Free Essay

Difender (Disaster Fast Responder): Barangay Wireless Fire Alarm Boxes and Early Flood Detection System

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By carette23
Words 1580
Pages 7
This project is a system consisting of two different forms of disaster management. First is the Fire DIFENDER, which provides wireless link between houses (containing Fire Alarm Boxes) in a community (primarily congested urban barangays) and the fire station to give direct emergency signal in cases of fire. Second is the Flood DIFENDER, an extra attribute of the system for flood prone community, which gives remote monitoring at barangay station of water level from a reference site for early detection of flood. Technologies contained in the project include RF Transmitters (at houses) and a Receiver (at Barangay station), GSM Module to send signal from the barangay to the fire station, and Ultrasonic sensor for water level detection with indicators located in the barangay station. This two-fold system aims to activate early responses and impose preparedness in order to lessen the impact of common disasters experienced by most urban communities.

Fire and Flood are considered to be the two disasters in the Philippines having the most numbers of incidents.

For fire, factor, aside from late detection of occurrence of fire, is the amount of time taken to relay the emergency signal to the fire station. Frequently, fire stations defend late information transmission from the place where incident happened when asked for their late response.
Delays due to interviews and authentication, panic during incident, are considered barriers for transmission. Furthermore, the intensity of fire doubles in size every minute, according to the National Fire Protection Association, and reported cases of death were mostly caused by suffocation (4-6 minutes without oxygen causes death). Several cities like Boston have already fire alarm boxes located on the streets. However, the said fire alarm boxes utilize wired telegraphy in which most of these were destroyed by the typhoon and currently looking for upgrade. The system is prone to pranks due to its setting.
Communication agencies (117 is used nationwide, 911 here in Davao) are much known to the public than the fire station. The same is true to any social services, highway department, social society, medics, etc. At times of emergency, Central 911’s phone will first to cater the needing residence. The transfer of information to the main units, (e.g., Bureau of Fire Protection) adds to the waiting time of the residence in need of help.

For flood, aside from maintaining proper drainage systems, early detection must be at hand. This is particular to areas monitoring manually nearby rivers when heavy rainfall occurs and cannot afford to provide inexpensive and simple mechanism to ease the detection of water level.

Services of Fire and Flood DIFENDER are specifically for urban barangay communities. Existing fire-prone establishment which has dedicated wired link to the fire station can have the system but more efficient method can be implemented first like installing smoke and heat detectors. The second system (Flood DIFENDER) has also been added to cater another common need of communities in terms of disaster management, but for those that do not experience floods, it can be left behind from installing the entire DIFENDER. 2. OBJECTIVES
This project is aimed to provide barangays having frequent cases of fire an immediate and convenient method of sending an alert signal from the community to the barangay unit then to the local fire station. Also, to enable the emergency unit of the barangay to conveniently discern the need for evacuation without assigning someone to stand by the river to manually monitor the rise of the water level. Lastly, to cancel out the period of interviews from the call agent at emergency calls and to give a much faster alert to the fire fighters at times of fire events.

3.1 Gathering of Data
This includes several interviews on authorities, the Central 911 office, the Bureau of Fire Protection Davao City, and at the Barangay, suggested to be an ideal recipient for the project due to its cases of fire and floods.

3.2 Project Design

3.2a Project Mechanism - Fire DIFENDER
There are chosen houses (DIFENDER House) where the fire alarm boxes are going to be installed. Each installed fire alarm boxes containing panic button sends pre-programmed code to the barangay through Radio frequency whenever pressed six times to avoid sending signal when pressed accidentally. This unique code defines the house’s owner, zone, purok and the barangay it is situated. Barangay Officials tell where to install fire alarm boxes and make sure that a regular residence have 2-3 DIFENDER Houses near them where they can run to in case of serious fire. The agreement has been settled between the barangay and the DIFENDER House owner for the responsibility of the alarm boxes. The code then, once received to the barangay hall, is transmitted to the fire station using a GSM Module. At fire station, the code is being extracted to identify from its recorded DIFENDER Houses the fire alarm box that is triggered. Then, the annunciator is now ready to speak the location of the on-going fire incident.

