Free Essay


In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By jojes
Words 2388
Pages 10
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

Evaluation of environmental noise based upon the percentage of dissatisfied
Paul Roelofsen
Grontmij Nederland BV, Amersfoort, The Netherlands
Purpose – This article is a proposal and aims to be a first step to develop a method to evaluate and classify environmental noise, according to EN-15251 and CR-1752, in the built environment based on the percentage of dissatisfied related to the equivalent background noise level. Design/methodology/approach – In the European guideline CR-1752 and the standard EN-15251 three categories of the indoor environment in buildings are prescribed (category A, B and C). In the recommendations, the limit whereby the percentage of dissatisfied should remain under varies in each category for both the thermal indoor environment and the air quality. The categories for noise and illumination criteria are not yet explicitly related to a percentage of dissatisfied. Findings – Using the percentage of dissatisfied as the evaluation criterion, when related to the equivalent background noise, produces a more refined evaluation of comfort than an evaluation based on the percentage of seriously disturbed or the effects of sleep deprivation in relation to external noise. Furthermore, this corresponds to the European standards and recommendations concerning quality classification of the indoor environment, based on the percentage of dissatisfied. Originality/value – Based on recent European undertakings concerning the development of categories for the indoor environment based on the percentage of dissatisfied, it is desirable to utilise these categories to noise aspects too, and to relate it to the equivalent background noise level. Keywords Environmental noise, Noise control, Dissatisfied, Discomfort, EN 15251, CR 1752, Comfort categories, Environmental regulations Paper type Research paper

Evaluation of environmental noise 133

1. Introduction With the noise level it is possible to make a judgement of the results upon the indoor environment caused by environmental noise via of a, so-called, “dose-effect relationship”. The “dose-effect relationships” are determined from reaction responses obtained from people who have been subject to the noise level. In general, these reaction studies have been used to determine “percentages of seriously disturbed” and the percentage of the population that would suffer sleep deprivation related to outdoor noise levels (Gezondheidsraad, 1997). It now appears that these earlier reaction studies do not correspond with the present situation. This is, for example, the case of the “dose-effect relationships” caused by air traffic noise, tabulated in Ke (Kosten-units) (Van Deventer, 2004; Haan and Van Keken, 2008) and as a consequence, there even exists a movement to remove the legal protection caused by the noise from Schiphol airport (Haigton, 2008). For the good order the reaction study for the Ke, carried out in
The author would like to give his sincere thanks to M.M. (Maartje) Daan for her support during this investigation.

Journal of Facilities Management Vol. 10 No. 2, 2012 pp. 133-139 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1472-5967 DOI 10.1108/14725961211218767

JFM 10,2


1962 and 1963, was performed using about 1,000 residents living adjacent to, the formerly known, Schiphol airport (Van Deventer, 2004). In practice, within the housing process, it is desirable to divide the aspects of the indoor environment into quality categories (ISSO-89, 2008; Elkhuizen and Nijboer, 2007). In the present situation it seems that a classification for noise and sound insulation according to, for example, NEN 1070 (1990) may be a more practical approach. The classification in this standard is, principally, based upon an interval subdivision of the percentage of disturbed by noise together with an associated qualification description (annex C in NEN 1070). However, in view of European developments (CR-1752, 1999; EN-15251, 2005/2007) considering classification of the indoor environment based upon the percentage of dissatisfied, it makes sense to use this parameter for evaluation of noise too. In the European guideline CR-1752 (1999) and the European standard EN-15251 (2005/2007) three categories of the indoor environment in buildings are prescribed (categories A-C). In the recommendations, the limit whereby the percentage of dissatisfied should remain under varies in each category for both the thermal indoor environment and the indoor air quality. The criteria in the categories for the aspects noise and light are not yet explicitly related to a percentage of dissatisfied. The abovementioned guideline and standard are very important to the field of study because it makes sense to use them in, especially performance based, contracts and programs of requirements within the housing process. Most clients within the housing process have no affinity with arguments like Lden, LAeq or whatsoever. However, the argument percentage of dissatisfied is understood by everyone. This article formulates therefore an idea and proposes a method, in line with the European developments regarding indoor environments, for the evaluation and classification of environmental noise in the built environment by means of the percentage of dissatisfied. 2. Road traffic noise and the percentage of dissatisfied In a collective study carried out by two departments within the University of Lyngby in Denmark (Clausen et al., 1993), under conditioned circumstances in two climate chambers, the relative influences of air quality, noise and thermal effects were investigated in regard to discomfort. In one of the climate chambers one set of subjects were exposed to various thermal effects and air quality levels. At the same time and for each of the variable situations, in the second climate chamber, a second set of subjects were exposed to various noise levels, comparable to a road traffic noise level spectrum, but in a thermally neutral and good air quality environment, to investigate to which extent the noise level caused the same level of discomfort. In all 68 comparable studies were carried out in the climate chambers with the same group of 16 subjects. In the aforementioned study the analytical relationship of discomfiture (Clausen et al., 1993) for equivalent noise levels was not fully worked out, i.e:  ! Z noiselevel x 2 58:6 2 PDnoise ¼ 4:35 exp 2 dx½%Š: 13:0 21 2.1 Numerical approximation method The above integral is, with the aid the Simpson integration rule, calculable.

