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Epistemology

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Evaluation of environmental noise based upon the percentage of dissatisfied
Paul Roelofsen
Grontmij Nederland BV, Amersfoort, The Netherlands
Abstract
Purpose – This article is a proposal and aims to be a first step to develop a method to evaluate and classify environmental noise, according to EN-15251 and CR-1752, in the built environment based on the percentage of dissatisfied related to the equivalent background noise level. Design/methodology/approach – In the European guideline CR-1752 and the standard EN-15251 three categories of the indoor environment in buildings are prescribed (category A, B and C). In the recommendations, the limit whereby the percentage of dissatisfied should remain under varies in each category for both the thermal indoor environment and the air quality. The categories for noise and illumination criteria are not yet explicitly related to a percentage of dissatisfied. Findings – Using the percentage of dissatisfied as the evaluation criterion, when related to the equivalent background noise, produces a more refined evaluation of comfort than an evaluation based on the percentage of seriously disturbed or the effects of sleep deprivation in relation to external noise. Furthermore, this corresponds to the European standards and recommendations concerning quality classification of the indoor environment, based on the percentage of dissatisfied. Originality/value – Based on recent European undertakings concerning the development of categories for the indoor environment based on the percentage of dissatisfied, it is desirable to utilise these categories to noise aspects too, and to relate it to the equivalent background noise level. Keywords Environmental noise, Noise control, Dissatisfied, Discomfort, EN 15251, CR 1752, Comfort categories, Environmental regulations Paper type Research paper

Evaluation of environmental noise 133

1. Introduction With the noise level it is possible to make a judgement of the results upon the indoor environment caused by environmental noise via of a, so-called, “dose-effect relationship”. The “dose-effect relationships” are determined from reaction responses obtained from people who have been subject to the noise level. In general, these reaction studies have been used to determine “percentages of seriously disturbed” and the percentage of the population that would suffer sleep deprivation related to outdoor noise levels (Gezondheidsraad, 1997). It now appears that these earlier reaction studies do not correspond with the present situation. This is, for example, the case of the “dose-effect relationships” caused by air traffic noise, tabulated in Ke (Kosten-units) (Van Deventer, 2004; Haan and Van Keken, 2008) and as a consequence, there even exists a movement to remove the legal protection caused by the noise from Schiphol airport (Haigton, 2008). For the good order the reaction study for the Ke, carried out in
The author would like to give his sincere thanks to M.M. (Maartje) Daan for her support during this investigation.

Journal of Facilities Management Vol. 10 No. 2, 2012 pp. 133-139 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1472-5967 DOI 10.1108/14725961211218767

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1962 and 1963, was performed using about 1,000 residents living adjacent to, the formerly known, Schiphol airport (Van Deventer, 2004). In practice, within the housing process, it is desirable to divide the aspects of the indoor environment into quality categories (ISSO-89, 2008; Elkhuizen and Nijboer, 2007). In the present situation it seems that a classification for noise and sound insulation according to, for example, NEN 1070 (1990) may be a more practical approach. The classification in this standard is, principally, based upon an interval subdivision of the percentage of disturbed by noise together with an associated qualification description (annex C in NEN 1070). However, in view of European developments (CR-1752, 1999; EN-15251, 2005/2007) considering classification of the indoor environment based upon the percentage of dissatisfied, it makes sense to use this parameter for evaluation of noise too. In the European guideline CR-1752 (1999) and the European standard EN-15251 (2005/2007) three categories of the indoor environment in buildings are prescribed (categories A-C). In the recommendations, the limit whereby the percentage of dissatisfied should remain under varies in each category for both the thermal indoor environment and the indoor air quality. The criteria in the categories for the aspects noise and light are not yet explicitly related to a percentage of dissatisfied. The abovementioned guideline and standard are very important to the field of study because it makes sense to use them in, especially performance based, contracts and programs of requirements within the housing process. Most clients within the housing process have no affinity with arguments like Lden, LAeq or whatsoever. However, the argument percentage of dissatisfied is understood by everyone. This article formulates therefore an idea and proposes a method, in line with the European developments regarding indoor environments, for the evaluation and classification of environmental noise in the built environment by means of the percentage of dissatisfied. 2. Road traffic noise and the percentage of dissatisfied In a collective study carried out by two departments within the University of Lyngby in Denmark (Clausen et al., 1993), under conditioned circumstances in two climate chambers, the relative influences of air quality, noise and thermal effects were investigated in regard to discomfort. In one of the climate chambers one set of subjects were exposed to various thermal effects and air quality levels. At the same time and for each of the variable situations, in the second climate chamber, a second set of subjects were exposed to various noise levels, comparable to a road traffic noise level spectrum, but in a thermally neutral and good air quality environment, to investigate to which extent the noise level caused the same level of discomfort. In all 68 comparable studies were carried out in the climate chambers with the same group of 16 subjects. In the aforementioned study the analytical relationship of discomfiture (Clausen et al., 1993) for equivalent noise levels was not fully worked out, i.e:  ! Z noiselevel x 2 58:6 2 PDnoise ¼ 4:35 exp 2 dx½%Š: 13:0 21 2.1 Numerical approximation method The above integral is, with the aid the Simpson integration rule, calculable.

