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Epidemiology of Tuberculosis

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Epidemiology of Tuberculosis
Jennifer Shanley
Grand Canyon NRS 427 March 15, 2014

Epidemiology of Tuberculosis
One of the world’s deadliest diseases, tuberculosis (TB), affects over one third of the world’s population. According to the CDC, in 2012 there were nearly 9 million people that were affected with this disease (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014).
Tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is a disease that affects not only the lungs but may also affect other parts of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. This disease is preventable as well as curable by can also be deadly if not treated. When a patient presents with TB they may have complaints of having a bad. cough that lasts for three or more weeks, pain in the chest, or may cough up blood or sputum (CDC, 2014). They may also present with symptoms such as weakness or fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, or chills (CDC, 2014). The transmission of TB occurs from person to person and is spread by airborne droplet nuclei (Cleveland Clinic, 2014). An example of how this is spread would be through the air by coughing, sneezing, singing, laughing, or talking. These droplets remain suspended in the air for many hours and are inhaled and trapped in the airway or alveoli of the person that was exposed (Cleveland Clinic, 2014). After being exposed to the bacteria that causes TB the person may have mild symptoms and may not seek treatment right away. According to the Cleveland Clinic, this delay in care can result in the patient exposing 10-15 people within a year to TB (Cleveland Clinic, 2014). Having a lowered immune system by diseases such as HIV, diabetes, or by smoking also increases the risk of acquiring this disease. If the patient is infected with TB they may not become sick. There are two conditions that are related to TB: latent…...

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