By regression analysis of the calculated results and the application of a ¨ Boltzmann-Sigmoıd function, as a starting point, it is possible to create the following function: PDnoise ¼ where: PDnoise ¼ percentage of dissatisfied as a result of road traffic noise; 0 # PDnoise # 100 (%) LAeq ¼ the A weighted equivalent background noise level as a result of road traffic noise (dB(A)). 101:12 2 101:70 ; ½1 þ exp{ðLAeq 2 58:56Þ=5:40}Š½%Š {R2 ¼ 1}:

Evaluation of environmental noise 135

Both functions are shown in Figure 1. 3. Cumulative noise level calculation method In annex 1 of “Reken-en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder, 2006” (Reken-en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder, 2006), a Dutch Governmental noise regulation, a calculation method for cumulative noise levels is shown. In this calculation method the noise level from rail traffic (LRL), industry (LIL) and air traffic (LLL) is converted into a noise level for road traffic which causes the same disturbance (L * , L * , L * ). The RL IL VL reduction mentioned in article 110 g of the regulation for road vehicle noise is not used in this calculation procedure. All these values must be expressed as Lden, with the exception of industrial noise, whose noise level is determined according to the applicable legal definition. This calculation method can be used when there is exposure to more than one noise source. Formulae: * . L* ¼ 0:95 LRL 2 1:40: RL * . L* ¼ 0:98 LLL 2 7; 03: LL

Figure 1.

JFM 10,2

. .

L* ¼ 1:00 LIL 2 1; 00: IL * L* ¼ 1:00 LVL 2 0:00: VL


If all applicable sources are converted to L * values then the accumulated value can be calculated by means of the so-called energy summation. The calculation form is: " # N X L* 10 " n Lcum ¼ 10 log 10 n¼1 where all applicable sources N are accumulated and the index n can stand for RL, LL, IL and VL. The accumulated value can eventually be converted to a noise level equivalent to one of the source noises. 4. Calculation results Using the previously mentioned relationship of the percentage of dissatisfied as a function of the equivalent noise level and the calculation method, according to “Rekenen meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder” (Reken- en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder, 2006), it is possible to calculate for each noise source or combination of noise sources the percentage of dissatisfied as a function of the equivalent noise level. The calculation results are shown in Figure 2. Table I more accurately shows the maximum noise level per source within a percentage of dissatisfied of 0-20 percent. A proposal for a classification, according to CR-1752 (1999) and EN-15251 (2005/2007), of the environmental noise level within buildings coming from traffic and industry is shown in Table II. Figure 3 shows, graphically, for each noise source, the percentage of dissatisfied and the percentage of seriously disturbed (Gezondheidsraad, 1997) as a function of the equivalent noise level. Eventual differences between outside noise levels (Miedema curves) and inside (PDnoise) are ignored.

Figure 2.

5. Conclusion . It makes sense to use the guideline CR-1752 and standard EN-15251 within the frame of, especially performance based, contracts and programs of requirements in the housing process. . Using the percentage of dissatisfied for classification and as a evaluation criterion is understood by everyone.