By regression analysis of the calculated results and the application of a ¨ Boltzmann-Sigmoıd function, as a starting point, it is possible to create the following function: PDnoise ¼ where: PDnoise ¼ percentage of dissatisfied as a result of road traffic noise; 0 # PDnoise # 100 (%) LAeq ¼ the A weighted equivalent background noise level as a result of road traffic noise (dB(A)). 101:12 2 101:70 ; ½1 þ exp{ðLAeq 2 58:56Þ=5:40}Š½%Š {R2 ¼ 1}:

Evaluation of environmental noise 135

Both functions are shown in Figure 1. 3. Cumulative noise level calculation method In annex 1 of “Reken-en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder, 2006” (Reken-en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder, 2006), a Dutch Governmental noise regulation, a calculation method for cumulative noise levels is shown. In this calculation method the noise level from rail traffic (LRL), industry (LIL) and air traffic (LLL) is converted into a noise level for road traffic which causes the same disturbance (L * , L * , L * ). The RL IL VL reduction mentioned in article 110 g of the regulation for road vehicle noise is not used in this calculation procedure. All these values must be expressed as Lden, with the exception of industrial noise, whose noise level is determined according to the applicable legal definition. This calculation method can be used when there is exposure to more than one noise source. Formulae: * . L* ¼ 0:95 LRL 2 1:40: RL * . L* ¼ 0:98 LLL 2 7; 03: LL

Figure 1.

JFM 10,2

. .

L* ¼ 1:00 LIL 2 1; 00: IL * L* ¼ 1:00 LVL 2 0:00: VL
*

136

If all applicable sources are converted to L * values then the accumulated value can be calculated by means of the so-called energy summation. The calculation form is: " # N X L* 10 " n Lcum ¼ 10 log 10 n¼1 where all applicable sources N are accumulated and the index n can stand for RL, LL, IL and VL. The accumulated value can eventually be converted to a noise level equivalent to one of the source noises. 4. Calculation results Using the previously mentioned relationship of the percentage of dissatisfied as a function of the equivalent noise level and the calculation method, according to “Rekenen meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder” (Reken- en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder, 2006), it is possible to calculate for each noise source or combination of noise sources the percentage of dissatisfied as a function of the equivalent noise level. The calculation results are shown in Figure 2. Table I more accurately shows the maximum noise level per source within a percentage of dissatisfied of 0-20 percent. A proposal for a classification, according to CR-1752 (1999) and EN-15251 (2005/2007), of the environmental noise level within buildings coming from traffic and industry is shown in Table II. Figure 3 shows, graphically, for each noise source, the percentage of dissatisfied and the percentage of seriously disturbed (Gezondheidsraad, 1997) as a function of the equivalent noise level. Eventual differences between outside noise levels (Miedema curves) and inside (PDnoise) are ignored.

