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Cwt - Organizational Culture

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CWT - Carlson Wagonlit Travel

1 – Introdução.............................................................................................................03

2 – Visão geral da empresa........................................................................................04

3 – Avaliando a Cultura Organizacional da companhia.............................................07

6 – Sugestões de Aperfeiçoamento...........................................................................09

Introdução

Este trabalho descreve de forma sucinta os aspectos culturais de uma multinacional do segmento de viagens de negócios, líder global presente em mais de 150 países, que cresceu durante sua história através de aquisições e fusões em todas as regiões do mundo.
Analisaremos a evolução cronológica, bem como os fatos mais relevantes e seus respectivos impactos tanto negativos quanto positivos na organização. Focaremos na unidade do Brasil que possui atualmente 800 colaboradores.
A companhia está estruturada em quatro linhas de negócios; resumidamente atuam no dia a dia junto aos viajantes e solicitantes com reservas e emissões de bilhetes aéreos, bem como vouchers terrestres; no gerenciamento do budget de viagens junto ao time de compras de seus clientes; medidas e recomendações para minimizar os riscos dos viajantes e otimizar a segurança; e gerenciamento de grupos & eventos.
Por se tratar de uma intermediação da contratação de serviços entre os clientes (empresas e todos seus funcionários que viajam, solicitam ou gerenciam viagens) e fornecedores (companhias aéreas, hotéis, locadoras de veículos, dentre outros), muitas vezes a companhia se depara com contingências que estão fora do seu controle e isso gera um alto nível de stress nos seus colaboradores, originados pela pressão intensa dos clientes.