3.2b Project Mechanism - Flood DIFENDER
An Ultrasonic Sensor is used to detect a certain level of water from a reference site. When the device is triggered, the signal is sent through a Radio Frequency. The receiving end can be traced at the disaster unit, commonly at barangay hall, containing indications of the current water level. The system is now limited from other emergencies concerned. But this proposal can be made relevant soon after the system is open for another phase. Information dissemination is included in the system. Communities must be properly oriented for them to know how everything works out.

3.3 Component Utilization
Major Components include:
PIC (Peripheral Interface Controller). Main function is to be programmed as the DIFENDER Houses’ identity, and an the one that accepts the alert signal from the houses and relay the code to the GSM modem to send it to the fire station. RF TX/RX Module. About 150 m range and is well suited to be used in urban areas.
GSM Module. Main functionality is to send code to the fire station. This code contains the location of the fire alarm boxes that has been triggered.
Ultrasonic Module. It is a device that can detect the change in frequency. It is arranged six feet above the surface of the water.
Voice Annunciator. It is composed of a speaker connected to a computer and is programmed to speak a digitized voice of the location of the triggered alarm box, basing on its recorded entries of DIFENDER Houses.

3.4 Programming Language
Parts of the system that need a program is inside the fire alarm boxes and in the voice annunciator located in the fire station. Programmed code inside the PIC is accomplished by the C language, while at the fire station, BASIC language and SQL database are used to work out the received alert signal.

3.5 Project Testing Fire DIFENDER
Fire alarm boxes were tested to measure its maximum range from receivers which is located in the barangay station. This testing is done on different distances, line of sight communication. Latency time is also taken with different variations depending on the distance of the fire alarm box.
After getting a consistent output from different distance variation, the device is then tested with attached RF module to send corresponding output for monitoring. This project utilizes a low-cost RF module to send the alert signal. Most of the remote transmission like this uses RF module with wider range.

(s) CODE RECEIVED (binary)
30 5.2 00000101
60 6.3 00000101
90 6.5 00000101
100 6.9 00000101
150 - -

Result revealed that the Fire alarm box is able to send correct code with given distance from the receiver. There is tolerable amount of time in delay of the code to be received compared to conventional latency due to the above mentioned factors. To make sure that the fire alarm boxes provide integrity to its service, it has to be linked first at the receiver and test its connection before considering its permanent operation.

Formula is made available at its programming scheme to input the desired limit of ranges. Indications include:

Green – Above Normal
Yellow – Critical Level
Red – Dangerous Level
For sample limit for its prototype, results were recorded as follows:

Green 76 1
Yellow 48 1.2
Red 20 1 Indicators exhibit the real-time status of the water level from the remote area where the triggering of the ultrasonic took place. The range of the RF module extends up to 4 kilometers. For the prototype, RF module with range 150 meters has been utilized.

The system is designed to provide early response to most common disasters to lessen its impact and casualties. It will also help each of the member of the community know preparations and measures and impose to them responsibility that is considered to be a grown necessity in disaster management. Results had proven the capacity to easily direct the emergency signal to station that is able to respond. In order to verify the mechanism of the system especially on the side Fire DIFENDER some points has been discussed by the proponents and the fire station personnel, this lead the proponents to work more on the expansion of the range that a single fire alarm box can cater.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Intrusion Detection Systems

...Intrusion Detection Systems CMIT368 August 12, 2006 Introduction As technology has advanced, information systems have become an integral part of every day life. In fact, there are not too many public or private actions that can take part in today’s society that do not include some type of information system at some level or another. While information systems make our lives easier in most respects, our dependency upon them has become increasingly capitalized upon by persons with malicious intent. Therefore, security within the information systems realm has introduced a number of new devices and software to help combat the unfortunate results of unauthorized network access, identity theft, and the like – one of which is the intrusion detection system, or IDS. Intrusion detection systems are primarily used to detect unauthorized or unconventional accesses to systems and typically consist of a sensor, monitoring agent (console), and the core engine. The sensor is used to detect and generate the security events, the console is used to control the sensor and monitor the events/alarms it produces, and the engine compares rules against the events database generated by the sensors to determine which events have the potential to be an attack or not (Wikipedia, 2006, para. 1-3). IDS generally consist of two types – signature-based and anomaly-based. Signature-based IDS operate by comparing network traffic against a known database of attack categories. In......