Figure 2.

5. Conclusion . It makes sense to use the guideline CR-1752 and standard EN-15251 within the frame of, especially performance based, contracts and programs of requirements in the housing process. . Using the percentage of dissatisfied for classification and as a evaluation criterion is understood by everyone.

Evaluation of environmental noise 137

Percentage of dissatisfied (PDnoise) (%) 0 5 10 15 20

Lroad (dB(A)) 31 43 47 49 51

Lrail (dB(A)) 34 47 51 53 55

Lindustry (dB(A)) 30 42 46 48 50

Lair (dB(A)) 25 37 41 43 45 Table I. Summary of the maximum equivalent noise level as a function of the percentage of dissatisfied

Note: Italicised: LAeq # 45 dB(A)

Category A B C

PDnoise ,1 ,5 ,10

(%)

Lcum (dB(A)) , 36 , 43 , 47

Back ground noise level per source sort without the other source sorts (dB(A)) Lroad Lrail Lindustry Lair , 36 , 43 , 47 ,39 ,47 ,51 ,35 ,42 ,46 , 29 , 37 , 41

Table II. Proposal for classification, according to CR-1752 (1999) and EN-15251 (2005/2007)

Note: The thin (blue) curves relate to the left y-axis and the thicker (red) curves to the right y-axis

Figure 3.

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.

.

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Using the percentage of dissatisfied as the evaluation criterion, related to the equivalent background noise level, produces a more refined evaluation of comfort than an evaluation based upon the percentage of seriously disturbed or the effects of sleep deprivation in relation to the environmental noise (Gezondheidsraad, 1997). The method and proposal for classification is a useful addition to the European standard and guideline concerning classification of the indoor environment, based upon the percentage of dissatisfied, as referred to.

Noise levels to about 45 dB/dB(A) From, in particular, Table I, it appears that, with the exception of air traffic, the percentage of dissatisfied, at a noise level approaching 45 dB /dB(A) per source, remains below 10 percent. Rail traffic noise is even less than 5 percent. Only air traffic noise causes the amount of dissatisfaction, dependent upon the noise level, to be relatively high. Noise levels above ca. 45 dB(A) Noise levels above 45-50 dB(A) causes the percentage of dissatisfied, due to all noise sources, to rise significantly. 6. Suggestions for further investigation This article is a proposal and a first step to develop a method to evaluate and classify environmental noise, according to CR-1752 (1999) and EN-15251 (2005/2007), based upon the percentage of dissatisfied, related to the equivalent background noise level. The following steps are suggested: (1) further investigation into the reliability and applicability; (2) additional improvements and expanded sources like the noise from restaurants, cafes and bars; and (3) to implement the method and proposal for classification in the guideline CR-1752 and the standard 15251.
References Clausen, G., Carrick, L., Fanger, P.O., Kim, S.W., Poulsen, T. and Rindel, J.H. (1993), “A comparative study of discomfort caused by indoor air pollution, thermal load and noise”, Indoor Air, Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 255-62. CR-1752 (1999), “Ventilation for buildings – design criteria for the indoor environment”. Elkhuizen, B. and Nijboer, C. (2007), “Kwaliteitslabel woningen omvat energie en comfort”, VV þ , December, pp. 816-21. EN-15251 Ontw (2005), “Criteria for the indoor environment including thermal, indoor air quality, light and noise later on replaced by NEN-EN-15251” (2007), “Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics”. Gezondheidsraad (1997), Commissie “Uniforme geluidsdosismaat”, “Omgevingslawaai beoordelen – Voorstel voor een uniform systeem van geluidmaten ter beoordeling van hinder en slaapverstoring door geluid”, nr. 1997/23.