Visão Geral da Empresa

A Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) é uma empresa global líder de mercado, especializada no gerenciamento de viagens de negócios. Seu início se deu por volta de 1872 com a comercialização de passes de trem na Europa, os Wagons Lits – Orient Express. Anos depois, a Carlson Travel Network (americana) que tinha o foco em viagens de negócios se funde com a Companie Des Wagons Lits (francesa), nascendo a Carlson Wagonlit Travel.
Em 1936 a empresa chega ao Brasil seguindo o ritmo de expansão em outras regiões do mundo. Aquisições e fusões são os recursos utilizados, inclusive no Brasil, onde depois de seguidas movimentações, assumiu a liderança de mercado em 1998, mantendo-se na mesma posição até os dias de hoje. Em uma aquisição no ano de 1995 o dono da pequena agência que se fundiu com a CWT, assumiu a presidência da companhia, mantendo-se no cargo até o ano de 2006.
No final dos anos 90 a empresa mantinha-se em uma posição muito favorável e seus executivos tinham no DNA um pouco do glamour europeu, das viagens de trem no mais puro requinte, e isso gerava status no mercado brasileiro. Atuava com altas taxas de comissionamento de companhias aéreas, hotéis e locadores de veículos dentre outros. A gestão era totalmente centralizada e a grande parte dos lucros era dividida entre a presidência e diretoria. A parte destinada ao resto da estrutura de cargos era muito inferior.
Em 2001, o ataque às torres gêmeas em Nova Iorque afeta como nunca o setor de viagens, em particular a CWT, desencadeando uma crise que impactou a todos que atuavam neste mercado. O volume de viagens começou a cair drasticamente e o modelo de negócio começou a ficar insustentável, pois uma remuneração que era originada pelo volume de viagens dos seus clientes e repassada através de comissões pelos fornecedores começa a cair de forma agressiva. Além disso, os fornecedores começam um movimento de redução de comissões.
Diante deste cenário, a CWT começa a mudar sua postura e negociar novos modelos de precificação com seus clientes de forma pioneira no mercado para conseguir se sustentar perante a crise, essas renegociações porém, levam muitos clientes a ir para a concorrência. O CEO mantinha-se na postura de compartilhar informação somente com seus diretores e decidia tudo diretamente com os acionistas. Os rumores internos começam a se intensificar, políticas de corte são aplicadas na forma de percentuais por departamento, clientes começam a deixar a empresa gerando um efeito dominó e a reputação da companhia começa a ficar abalada.
Em 2006, depois de cinco anos operando no vermelho, com prejuízos subseqüentes, a composição acionária da companhia muda e a mesma passa a pertencer a dois grupos americanos. Neste momento a empresa deixa o seu slogan antigo (Local Presence, Global Power), e passa a utilizar “the way business moves”, partindo do princípio que uma empresa presente em mais de 150 países não precisa mencionar que é global, basta mover-se de acordo com os rumos que tomam os negócios de seus clientes. Inicia-se então uma proximidade muito maior do time executivo mundial junto a todos os países mais importantes de cada região.
Na composição acionária anterior, particularmente no Brasil, O Grupo Accor era sócio majoritário e o reporte do CEO era direto ao acionista do país. Desta forma a companhia no mundo já se movimentava com uma diretriz global e o Brasil tinha autonomia para seguir fora deste contexto, mesmo com resultados ruins. O apoio estratégico dava-se por outras relações que aconteciam entre as marcas do grupo, por exemplo, a CWT direcionava sempre que possível todo o seu volume de diárias aos hotéis da Rede Accor.
A empresa adotava estratégias que ajudavam no curto prazo, mas manchavam a reputação e os resultados posteriormente, gerando uma constante incerteza entre os colaboradores. Uma estratégia adotada foi a de trazer volume de clientes a qualquer custo e depois renegociar os contratos. O resultado desta ação foi que os clientes chegavam à mesma intensidade que saiam. Além disso, o clima organizacional estava cada vez pior, os consultores de viagens (chão de fábrica da agência de viagens) vivenciavam um ambiente totalmente incerto e desigual. Os bônus dos top managers mantinham-se nos mesmos patamares, enquanto cortes e pressões excessivas por produtividade aconteciam na área operacional e de suporte.
Com a mudança acionária, o time executivo global passou a ter plena autonomia sobre o Brasil e a primeira decisão foi a de trocar o comando. O escolhido foi um presidente jovem, que trazia consigo experiências de outros negócios no setor de serviços e uma energia contagiante para todos os colaboradores. Iniciou-se então o turnaround da companhia, logo em 2007 fecha com lucro pela primeira vez nos últimos seis anos. Dentre as diversas ações realizadas, há a criação de uma academia de treinamento para colaboradores, um novo programa de remuneração por metas, participação nos lucros, encontros com líderes duas vezes ao ano, programas de café e almoço com a presidência, intensa comunicação corporativa, renegociação com clientes, adequação dos investimentos em tecnologia, criação de uma área de controle de qualidade e desenvolvimento organizacional.
Ao final de 2007, o CEO responsável pelo turnaround da companhia sai em busca de novos desafios, assumindo a presidência de uma das maiores empresas de tecnologia do mundo. Neste momento, os colaboradores, que estavam no caminho da conquista do tão esperado resultado positivo, começam a se sentir abalados e vêem as mesmas incertezas de anos atrás voltarem. Quem assume o difícil desafio de substituí-lo foi o CFO, que vivenciou integralmente as duas gestões. O trabalho foi continuado, os resultados de 2007 vieram e a companhia vem se mantendo inerte neste patamar desde então. Entretanto hoje, três anos depois, a empresa já aponta alguns sinais claros de falta de alinhamento e comunicação, além da perda de força das iniciativas implementadas no momento de preparação para o turnaround. Existe um comitê de liderança, formado por diretores que estão muito mais focados nos interesses de suas áreas e na operação do negócio, deixando os objetivos da companhia em segundo plano. A arte de liderar não é o foco, os gestores do alto escalão cobram um desempenho autodidata dos colaboradores exercendo extrema pressão e colocando um ambiente de incerteza entre seus liderados.
A companhia já apresenta indícios de fragilidade e miopia organizacional, o turnover vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos dois anos, o diretor de TI acumula a função de comandar o RH, deixando a impressão para toda a empresa que essa função acumulada é secundária.
A academia de treinamento perdeu força e hoje atua de forma modesta, sem grandes contribuições para dia a dia dos colaboradores. Os resultados estão bons, pois a empresa está orientada para isso, porém os valores não são aplicados e nem associados à avaliação de desempenho dos colaboradores. Os valores estão lá, entretanto, não são aplicados.

