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Chemical Bonding Lewis Structures and Shapes of Molecules and Ions

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Group # 3
201210135 Group Members: Chanelle Leach
CH 112L-03 Kevion Young
General Chemistry II Lab Zakita Jones
February 25, 2014 –March 25, 2014

Labs # 3 and 4
Title: Chemical Bonding Lewis Structures and Shapes of Molecules and Ions

References/Tools: 1. Chapter 9: Models of Chemical Bonding 2. Chapter 10: The Shapes of Molecules 3. The Modern Periodic Table 4. Electron Configuration (SPDF notation, Orbital diagram), Lewis Symbols, Lewis Structures, Molecular Formulas, and Molecular Diagrams 5. Ion and Molecules, Tetrahedral Geometry (109 degrees) , Planar Geometry (120 degrees), and Linear geometry (180 degrees) 6. Page 279 7. VESPR Theory (Chapter 10) (Valence Electrons Pair Repulsion Theory)

Objective: To learn and study about chemical bonding, chemical formulas, Lewis structures, bond angles, geometry and shapes of molecules and molecular ions.

Definitions/Concepts/Theories/Formulas
Chapter 9 1. Ionic Bonding- the complete transfer of valence electrons between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the non-metal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion. 2. Covalent Bonding- a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding. 3. Metallic Bonding- the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei of metal atoms and the delocalized electrons in the metal. 4. Lewis Dot Electron Symbol- a simplistic way of representing the electrons in molecules. This theory also helped to define formal charge and resonance. 5. Octet Rule- a chemical rule of thumb that states that atoms of low (<20) atomic number tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas. 6. Covalent Bond-a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding. 7. Bonding (Shared) Pair- an electron pair shared by two nuclei. 8. Lone Pair-an electron pair that is a part of an atom’s valence level but not a part of the covalent bonding. 9. Bond Order- The number of electron pairs shared by two bonded atoms. 10. Single Bond-A bond that consists of one electron pair. 11. Double Bond- A covalent bond that consists of two electron pairs. 12. Triple bond- A covalent bond that consists of three bonding pairs. 13. Electronegativity- The relative ability of a bonded atom to attract shared electrons. 14. Polar Covalent Bond- A covalent bond in which the electron pair is shared unequally so, the bond has partially negative poles and positive poles. 15. Non- Polar Covalent Bond- A covalent bond between identical atoms such that the electron pair is shared equally.
Chapter 10 16. Lewis Structure- a structural formula consisting of electron dot symbols, with lines as bonding pairs and dots as lone pairs. 17. Resonance Structure- One of the two or more Lewis structures that cannot be adequately depicted by a single structure. 18. VESPR Theory- A model explaining the shapes of molecules an ions resulting from the minimizing electron pair repulsions around a central atom. 19. Molecular Shape- The three-dimensional structure determined by the relative positions of the atomic nuclei in a molecule. 20. Bond Angle- The angle formed by the nuclei of two surrounding atoms with the nucleus of the central atom at the vertex. 21. Linear Arrangement- the geometric arrangement attained when two electron groups maximize their separation around a central atom. 22. Linear Shape- A molecular shape formed by three atoms lying in a straight line, with a bond angle of 180 degrees. 23. Trigonal Planar Arrangement- The geometric arrangement formed when three electron groups maximize their separation around a central atom. 24. Bent Shape (V-Shape)- A molecular shape that arises when a central atom is bonded to two other atoms and has one or more lone pairs. 25. Tetrahedral Arrangement- the geometric arrangement formed when four electron groups maximize their separation around a central atom 26. Equatorial Group- An atom or group that lies in the Trigonal plane of a trigonal bipyramidal molecule, or a similar structure feature in a molecule. 27. Axial Group- Am atom or group that lies above or below the Trigonal plane of a trigonal bipyramidal molecule, or a similar structure feature in a molecule. 28. See Saw Shape- A molecular shape caused by the presence of one equatorial lone pair in a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement 29. T shape- A molecular shape caused by the presence of two equatorial lone pairs in a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement. 30. Octahedral Arrangement- The geometric arrangement obtained when all six electron groups maximize their space around a central atom. 31. Square Pyramidal Shape-A molecular shape caused by the presence of a lone pair in an octahedral arrangement. 32. Square Planar Shape-A molecular shape caused by the presence of two lone pairs at opposite vertices in an octahedral arrangement. 33. Molecular Polarity- The overall distribution of electronic charge in a molecule, determined by its shape and bond polarity.…...

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