Haan, F. and Van Keken, K. (2008), “Geluidmeting schiphol failliet”, available at: www. volkskrant.nl/binnenland/article501394.ece/Geluidmeting_Schiphol_failliet Haigton, M. (2008), “Schaf wettelijke bescherming tegen lawaai van Schiphol af”, Volkskrant. ISSO-89 (2008), “Binnenklimaat scholen”. NEN 1070 (1990), “Noise control in buildings – specification and rating of quality”. Reken-en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder (2006) (Annex 1), available at: www.stillerverkeer.nl Van Deventer, F.W.J. (2004), “Basiskennis geluidzonering luchtvaart”. About the author Paul Roelofsen studied Architecture, Urban Planning and Housing at the Eindhoven University of Technology specialising in the Physical Aspects of the Built Environment. After graduation, he continued his studies through a post Higher Professional Course in Advanced Installation Techniques and an advanced course in Environmental Noise, as well as a course in Facility Management and Quality Management. Paul is a visiting lecturer and occupies various supplementary functions within both his working and tutoring activities. He is also active with various contact groups, related to his expertise in building constructional techniques, and performs several functions for, and within, these groups. The IFMA Award of Excellence for outstanding achievement in Facility Management was presented to Paul in 2004 as well as an Award for Building Services Innovation in The Netherlands in 2007. Paul Roelofsen can be contacted at: paul.roelofsen@grontmij.nl

Evaluation of environmental noise 139

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...Plato's Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology 1.0. The Background to Plato’s Metaphysics The author Silverman, Allan (2014) of this article titled Plato’s Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology wrote about how Plato first began to annotate his own points on metaphysics and epistemology. As we all knew, Plato’s definition of things are heavily influenced by his teachers Heraclitus (c.540 B.C.-480-70) Parmenides (c.515 B.C.-449-40) and especially Socrates (470 B.C-399). However only remnants of the writings of Heraclitus and Parmenides and also nothing left of Socrates. The only evidence that we ever had is Plato’s depiction of his teacher that is the dialog he wrote in his writings about Socrates’s views. Sometimes, it is as if it was Socrates’s writing not Plato because of the many things about Socrates he wrote. Some had said that it was his own views but instead he used Socrates as the speaker. This article also wrote about Plato’s predecessors’ views of the concept that influences his definition of Metaphysics and Epistemology which are Being and Forms. Firstly, Parmenides which he said there is one and only in this world and that is being. The truth is it never change and will never be. Sadly, there is not much we could conclude from Parmenides’s point of view. His concept of being has become Plato’s based of doctrine of Forms. As contrast to Parmenides’s definition of physical world, Heraclitus is the advocate of change. He said that the ordinary......

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Epistemologies Governing the First- and Second-Order Cybernetic Approaches

...Epistemologies governing the first- and second-order cybernetic approaches: Ivan Bronkhorst Student number: 51863456 PYC4808 Assignment 2 Table of Contents 1. First Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: 3 Recursion: 3 Feedback: 3 Morphostasis /Morphogenesis: 3 Rules and Boundaries: 3 Openness/Closedness: 4 Entropy/Negentropy: 4 Equifinality/Equipotentiality: 4 Communication and Information Processing 5 Relationship and Wholeness: 5 2. Second Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: 6 Wholeness and Self-Reference: 6 Openness/Closedness: 7 Autopoiesis: 7 Structural Determinism: 7 Structural Coupling and Nonpurposeful Drift: 7 Epistemology of Participation: 8 Reality as a Multiverse: 8 1. First Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: Recursion: Recursion is focused on the relationship between individuals and given elements in isolation. Recursion is, thus, focuses on how individuals and elements interact with, and influence one another respectively (Becvar & Becvar, 2014, pp. 69-70). In my opinion recursion in FOC refers to the circular causality or impact, if you will, that individuals and/or given elements have on one another. For instance, a child is extremely fearful of his father and, thus, doesn’t like talking to his father. His father, in turn, gets angry and strict when his son does not talk to him on a regular basis seeing as this makes him feel unwanted as a father. This behaviour from the father fuels the fear of the child creating a negative......

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