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Comm 218 - Week1 Worksheet

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Communicating Effectively Worksheet

Answer the following questions, using information from this week’s readings. Respond to each question in 100 to 200 words.

1. Briefly explain the five choices speakers can make. How do these elements determine a speech’s success or failure? The five choices a speaker can make are invention, arrangement, style, delivery and memory. Invention provides the guiding principle for developing the context of a speech. While researching the topic of the presentation, decisions will be made on what should and should not be included in the speech to support the thesis based on the audience. Arrangement is the shaping of the gathered information within a presentation to ensure a continuous flow between the introduction, body and conclusion of the speech. Style defines the way the presentation is conveyed to the audience, like changing the tone, speed and emphasize of certain words within a speech to create an emotional connection with the audience. Delivery is the way the speech is being presented, which can entail the effective use of tone, expression, movement, as well as audible and visual aids. Memory is ensuring that all key points have been addresses in the speech. Nowadays most speakers either use a presentation outline to ensure flow of the presentation, as it is very unprofessional to jump from main point to main point without any transitional statements between the main supporting data; or they read a written script which can sometimes sound a little monotone and lack in style.

2. What role does the delivery method (e.g. online, video conferencing, face-to-face, conference room) play in constructing a presentation? The delivery method will change depending on how the presentation. If the presentation will be held online, the presenter has the opportunity to pre-record the presentation and review it over and over to perfect his speech as well as ensure the predefined timeline is being meet. During a video conferencing it will be harder for the presenter to observe physical responses from the audience, which would have allowed the presenter to make impromptu changes to his presentation to better connect with the audience. Therefor the presenter has to utilize his voice (tone, enunciation, pitch) to convey the message. During a face-to-face presentation, prior research could have been performed on the targeted individual to customize the speech to the desires and interests of the individual, which cannot be done during a presentation in a conference room as most likely the audience will have more diverse interests.

3. What is the difference between hearing and listening? What are some strategies you could employ to improve your listening skills? What does it mean to listen critically? Even though hearing and listening are often used interchangeably, there is a vital difference between the both. Hearing is physical ability to observe sound waves which the brain creates an auditory association with. Whereas listing is the conscious choice that demands attention and concentration. It is important to remember that great hearing skills is not the same as great listening skills, as individuals have the ability to “tune-out” any noise that causes boredom. In example, most likely you are hearing your spouse ranting to you for hours about his day, but probably stopped listening after the first 10 minutes.

4. What are the parts of a speech? Describe the role each part plays in an effective presentation.

Each speech should consist of the following three parts – introduction, body and conclusion. The introduction is opening to a speech which should entail the thesis as well as an attention grabber to get the interest of the audience and direct them towards your main idea of the speech. The body of the speech should list targeted supporting material that will prove the thesis. Supporting material can come from own experience, narratives, facts or opinions (careful about using options as those cannot be verified). The conclusion could be a brief summary of the arguments to reemphasis the thesis, as well as provide a finality to the speech.

5. What are some ways to use your voice and body effectively when giving an oral presentation? In which areas do you need to improve? During a presentation the audience needs to understand the presenter clearly. The voice of nervous presenters might begin to tremble are crack, they might even start to mumble, stutter or uncontrollably cough. Voice control even in nerve-wrecking situations can tremendously improve the outcome of the presentation. A confident sounding presenters come across as convincing and trust worthy. Voice aspects that can be utilized to influence a presentation are: - Volume - - Pitch - Enunciation - Pronunciation - Speed Body language can be used to speak with greater power influence the audience. When standing during a presentation prevent yourself from wandering or even pacing but move with a purpose, make short gestures that intensify a main points; positive gestures should be directed towards the audience signifying a positive outcome to the audience, whereas negative gestured should be directed away from the presenter as well as the audience to indicate that the presenter is disapproving. Facial expressions to further emphasize certain aspects of a speech.…...

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