Evaluation of environmental noise 137

Percentage of dissatisfied (PDnoise) (%) 0 5 10 15 20

Lroad (dB(A)) 31 43 47 49 51

Lrail (dB(A)) 34 47 51 53 55

Lindustry (dB(A)) 30 42 46 48 50

Lair (dB(A)) 25 37 41 43 45 Table I. Summary of the maximum equivalent noise level as a function of the percentage of dissatisfied

Note: Italicised: LAeq # 45 dB(A)

Category A B C

PDnoise ,1 ,5 ,10


Lcum (dB(A)) , 36 , 43 , 47

Back ground noise level per source sort without the other source sorts (dB(A)) Lroad Lrail Lindustry Lair , 36 , 43 , 47 ,39 ,47 ,51 ,35 ,42 ,46 , 29 , 37 , 41

Table II. Proposal for classification, according to CR-1752 (1999) and EN-15251 (2005/2007)

Note: The thin (blue) curves relate to the left y-axis and the thicker (red) curves to the right y-axis

Figure 3.

JFM 10,2




Using the percentage of dissatisfied as the evaluation criterion, related to the equivalent background noise level, produces a more refined evaluation of comfort than an evaluation based upon the percentage of seriously disturbed or the effects of sleep deprivation in relation to the environmental noise (Gezondheidsraad, 1997). The method and proposal for classification is a useful addition to the European standard and guideline concerning classification of the indoor environment, based upon the percentage of dissatisfied, as referred to.

Noise levels to about 45 dB/dB(A) From, in particular, Table I, it appears that, with the exception of air traffic, the percentage of dissatisfied, at a noise level approaching 45 dB /dB(A) per source, remains below 10 percent. Rail traffic noise is even less than 5 percent. Only air traffic noise causes the amount of dissatisfaction, dependent upon the noise level, to be relatively high. Noise levels above ca. 45 dB(A) Noise levels above 45-50 dB(A) causes the percentage of dissatisfied, due to all noise sources, to rise significantly. 6. Suggestions for further investigation This article is a proposal and a first step to develop a method to evaluate and classify environmental noise, according to CR-1752 (1999) and EN-15251 (2005/2007), based upon the percentage of dissatisfied, related to the equivalent background noise level. The following steps are suggested: (1) further investigation into the reliability and applicability; (2) additional improvements and expanded sources like the noise from restaurants, cafes and bars; and (3) to implement the method and proposal for classification in the guideline CR-1752 and the standard 15251.
References Clausen, G., Carrick, L., Fanger, P.O., Kim, S.W., Poulsen, T. and Rindel, J.H. (1993), “A comparative study of discomfort caused by indoor air pollution, thermal load and noise”, Indoor Air, Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 255-62. CR-1752 (1999), “Ventilation for buildings – design criteria for the indoor environment”. Elkhuizen, B. and Nijboer, C. (2007), “Kwaliteitslabel woningen omvat energie en comfort”, VV þ , December, pp. 816-21. EN-15251 Ontw (2005), “Criteria for the indoor environment including thermal, indoor air quality, light and noise later on replaced by NEN-EN-15251” (2007), “Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics”. Gezondheidsraad (1997), Commissie “Uniforme geluidsdosismaat”, “Omgevingslawaai beoordelen – Voorstel voor een uniform systeem van geluidmaten ter beoordeling van hinder en slaapverstoring door geluid”, nr. 1997/23.

Haan, F. and Van Keken, K. (2008), “Geluidmeting schiphol failliet”, available at: www. Haigton, M. (2008), “Schaf wettelijke bescherming tegen lawaai van Schiphol af”, Volkskrant. ISSO-89 (2008), “Binnenklimaat scholen”. NEN 1070 (1990), “Noise control in buildings – specification and rating of quality”. Reken-en meetvoorschrift Geluidhinder (2006) (Annex 1), available at: Van Deventer, F.W.J. (2004), “Basiskennis geluidzonering luchtvaart”. About the author Paul Roelofsen studied Architecture, Urban Planning and Housing at the Eindhoven University of Technology specialising in the Physical Aspects of the Built Environment. After graduation, he continued his studies through a post Higher Professional Course in Advanced Installation Techniques and an advanced course in Environmental Noise, as well as a course in Facility Management and Quality Management. Paul is a visiting lecturer and occupies various supplementary functions within both his working and tutoring activities. He is also active with various contact groups, related to his expertise in building constructional techniques, and performs several functions for, and within, these groups. The IFMA Award of Excellence for outstanding achievement in Facility Management was presented to Paul in 2004 as well as an Award for Building Services Innovation in The Netherlands in 2007. Paul Roelofsen can be contacted at:

Evaluation of environmental noise 139

To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: Or visit our web site for further details:…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Epistemology Analysis

