Muscular tenderness, muscular spasms, or delayed onset muscle soreness. You may also experience a tingling in your hands and be sensitive to coldness. It can affect your stomach and you...

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Fibromyalia

...Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia has been shown to be genetic. It frequently becomes evident after stressful events. The stressful events may be emotional (such as a traumatic life event), physical (such as a motor-vehicle accident), or medical (such as certain infections). The chronic pain of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other autoimmune diseases can trigger the development of fibromyalgia. The manner in which the brain and spinal cord process pain sensations is abnormal in fibromyalgia. The threshold at which stimuli cause pain or discomfort has been proven to be lower in fibromyalgia. The pain felt is more intense because the pain is amplified by the abnormalities in the central nervous system and in pain processing. Because of this, things that are not normally painful may be painful for someone with fibromyalgia. In addition, fibromyalgia causes the pain from any given cause to be worse. For example, a patient with fibromyalgia may find a massage painful instead of pleasant. In addition, back pain that someone without fibromyalgia experiences as moderate may be experienced as severe by someone with fibromyalgia, because the pain is amplified by abnormalities in pain processing by the central nervous system. Syndrome The defining feature of fibromyalgia is chronic widespread pain. This means pain in multiple areas of the body, most commonly in muscles, tendons, and joints. The pain is generally above and below the waist, on the left side of......

Words: 2200 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Culture and Disease

...Disease in the News: Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia has become a new trend in chronic diseases that affects many people today. This disease is a common rheumatic disorder that causes widespread pain within fibrous tissues of the body, such as tendons, muscles, and other connective tissues. This disease combines the number of symptoms involved that can also lead to chronic problems in the areas of fatigue, memory problems, and has been linked to depression. Although the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, author Jessica Downey confirms many theories in figuring out this disease in her article “New Help for Fibromyalgia,” The Best of Natural Health. Some physicians who claim this disease does not exist simply because they want to rule out more serious diseases such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis. Many of these patients have been dealing with these problems for years, but experience a missed diagnosis and are sent home with a conclusion of depression or referred to another type of specialist. Because reliable research and scientific evidence on fibromyalgia is moderately new and little of what has been published is filtered through the mainstream physician sector. Nevertheless, overcoming skepticism in dealing with fibromyalgia is a major challenge because this disease affects primarily women according to the American College of Rheumatology. “You have a disease of [mainly] women whose tests are technically normal” says Dr. Jacob Teitelbaum,......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Fibromyalgia Research Paper

...Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a musculoskeletal illness (which causes chronic pain) and a chronic Fatigue disorder. It can also change sleep patterns and cause the following: digestive disorders, chronic headaches, painful menstrual periods, temperature sensitivity, morning stiffness, numbness or tingling of extremities, and even cognitive memory problems. The name fibromyalgia comes from "fibro" in Latin meaning tissue, "my" in Greek meaning muscle, and "algia" meaning pain. Because symptoms are wide – ranged and studies for treatment of FMS did not begin until the 1980's, it is one of the most popularly misdiagnosed conditions in the medical world. The main symptoms are widespread pain and fatigue as well as tender points on the body. The muscular pain often may feel like a pulled muscle and may burn or twitch. This syndrome is diagnosed with a history of at least three months of widespread pain and tenderness in eleven to eighteen of tender-point sites. These points include: the neck, the shoulders, the chest, the rib cage, the lower back, the thighs, the knees, the arms (mainly the elbows), and the buttocks. The pain in these areas is defined as an overwhelming characteristic of FIBROMYALGIA and is long standing. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic and debilitating disease that in the U.S.A. has been estimated to affect as many as 5 million individuals, mainly women in a ratio of 3:1.1. Patients with FM are characterized by the......

Words: 781 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Fibromyalgia

...Fibromyalgia [pic] Exercise for Special Populations February 17, 2012 Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and fatigue. It affects approximately 2% of the population, and is more common in women than in men. Central nervous system sensitization affects the entire body, leading to many secondary symptoms. This paper will cover the history, symptoms, and causes of FMS as well as known treatments and exercise prescription for the syndrome. Fibromyalgia has been described as a full-body migraine. Another common explanation is to compare everyday life with FMS as being similar to the aches and pains associated with a severe case of the flu. FMS patients experience intermittent flares, which are episodes of increased symptoms. Flares usually occur in response to physical or emotional stress, a schedule change, an illness or injury, a new job, the birth of a child, etc. While fibromyalgia is not considered a degenerative disorder, its symptoms usually become more severe if the patient also has a degenerative disorder such as arthritis. First, a patient must have experienced continuous pain in all four quadrants of the body for at least three months (Wolfe et al., 1990). Doctors will usually order many tests in order to rule out other conditions that might be confused with fibromyalgia. The key diagnostic tool for FMS is the tender point exam. No more than...

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7