Avaliando a Cultura Organizacional da CWT

Um dos aspectos que direciona nossa análise é a cultura organizacional global e a nacional, que começaram a conviver juntas a partir de 2006 quando ocorreu a mudança acionária. Antes disso, a gestão da unidade brasileira desconsiderava as características e diretrizes globais, seguindo com um reporte direto ao acionista local. As políticas, normas e valores explicitados pela companhia desconsideravam a diretriz global e eram ditadas pelo presidente local, os valores globais existiam no papel e eram divulgados para todo o mundo, porém não era fomentado no Brasil.
Seguindo essa linha, a contracultura predominava na companhia em virtude de alguns valores do mercado local que conflitavam com os valores globais, além da própria divergência de valores e práticas adotadas pelos próprios colaboradores do Brasil em relação aos valores locais. Após a mudança acionária a empresa passa a ter certa tendência à sub-cultura complementar, onde os valores e pressupostos são aplicados, mas existem outros valores complementares locais, como por exemplo, respeito pelas pessoas, acrescentado pelo comando local e enfatizado pelos colaboradores.
Hoje, pode-se dizer que a formalização ainda é praticada e uma cultura forte seria o próximo passo da companhia, pois não há uma consistência no comportamento dos colaboradores de acordo com os valores da companhia. O grande aumento do turnover mencionado anteriormente é um ponto crítico para justificar uma cultura fraca.
Uma história regada de fusões e aquisições no Brasil, associada a uma diretriz global que era considerada ou não, de acordo com o modelo de gestão adotado pelo comando local, mostrava claramente uma incompatibilidade cultural, além de um demonstrativo financeiro ruim que piorava a situação.
Hoje, apesar de bons resultados e eficiência numa discreta ascendente, os valores existem, mas não são aplicados e também não estão enraizados nas atividades e comportamento diário dos colaboradores. A companhia possui também uma tipologia utilitária, porém com um agravante relacionado à remuneração que não é considerada justa, ou seja, além de criar regras que conflitam a cultura para se proteger perante as outras áreas, os colaboradores desempenham menos que o desejável. Hoje, é possível enxergar um processo evolutivo para uma cultura complementar, no entanto de forma desestruturada. Podemos caracterizar a companhia como uma organização em rede onde a empatia e cuidado com os outros é valorizada e praticada, porém muitas reuniões são feitas para encontrar soluções que não são praticadas, gerando uma divergência entre os discursos e práticas efetivas das ações. As fofocas e rumores estão na famosa “rádio peão”, um caso recente foi o de um gerente que seria demitido e descobriu antes de ser. O fato constatou-se quando o mesmo se dirigiu diretamente ao CEO para exigir explicações e uma posição definitiva sobre sua demissão. A informação vazou pelo próprio líder, comprovando que a origem dos rumores parte até mesmo do alto escalão da companhia. Com relação ao bom humor e relaxamento dos colaboradores, de acordo com a tipologia de Goffee & Jones, o nível de stress da linha de frente da empresa, os consultores de viagens, está muito alto devido à pressão dos viajantes e solicitantes das empresas clientes. A empresa está composta de 80% destas pessoas e um plano efetivo para reverter isso ainda está no papel (característica marcante nas organizações em rede). Desta forma entendemos que a cultura da empresa é caracterizada dentro de algumas tipologias, tendo predominância em rede. Abordamos alguns aspectos que envolvem a liderança e outros membros da companhia, mas entendemos que a prevenção dos pontos negativos e as conseqüências desta variação devem ser promovidas pela liderança, sendo disseminada e incorporada por toda a companhia.

Sugestões de Aperfeiçoamento

Depois de termos feito a análise dos valores e normas da cultura organizacional e seus efeitos nas pessoas, na estrutura, na ética e sua influência na cultura. Iremos citar a seguir as ações que poderiam promover uma mudança e conseqüente melhoria de eficácia para a organização. O passo inicial é uma mudança de atitude, um ambiente favorável para se atingir as metas, não só os resultados e também alguns aspectos do comportamento organizacional.

* Revisar o processo usado para motivar e recompensar os empregados para que possam ser mais bem percebidos e valorizados. Adotar um sistema de avaliação 360º em todos os níveis da organização. * A organização talvez tenha que mudar algumas pessoas, especialmente do nível de top managers. * Alinhar e reforçar a missão, visão e valores da empresa de maneira global, fazer avaliações e correções de desvios e de condutas quando necessário. * Reforçar o papel e a importância do setor de RH para a organização, já que este é o responsável pelo ativo mais importante da empresa, as pessoas. Como política de longo prazo estabelecer um plano de carreira e incentivar o desenvolvimento dos colaboradores com follow-up dos superiores imediatos. Realizar um coaching dos líderes. * Incentivar o papel da inovação como ferramenta para atingir melhores resultados para a organização, fazendo forte comunicação neste sentido e recompensando os colaboradores que tiverem participação ativa neste processo. * Atrelar resultados entre diversas áreas para desenvolvimento do trabalho em equipe e assim melhorar a visão de resultados para a organização como um todo. * O departamento de RH deve ter controle do quadro de colaboradores com bom potencial a se tornarem futuros gestores. Desenvolver projetos para utilizá-los em times, mesclando pessoas de diversos departamentos da organização para que procurem soluções novas a alguns problemas da empresa e desenvolvam uma melhor visão e conhecimento do negócio. * Retomar a importância dos treinamentos revitalizando o papel da Academia de Treinamento. Focar no desenvolvimento dos colaboradores para melhorar suas habilidades. Se for preciso utilizar de consultorias externas especializadas. * Disponibilizar um canal mundial em que os colaboradores possam fazer sugestões e darem novas idéias a qualquer setor da organização. Ampliar este canal para permitir que os colaboradores também façam denúncias de comportamentos não condizentes com os valores e normas da organização. * Incluir no programa de remuneração por metas algumas métricas para medir o comportamento organizacional dos colaborados, não se restringindo somente à avaliação de resultados.…...