...Epistemology: How do we know what is true? Aleisha Roche 11/9/12 Empirist those of the philosophers who believe that it is not rationalism but your senses that tell us the truth about knowledge. Philosophy could be something no one, not even philosophers, could actually agree on how to view life.  Philosophy is divided into multiple branches and Epistemology deals with the “theory of knowledge.” A philosopher’s job is to figure out what is truth, weather relevant or irrelevant and discover how it is that we know something and if it is true. Epistemology of Philosophy shows how truth fits into life. We will be looking into the Western and Asian views on truth from Aristotle to Plato to Kant. This philosopher is known for his study of matter being reality. Plato’s epistemology is that we can have guiene knowledge only on things that are perfect and unchanging. We have knowledge about the forms, but not the material things. Beliefs and opinions are the only thing we can have in a material world. Plato says that before we are born our souls live in a realm of the forms and have complete knowledge of the form but we don’t realize it. We can only recall when in difficulty. Now this philosopher’s theory is the view that all Knowledge originates from experience bases his study on question and answer. Aristotle believes that the object of real existence is the ones that we encounter through our sense perception. Humans, according to Aristotle, do not acquire knowledge all...

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Epistemology Paper

...Epistemology Schools Paper Arika Boyd PHL/215 Dixie Hoyt 09/15/09 Epistemology or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy related to the scope and nature of knowledge. The subject focuses on examining the nature of knowledge, and how it relates to beliefs, justification, and truth. Epistemology contract with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. The question is what does people Know? The core of this questions and area of study is Skepticism, in which there have been many approaches involved in trying to disprove a particular form of this school. This paper will discuss the Epistemology school of Skepticism, the contributors whom created the school; the evolution of how the school grew out of it’s the original field of Epistemology, and a few examples of real-life applications pertaining to the school.         Epistemology arisen either in defense of or in opposition to certain forms of skepticism. Skepticism is an attitude of doubt and uncertainty as expressed in everyday language and an identifiable school of thought in history ideas. It’s most general sense refers to doubt, disbelief, uncertainty, suspension of judgment, and rejection of knowledge. It is the doctrine that true knowledge in a particular area is uncertain and argues that beliefs in something does not justify that an assertion of knowledge on the particular subject. It also is characterized by its opposition to dogmatism in......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...philein, a word that means “love,” and sophia, a word that means wisdom. When you put the two words together, it means “the love or pursuit of wisdom”. Philosophy can be considered to be many different truths, depending on the person and the ideas they have embraced through time. With the different twist and turns that philosophy can take, there had to be some way of classifying the different approaches. The approaches were broken down into 6 areas to be able to classify what type of research was being done. Philosophers like Bertrand Russell brought to our attention that we are quick to embrace the scientific explanation of the world but the Metaphysics or the idea that there may be an afterlife cannot be proven with a microscope. Epistemology is the study of identifying what we know and why we know it. This is sometimes integrated with Metaphysics but has its own meaning. The main question in this study is what truth is, and what the sources of knowledge are. Ethics is the study of morals, values, and principals. Questions arise for these thinkers like how should we treat others, or is there a good life for humans. Political and social philosophy is important to those who want to fight for individual rights they show us all what citizenship really is. The important questions to these thinkers are, what the nature of justice is. Aesthetics is the study of beauty and art, and it questions things like what is true beauty. The logic is all about Validity in an argument. This......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Essay on Epistemology