Words: 1749 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

...Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: application on Fire Detection Abstract: this paper is about fire detection in building using a modified APTEEN routing protocol. Here we design a system called iFireControl which is a smart detection system for buildings, which is more water efficient than many current systems, while keeping its robustness. introduction A Wireless Sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensors activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; nowadays such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, Agriculture, Area Monitoring, Smart Home Monitoring, Seismic Monitoring etc. Wireless Sensor Networks provide a bridge between the real physical and virtual worlds; allow the ability to observe the previously unobservable at a fine resolution over large spatio-temporal scales. The WSN is built of “nodes” from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a...

Words: 4845 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

The Everglades Flood Control and Restoration: a Century of Disaster

...March 2, 2013 – The Everglades Flood Control and Restoration: A Century of Disaster OUTLINE ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Before drainage of the Everglades began over a century ago, the wetlands of southern Florida were an interconnected hydrological assortment of lavish freshwater lakes and streams, cypress swamps, secluded estuarine lagoons, freshwater sloughs, tree islands, wet prairies, and mangrove swamps spanning 3.6 million hectares. After a century of intrusion, the daunting task of understanding, fixing, maintaining, and regaining a sustainable, natural Everglades-type ecosystem in South Florida is monumental. The area south of Lake Okeechobee now has a human population of over four million people, with greedy agricultural and urban demands for more water and more space. Therefore, several uphill battles have ensued. The conceptual plans for restoring this ecosystem, currently on record, are all extremely expensive to implement. A more thorough definition of the environmental and societal objectives and measures of success are required. How the ecosystem will respond to the return of a more natural hydrological pattern is uncertain, but needs to be addressed as the expected and desired outcome through measures of performance. The critical level of deterioration of the Everglades has created a crisis-management atmosphere instead of a full spectrum response and future prevention methodology. The political and social aspects of the......

Words: 6476 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Disaster Management

...[pic] Records Management Disaster Planning Guideline June 2007 Version 1.1 Table of Contents Acknowledgments 5 Foreword 5 Introduction 6 Background 6 Scope of this guideline 6 Related Documents 6 Reference to the Adequate Records Management Standard 7 Variation to this guideline 7 Records and Disasters 7 Disasters affecting records 8 Disasters affecting Australian organisations 8 Counter disaster management for records 9 Disaster review of your agency 10 Risk Assessment 10 Establish the context 11 Identify the risks 11 Critical needs determination 13 Analyse the risks 14 Assess the risks 15 Treat the risks 15 Monitor and review 16 Planning 16 Project Planning 17 Project team responsibilities 18 Content of the plan 18 How to prepare the response and recovery plan 19 Components of the response and recovery plan 20 Lists and supplies 22 Insurance and emergency funding arrangements 23 On-site equipment 23 Implementing the plan 24 Maintaining the plan 24 Distribution issues 25 Plan maintenance responsibilities 25 Training and testing 25 Post disaster analysis 27 Vital Records Protection 28 Identifying vital records 29 Protecting vital records 31 Preventative measures 31 Recovery and restoration 33 Critical data...

Words: 16993 - Pages: 68

Free Essay

Fire Alarm System

...Basic Guide to Fire Alarm Installation Introduction to BS5839 Part 1, 2002 BS5839 part 1 is a code of practice for Fire Alarm system design, installation and servicing for fire detection for general buildings. The standards have been revised and are effective from mid July 2003. A fire alarm system is generally required to be installed as part of fire certificate required by the Fire Precautions Act or the workplace regulations after an audit of a fire risk assessment. Planning the Fire Alarm System The decision of whether a fire alarm system is required or the type of category should not normally be the responsibility of the designer, customer/installer. The local authorities should take these decisions for enforcing legislation in buildings. With all fire alarm systems there should be an exchange of information and decision process a typical example would be. * Building control officers * Fire authorities * Statuary and insurance requirements When sufficient information and level of category has been obtained then the fire alarm system can be designed. System Design Process/Decision and exchange of information * Purchaser specifies the category of fire alarm system, this would have been provided by the local authorities, if required the designer can propose a category. * System to be designed * Consultation * Any variation of the British Standards to be agreed. * System proposal to be approved by all parties. There are different......