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...Organizational culture is considered a product and a process. Discuss organizational culture as a product and a process. Which concept do you favourand why ? Foe an organizational culture exist few definitions, on the other hand some sources write, that define this concept is quite issue and questionable thing. Based on the BUSINESS DICTIONARY Organizational culture includes an organization's expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid. I prefer the easiest definition from ROBBIE KATAGNA and it is: “Culture is how organizations ‘do things”. That is right that longer definitions seems professionally but this sentence is very illustrative. For example Germans do thing different than Italians. Why? Because it is their culture and they grew up in it. The status that I now mentioned means, that culture is product. People are accustomed to do something and if they behave different way, they are often branded as special or abnormal. From the society is expected any type of behavior and therefore we can describe it as culture product of a company. ALEC HAVERSTICK. On the other hand organizational culture can be also defined like a process of “sense-making” . Sense-making has been defined as “a......

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Organizational Culture

...paper examines the growing phenomenon of organizational culture. What is it? Why is it important? How has it changed and why? How can an organization establish or change their culture? I hope to answer all of these questions and leave people with a better understanding of the concept and what factors create a strong organizational culture in today’s workforce. What is Organizational Culture? Organizational culture is not a new concept. It has been in existence since the emergence of the business world. However, it is only relatively recently that it has been identified, and executives have taken notice and made it a priority. The culture of an organization can be compared to the personality of a human being (Chegini, 2010). Culture is the essence of what an organization represents, who they are, what they stand for, what they believe in, and what is important to them. One of the better, and simpler, definitions of organizational culture I found is “the shared values and assumptions that guide behavior in an organization” (Çakar, 2010). The fundamentals of corporate culture can include a company’s values, employee expectations, customs, factual or mythical organizational history, language, climate, etc. In some cases, organizational culture is designed and employees are encouraged and expected to achieve it. On the other hand, culture may also develop over time from the attitudes and mentalities of employees. An organizational vision and mission statement may......

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Organizational Culture

...Organizational Culture A discussion will be conducted on irrational and rational decision making. The terms will be defined and an explanation will be given on how organizational culture impacts a leader’s psychological processes when attempting to diagnose organizational problems. An organization problem will be identified and discussed in related to differences in cultural perspective. A description of the issue and the cultural perspectives that have caused tension will be addressed. Based on the research a recommendation will be given on how leader’s individual organizational members give voice to their cultural perspectives in a way that helps the leader make better decisions to achieve organizational mission and vision. An explanation of the recommendations and action steps that will help leaders make higher quality decisions based on what was discussed will be given. Robbin and Judge discusses the rational decision making model that should be followed to make sound decisions, but has found out the model is not followed by leaders. Robbin and Judge (2011) state “rational decision making model relies on a number of assumptions, including that the decision maker has complete information, is able to identify all the relevant options in a unbiased manner, and chooses the option with the highest utility (p. 178).” “Irrational decision making is without the faculty of reason; deprived of reason (Dictionary, 2011, par. 1).” Irrational decision making is usually......

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Organizational Culture

...Team-Working Comparison of Organizational Structure and Design Comparison of Cultures Conclusion Bibliography Introduction The business organizations in today’s modern world are considered as significant and important sub-groups which are present in our society and they function with their own organizational structure differently, concerning business, healthcare, political, economic and social conditions. (Deal, 1990) They have some specific missions, problems, duties, market, and the services provided in a society, and distinction in their problems and duties makes their unique subgroups. The organizations are constituted with various teams allocated with specific functions to increase productivity in their organization. Thus, it becomes necessary for effective teamwork work to increase and improve all organization. Speaking, “that total of parts is more than whole" is applied to any organization, because if part of team or whole team is collapsed then whole organization suffers. As such it becomes important for an assessment of collective work and organizational structure of the company or the business organization. (Cox, 2000) This article considers estimates and compares organizational structures and characteristics of two given companies. This article will compare and estimate organizational structure, culture and design of the organizations, concerning theories and concepts of teams and their organizational......

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