...something although it is false. It is important to set out epistemologies from an axiomatic starting point. There is no better place to start than with the Rationalist René Descartes and his cogito ergo sum. “I think, therefore I am” is a declaration of the extent of indubitable knowledge. That is to say, we can only be sure that a thinking entity exists by point of fact that it thinks (whether it be doubting, and whether or not we can define exactly what such a thinking entity might ontologically be). As Michael Lacewing states[3]: So Descartes begins by understanding knowledge in terms of certainty. To establish certainty, he tests his beliefs by doubt. Doubt, then, is the opposite of certainty. If we can doubt a belief, then it is not certain, and so it is not knowledge. From this Rationalist mantra, one can further adopt the position of the Pyrrhonian Skeptic. This term represents a skeptic who is defined by doubt so as to remain effectively agnostic over everything, even their own position, such that judgement is evaded. However, this, as a scope for an epistemology, is not very useful; it is not entirely pragmatic[4] in the context of everyday life. As a result, it can be deemed necessary, in order to form a usable epistemology, to build up from this. Yet to do so, one has to make certain leaps of faith, if you will. Or to put it another way, one must hold to knowledge claims that are not indubitable – a usable epistemology seems to have inevitable need of making......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...10/18/2006 7:42 PM Page 36 5 FEMINIST METHODOLOGIES AND EPISTEMOLOGY ANDREA DOUCET Carleton University, Canada NATASHA S. MAUTHNER University of Aberdeen, Scotland O ver the past 10 years of teaching courses on research methods and feminist approaches to methodologies and epistemologies, a recurring question from our students concerns the distinctiveness of feminist approaches to methods, methodologies, and epistemologies. This key question is posed in different ways: Is there a specifically feminist method? Are there feminist methodologies and epistemologies, or simply feminist approaches to these? Given diversity and debates in feminist theory, how can there be a consensus on what constitutes “feminist” methodologies and epistemologies? Answers to these questions are far from straightforward given the continually evolving nature of feminist reflections on the methodological and epistemological dimensions and dilemmas of research. This chapter on feminist methodologies and epistemologies attempts to address these questions by tracing historical developments in this area, by considering what may be unique about feminist epistemologies and feminist methodologies, by reviewing some of sociology’s key contributions to this area of scholarship and by highlighting some key emergent trends. The chapter begins with a brief overview of the theoretical and historical development of feminist epistemologies, followed by a similar overview of feminist methodologies.......

Words: 12047 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Epistemology Paper

...The profiling of two countries is one way to know all about in these countries and to compare to each other. In our subject the Comparative Economics, our professor give a group assignment and that is to search all the profile of one develop country and the Philippines. Our chose develop country is the Japan. Our group leader assigned to me the Political Aspects of these two countries. By the help of internet, books and other source of information, I look for all the political details of the country to know all about the government and political background of these countries for us to compare the political aspects of the two countries. By the profile of the chosen countries, I and my group mates are looking for the advantage of each country and what are the factors that give the two countries improvement or progress. We finish this assignment with the cooperation of all members and at the given time period. During the time of work or the assignment, we share some ideas for us to get the best idea for the format design and the questioner of the group assignment. As the member of the group, I finish all includes to my topic that assigned by our leader and submit to the leader to compile all the profile of the chosen develop country and the Philippines. Philippines The form of government of the Philippines is a Republic Government, which is the Filipino people, elects a representative to lead and to make laws. The government has three branches: the legislative branch,......

Words: 1373 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pyc4808 Ass. 1

...Page 1 of 3 Student Number: 4392-524-3 Date: 04/04/2013 PYC4808 - Assignment 1 Unique Assignment Number: 199603 Table of Contents: Table of contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..Pg. 1 Definition and example of epistemology…………………………………………….………………………....Pg. 2 Definition and example of theory……………………………………………………………………………………Pg. 2 Definition and example of a model…………………………………………………………………………………Pg. 2 Definition and example of a technique………………………………………………………………….……….Pg. 2 Reference list………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Pg. 3 Page 2 of 3 Definition Epistemology Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, its pre-suppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity. Epistemology investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. Epistemology is one of the key defining characteristics of what it means to be human…to become conscious of your ways of knowing, and reinforce your confidence in that knowledge. Theory Theory is a set of statements, or principles devised to explain a group of facts / phenomena especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena.    Example Truth itself – How can we know that something is true? Classical Conditioning Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development Model A model is usually a system for representing scientific knowledge concerning psychological aspects. A theory......