Words: 1655 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Flood of 2008

...include expulsion from Indiana Wesleyan University. The Flood of 2008 June 7, 2008 was a day like no other that Columbus, Indiana residents could recall. Torrential showers inundated the area with 10 inches of rain onto already saturated ground. This event would forever change the lives of hundreds of citizens of this small central Indiana town. The flood caused an estimated $180 million in damage to Bartholomew County homes and businesses, many of them in Columbus (McLaughlin, 2010). This piece details the response efforts of citizens, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. This paper includes the personal account of a law enforcement officer who, working alongside fellow officers, citizens, and business owners, responded to a flash flood that has since been referred to as the hundred year flood. Also included is the recollection of a flood survivor who nearly lost everything he owned. In addition, preventive measures which were in place in the event of such a disaster are evaluated, as are mitigation efforts that are currently coming to fruition. The flooding occurred at such a fast pace there was no time to prepare and there was little, if any, warning for the citizens of Columbus. Even the staff of the Columbus Police Department were unprepared as their building was quickly surrounded by incoming flood waters. In a matter of minutes police cars were literally afloat in the parking area. Flood waters had already swept through residential areas and......

Words: 3350 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Wireless Sensor Network

...Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Usage Ali Raza,Shahid Rasheed & Shazib Javeed University Of Central Punjab Abstract Innovations in industrial, home and automation in transportation represent smart environments. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) provide a new paradigm for sensing and disseminating information from various environments, with the potential to serve many and diverse applications Networks (WSN), where thousands of sensors are deployed at different locations operating in different modes .WSN consists of a number of sensors spread across a geographical area; each sensor has wireless communication capability and sufficient intelligence for signal processing and networking of the data. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are used in variety of fields which includes military, healthcare, environmental, biological, home and other commercial applications. With the huge advancement in the field of embedded computer and sensor technology, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), which is composed of several thousands of sensor nodes which are capable of sensing, actuating, and relaying the collected information, have made remarkable impact everywhere? Key Words Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs) Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Introduction Sensor network is capable of sensing, processing and communicating which helps the base station or command node to observe and react according to the condition in a particular environment......

Words: 2659 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Disaster Planning and Management

...Communications of the IIMA 25 2006 Volume 6 Issue 2 Disaster Planning and Management Holmes E. Miller Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 Kurt J. Engemann Iona College, New Rochelle, NY 10801 Ronald R. Yager Iona College, New Rochelle, NY 10801 ABSTRACT Recent events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, power outages, and the threat of pandemics have highlighted our vulnerability to natural disasters. This vulnerability is exacerbated by many organizations’ increasing dependence on computer, telecommunications, and other technologies, and trends toward integrating suppliers and business partners into everyday business operations. In response many organizations are implementing disaster recovery planning processes. In this paper we discuss how to identify threats and scenarios; how to articulate the disaster recovery strategies; and four elements of the generic disaster recovery plan: Mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. We then provide examples of software that can help disaster recovery professionals in the planning and implementation process. Finally we present some trends that will reinforce the criticality of the issue. Keywords: Disaster Recovery Planning; Business Continuity Planning; Risk Assessment INTRODUCTION Several major natural disasters that have occurred in the past few years have placed disaster management on the front pages: The Tsunami of late 2004, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005 affected......

Words: 7241 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Assessment on Disaster Preparedness

...Research Title: ASSESSMENT OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS IN 8 SELECTED BARANGAYS OF DAGUPAN CITY II. Name of Proponent/ Institution: PIMSAT Colleges III. Address: Bolosan District, Dagupan City, Pangasinan 2400 a. Name and Designation of Faculty/ Researcher Rodrigo P. de Vera, Jr., Ed.D.- Research Leader Members: Rosita Carvajal 3/E Armado Deleňa 2/M Eduardo Poblete Oliver Quinto b. Name of Institution: PIMSAT Colleges c. Name of Head of Institution: Atty. Rebene Carrera IV. Contact Information: 09086548323/ V. Background of the Study Dagupan City is a major urban center in Northern Luzon. It is a sub-regional center for trade and commerce, finance, education and health services of Region 1 ( With a population of 161, 375, it is located along the seacoast and at the eastern margin on the delta of Agno River (Dagupan City Disaster Coordinating Council, 2011). It has a total land area of 4008 hectares with 31 barangays. It lies one meter above sea level and Pantal River flows through the city. This poor elevation of the City makes it more vulnerable to flooding. This geological characteristic of Dagupan is the reason why the City is the catch basin of flood waters from the neighboring towns as there are seven river systems that traverse......