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Tok Writing Epistemologies

...In the handout from Man is the Measure, Abel discussed nine “good reasons” or sources of knowledge. In a response of 450-500 words, evaluate any two of those sources. Of these, one should be an epistemology that you consider a strong or secure foundation for knowledge and one that you consider relatively weak. Discuss the reasons for your choice and include specific examples. Among the nine epistemologies suggested by Abel in “Man in the Measure”, I consider sense perception to be a strong epistemology. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “sense perception is to perceive by a sense (sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch). Long before humans learned how to use language or reason, sense was the primary way to interact with the world, and was the only source for obtaining knowledge. Sense perception is considered to be a framework for many other theories. It also helps people confirm assumptions, as they are very convincing. Two men looking at the ocean might say it is light blue, which cannot be doubted. In addition, acknowledging that it is light blue, it may be deduced that the water in the ocean is clean. However, sense perception also has its weaknesses. Firstly, according to Hermann von Hemholtz, humans construct images by inferring it based on past experience. Furthermore, it means that humans convert pictures into something based on the understanding of the world. This becomes a weakness, as different people would have different perspectives. Secondly, due......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...My Own Epistemology: In the Making Am I living in an illusion? What will happen to me after I die? Is there really such thing as a God? I have struggled with these three questions throughout my entire life, and I was very intrigued to discover that all of these questions were addressed throughout the many different readings in Libs 201: Exploring the Unknown. Author Chris Frith dissects the idea that the mental world is an illusion created by the brain in his book Making Up The Mind. Antony Flew, a former atheist, argues that there is such thing as a God or an “agent” and backs up his theory using science. Emile Durkheim writes about the foundation of religious thought in primitive people thousands of years ago, and addresses the question of where religious impulse comes from in humans. All of these readings address epistemological questions beyond the scientific domain of research, and I am left with an open mind as I try and retain all of the different concepts and ideas each of these authors has to offer. According to Chris Frith, the mental world is an illusion caused by the brain. In Making up the Mind, Frith addresses the distinction between the mental and the physical world, and claims that there isn’t actually a distinction at all. Frith writes, “Most of our interactions with other people are interactions between minds, not between bodies.” This statement really stood out to me, and I found myself repeating these words over and over again inside of my head.......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Way of the Master

...Study Guide: Lesson 10 What is Epistemology? & What is Knowledge? Lesson Overview With this lesson, we begin a new unit on epistemology, which is the philosophical study of knowledge claims. In this first lesson on epistemology, Dew and Foreman discuss some of the basic issues raised in the study of epistemology and then discuss the nature of knowledge itself. They consider questions such as, “What do we mean when we say we know something?” “What exactly is knowledge? Tasks View and take notes of the presentation, “What is Knowledge?” * Describe the 3 different ways we use the term know. * Explain the traditional definition of knowledge from Plato. * Know what each aspect of the traditional definition means. Read Chapters One, “What is Epistemology?” and Two, “What is Knowledge?” of How Do we Know?” As you do, make sure you understand the following points and questions: * What are the kinds of questions arise in the study of epistemology? * Know the kinds of questions that preoccupy epistemologists. * Know the basic reasons why the study of epistemology is important. * What are the different ways that the word know might be used? * How did Plato define knowledge? * Know the difference between true opinion and knowledge. * What are some of the basic problems/concerns with JTB? * What is the Gettier Problem? * What are some of the common strategies for resolving the Gettier Problem? * Is JTB of any......

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Knowledge Claims with Ontology and Epistemology

...Knowledge Claims Knowledge issues emerge from knowledge claims. These are claims about what we know. Researchers examine the knowledge claims about social world (Crotty 2003). They are of an ontological nature (the reality and character of things) and epistemological nature (how the knower discovers the knowledge about the reality). Ontology and epistemology Before researchers embark on their journey to explore social phenomena, they need to clarify what their ontological and epistemological stances are. Just as every project has its start and finish, so does academic research. The first stage of academic research is for inquirers to ask a research question, answers for which will be learnt using proper research methods. Researchers can go about answering the research question quantitatively, qualitatively or utilizing mixed methods. It is believed that while undertaking academic research, ontologies and epistemologies, also called paradigms, must be defined separately from research methods, although these constituents are interlaced and they shape each other (Crotty 2003; Guba and Lincoln 1994; Poetschke 2003; Scotland 2012; Grix 2002). The word ontology is derived from two Greek words meaning being and word. Ontology deals with the world and the question whether the reality exists regardless of our knowledge about it or not. There are two contrasting philosophical traditions: positivism looking at reality as being real, true and concrete and interpretivism looking at......