Words: 6639 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning for It Professionals backlist titles in Adobe PDF form. These CDs are the perfect way to extend your reference library on key topics pertaining to your area of expertise, including Cisco Engineering, Microsoft Windows System Administration, CyberCrime Investigation, Open Source Security, and Firewall Configuration, to name a few. DOWNLOADABLE E-BOOKS For readers who can’t wait for hard copy, we offer most of our titles in downloadable Adobe PDF form. These e-books are often available weeks before hard copies, and are priced affordably. SYNGRESS OUTLET Our outlet store at features overstocked, out-of-print, or slightly hurt books at significant savings. SITE LICENSING Syngress has a well-established program for site licensing our e-books onto servers in corporations, educational institutions, and large organizations. Contact us at sales@ for more information. CUSTOM PUBLISHING Many organizations welcome the ability to combine parts of multiple Syngress books, as well as their own content, into a single volume for their own internal use. Contact us at for more information. 443_Disaster_Rec_FM.qxd 5/25/07 3:07 PM Page ii 443_Disaster_Rec_FM.qxd 5/25/07 3:07 PM Page iii Business Continuity & Disaster Recovery for IT Professionals Susan Snedaker, MCSE, MCT 443_Disaster_Rec_FM.qxd 5/25/07 3:07 PM Page iv Elsevier, Inc., the author(s), and any person or firm involved in the......

Words: 189146 - Pages: 757

Free Essay

Nimtoli Fire

... Fire hazard in Dhaka city – case study of Nimtoli fire, 2010 (Addressing issues relating to disaster and poverty) Course no. : 362 Course name: Sociology of Disaster Submitted to: Submitted by: Dr. Mahbuba Nasreen Syeda Novera Anwar Professor Roll – 176, 6th semester Department of Sociology Department of Sociology University of Dhaka. University of Dhaka. Date of Submission : 30th March, 2011  Table of contents 1) Introduction 2) Fire 3) Fire hazard 4) Vulnerable locations for catching fire 5) Causes of fire 6) Some major recent incidents of fire  Fire in BSEC bhaban  Fire in residential buildings at old Dhaka  Fire in garments factory  Bashundhara city fire  Slum fire 7) Loss and sufferings due to fire  Loss of life and property  Psychological problems  Losing job  Traffic congestion 8) Fire fighting services  Fire service and civil defense  Its aim  Motto  Objective  Role  Activities 9) Fire fighting method 10) Priority of evacuation 11) Fire brigade’s...

Words: 8871 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

The History and Evolution of the Fire Service

...power of fire, he has been trying to control it. From a single bucket wielding man to a complex well trained and organized team have been working on controlling and suppressing fire for millennia’s. Many simple and complex tools have been developed to help in the control and suppression of fire. Organized fire brigades can be dated back to the earliest civilizations because of the fear of fire and the damage that it can cause. Many great infrastructures have fallen to the devastation of fire and have taken large groups of dedicated members to control those fires. Over the past century, the fire service has become more than just fire suppression, now these dedicated individuals are trained to rescue people, control hazardous materials, perform fire prevention duties, and attend to the injured. Many people think that the fire service is a fairly modern idea due to the industrial revolution. Some researchers have said that firefighting was first started and organized in ancient Egypt. There is evidence of firefighting machinery was used in Ancient Egypt, including a water pump that was developed by Ctesibius of Alexandria in the third century BC which was later improved upon in a design by Hero of Alexandria in the first century BC. One of the first well documented fire brigade or suppression team was the ones of the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Augustus is credited with instituting a corps of fire-fighting "watchmen" in 24 BC. Regulations for checking and preventing fires......