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...As Rorty (1979) has observed epistemology seems to offer a vantage point, one step removed from the actual practice of science itself, which at first sight promises to provide some foundation for scientific knowledge. By seeking to explain ourselves as knowers, by telling us how we ought to arrive at our beliefs, epistemology is pivotal to science since `proper' scientific theorizing can only occur after the development of epistemological theory. It follows that a key question must be how can we develop epistemological theory--a science of science? Almost 60 years ago Neurath (1944) pointed to the paradox that epistemology confronts: a fundamental problem of circularity, from which it cannot escape, in that any theory of knowledge (i.e. any epistemology) presupposes knowledge of the conditions in which knowledge takes place. In effect, this prevents any grounding of epistemology in what purports to be scientific knowledge, psychological or otherwise, because one cannot use science in order to ground the legitimacy of science. For Neurath, such circularity means that we cannot dump philosophy by detaching ourselves from our epistemological commitments so as to assess those commitments objectively--indeed we would depend upon them in order to undertake that reflexive task. It follows that there are no secure foundations from which we can begin any consideration of our knowledge of knowledge--rather what we have are competing philosophical assumptions about knowledge that......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Emily Simpson Philosophy 2745 11-20-2014 Epistemology For the most part, philosophers agree that knowledge requires truth, justification, and belief. However, the debate lies in whether or not a theory of knowledge accurately and fully satisfies these conditions. The standard account of knowledge has three conditions that need to be met in order for an individual to have knowledge. S must know that p if and only if: (1) S believes that p, (2) p is true and (3) S is justified in believing that p. On the surface, it seems that this account implicates knowledge; however, Edmund Gettier showed through the Gettier cases that you can believe yourself to be justified, but not actually have knowledge. This epistemic setback is known as the Gettier Problem. Since the standard account of knowledge was essentially done away with, philosophers have been in search of the best way to solve the Gettier problem. Alvin Goldman in particular has published many papers detailing his thoughts on the matter. “A Causal Theory of Knowing” was the first in a series of works in which Goldman sought a theory that could handle Gettier’s cases. Unfortunately, Goldman’s own causal theory was undermined by his and Carl Ginet’s fake barn case. The Ginet-Goldman fake barn case first appeared in Goldman’s “Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge”. It describes a boy, Henry, who is traveling through the countryside and sees what he believes to be a barn. Unbeknownst to Henry, the area he is in is......

Words: 1042 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Plato's Middle Period Epistemology

...Plato's Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology 1.0. The Background to Plato’s Metaphysics The author Silverman, Allan (2014) of this article titled Plato’s Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology wrote about how Plato first began to annotate his own points on metaphysics and epistemology. As we all knew, Plato’s definition of things are heavily influenced by his teachers Heraclitus (c.540 B.C.-480-70) Parmenides (c.515 B.C.-449-40) and especially Socrates (470 B.C-399). However only remnants of the writings of Heraclitus and Parmenides and also nothing left of Socrates. The only evidence that we ever had is Plato’s depiction of his teacher that is the dialog he wrote in his writings about Socrates’s views. Sometimes, it is as if it was Socrates’s writing not Plato because of the many things about Socrates he wrote. Some had said that it was his own views but instead he used Socrates as the speaker. This article also wrote about Plato’s predecessors’ views of the concept that influences his definition of Metaphysics and Epistemology which are Being and Forms. Firstly, Parmenides which he said there is one and only in this world and that is being. The truth is it never change and will never be. Sadly, there is not much we could conclude from Parmenides’s point of view. His concept of being has become Plato’s based of doctrine of Forms. As contrast to Parmenides’s definition of physical world, Heraclitus is the advocate of change. He said that the ordinary......

Words: 4378 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Epistemologies Governing the First- and Second-Order Cybernetic Approaches

...Epistemologies governing the first- and second-order cybernetic approaches: Ivan Bronkhorst Student number: 51863456 PYC4808 Assignment 2 Table of Contents 1. First Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: 3 Recursion: 3 Feedback: 3 Morphostasis /Morphogenesis: 3 Rules and Boundaries: 3 Openness/Closedness: 4 Entropy/Negentropy: 4 Equifinality/Equipotentiality: 4 Communication and Information Processing 5 Relationship and Wholeness: 5 2. Second Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: 6 Wholeness and Self-Reference: 6 Openness/Closedness: 7 Autopoiesis: 7 Structural Determinism: 7 Structural Coupling and Nonpurposeful Drift: 7 Epistemology of Participation: 8 Reality as a Multiverse: 8 1. First Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: Recursion: Recursion is focused on the relationship between individuals and given elements in isolation. Recursion is, thus, focuses on how individuals and elements interact with, and influence one another respectively (Becvar & Becvar, 2014, pp. 69-70). In my opinion recursion in FOC refers to the circular causality or impact, if you will, that individuals and/or given elements have on one another. For instance, a child is extremely fearful of his father and, thus, doesn’t like talking to his father. His father, in turn, gets angry and strict when his son does not talk to him on a regular basis seeing as this makes him feel unwanted as a father. This behaviour from the father fuels the fear of the child creating a negative......

Words: 2814 - Pages: 12