Words: 11715 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

Acceptability of a Low-Cost Medical Diagnostic Test System in Philippine Barangay Health Centers

...Recoletos de Bacolod Graduate PhD-Business Management University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Bacolod City Business Research NAME: Evans B. Sansolis Acceptability of a Low-Cost Medical Diagnostic Test System in Philippine Barangay Health Centers CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Project Context The Philippines is a third world country wherein a large number of its citizens living in urban and rural areas subsist below the poverty line. Millions of people are unemployed, and countless citizens earn an income below Php 5,000 a month. In fact, a lot of families in the country have been struggling to survive. According to the book, "Poverty in the Philippines" published by Asian Development Bank, "Economic growth has gone through boom and bust cycles, and recent episodes of moderate economic expansion have had limited impact on the poor. Great inequality across income brackets, regions, and sectors, as well as unmanaged population growth is considered some of the key factors constraining poverty reduction efforts.” This idea tells us that a lot of families in the country are suffering from extreme poverty which eventually affects their health and medical needs. Thus, our government is lacking in an adequate, systematic, elaborate collection and storage of medical data for our underprivileged countrymen. In light of this, open-source hardware that is open for modification can easily be converted to form a new machine, gadget, or instrument, wherein its hardware......

Words: 2426 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Schizophrenia Symptoms and Early Detection

...Schizophrenia Symptoms and Early Detection RUNNING HEAD: SCHIZOPHRENIA EARLY DETECTION Abstract Schizophrenia is a chronic, serve and disabling brain disorder that affects all domains of life about one percent of the population (Shioiri, Shinada, Kuwabara, & Someya, 2007; Insel, 2009; Martinez et al., 2011). It affects both men and woman starting at the age of 15 (Yeo, Berzins,& Addington, 2007; Insel, 2009). Looking at the three categorizes of symptoms: positive, negative, and cognitive; With the four phase or stages: prodromal, active, remission, and relapse and how they correlate with each other, there is the possibility of begin able to help find a way to be more accurate in the way of early detections of not only Schizophrenia but other psychiatry diseases. The amount of time it takes for the disease to be detected is important for the recovery of the individual and also the friends and family of the individual. The longer we wait the harder it is for the individual to control their symptoms. It all comes down to the more that we know, the more we can help (Insel, 2009). Schizophrenia Symptoms and Early Detection Schizophrenia is a chronic, serve and disabling brain disorder that affects about one percent of the population (Shioiri, Shinada, Kuwabara, & Someya, 2007; Insel, 2009). It affects both men and woman starting at the age of 15 (Yeo, Berzins,& Addington, 2007; Insel, 2009). Even though it is shown that there is a link in the genetics of...

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Research Paper on Safety Measures for Electrical Fire

...Consumer fire safety: European statistics and potential fire safety measures Versie: 431N8032/3.0, January 2009 This research study has been commissioned by the Consumer Council at the Austrian Standards Institute and was funded by the Austrian Ministry for Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. Netherlands Institute for Safety Nibra P.O. Box 7010 6801 HA Arnhem The Netherlands T +31 (0)26 355 24 00 F +31 (0)26 351 50 51 Consumer fire safety: European statistics and potential fire safety measures This research study has been commissioned by the Consumer Council at the Austrian Standards Institute and was funded by the Austrian Ministry for Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. Netherlands Institute for Safety Nibra: We develop expertise, contribute towards the professional development of the fire service, medical assistance in accidents and disasters and crisis management, and thereby enhance physical safety. Consumer fire safety: European statistics and potential fire safety measures Colophon Client: Contact: Title: Consumer Council, Austrian Standards Institute Heinestrasse 38, 1020 Vienna, Austria Dr. F. Fiala Consumer fire safety:European statistics and potential fire safety measures January 2009 Final report 3.0 431N8032 M. Kobes, MSc, BBE, MIFireE K. Groenewegen - Ter Morsche, MSc Dr. M.G. Duyvis Dr. J.G. Post (Head of the Research Department NIFV) Date: Status: Version: Project number: Authors: Project leader:...

Words: 19880 - Pages: 80