Free Essay

Chem 1020

In: Science

Submitted By amccombs
Words 2625
Pages 11
Human and Animal Sex Pheromones

A pheromone is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting outside the body of the secreting individual to impact the behavior of the receiving individual. When secreted by an individual into the environment, it can cause a specific reaction in other individuals, usually of the same species. The term “pheromone” was introduced by Peter Karlson, a German biochemist and Martin Luscher, a Swiss entomologist in 1959 based on the Greek word pherein--to transport hormone--to stimulate. Pheromones are sometimes classified as ecto-horomones. These chemical messengers are transported outside of the body and result in a direct developmental effect on hormone levels or behavioral

change. The primary function of these chemical signals is to attract members of the opposite sex of the same species for the purpose of mating. This pheromone communication has been extensively studied in animals. But in recent years research has been applied to higher level organisms such as humans. Human pheromones put out signals that naturally affect human attraction. Most sex pheromones are produced by the females and a small percentage of sex attractants are produced by males. The newest research has shown that not only do these human pheromones exist, but they are gender specific: heterosexual men and woman and homosexual men respond differently to them. The desire to attract the opposite sex is a universal want. Human beings have the need to mate and reproduce, and that is why it is important to send out the message that could attract a possible mate. Female pheromones are regarded as one of the best tools for the female species to attract a possible mate.

According to scientist, females, regardless of their species can send out a message via the female hormones to let the males know that they are ready for reproduction. Pheromones are natural scents, which play an important role in sexual communications. Animals and humans release masses of biological chemicals in tears, saliva, and perspiration, better known as human sweat. The underarm hair is a trap and carrier for pheromones. The more pheromones there are, the more attractive you are to the opposite sex. The only catch is that you may stink a little, but it’s undeniable that you’re getting the attention of your potential mate at a hormone level. Many people complain about armpit hair because it is unsightly and causes body odor and it can be considered the smelliest part of the body when not maintained. The key is to get the underarm hair trimmed and maintained and bathe regularly, because you want to attract your mate with you pheromones, not overwhelm them and run them away. The pheromone detector in human which is different from other smell receptors is called the vomeronasal organ and it is located in the base of the septum of the nose and is strongly believed to play a large role in the reception of volatiles or smelling. Through this organ it has been observed that certain compounds can be perceived. This in turn results in a signal being sent to the brain, where it is received in the olfactory bulb, and a receptor site for odors. the vomeronasal organ is a chemoreceptor organ which is completely separated from the nasal cavity and is enclosed in a separate bony capsule which opens into the base of the nasal cavity. It is a tubular crescent shape and split into two pairs separated by the nasal septum. This organ is also sometimes known as the “sixth sense,” also called the Jacobson’s organ. Specialized nerve pathways now known as the “Nerve O” lead from the Vomeronasal organ and run directly to the limbic region of the brain. Laboratory tests show

that pheromones trigger powerful signals directly to the limbic region of the brain and are also known as the “seat of emotions.” This region of the brain is not directly connected to reason or cognitive thought patterns, rather it controls our emotions and sexual desire. The stimulating feeling that is experienced from pheromones can be quiet powerful. When sexual and romantic feelings overwhelm us, our brains release a chemical called phenethylamine, which in turn kicks on dopamine production and the next thing you know fireworks begin. Prior to 1986, the world’s leading vermeronasal scientist could not concur on the existence of human pheromones. After that period, scientist at the Chemical Senses Centre in Philadelphia and its counterpart in France discovered what they came to realize are human pheromones. These scientists isolated a pure pheromone compound called Androstenone, a steroid found in both male and female

urine and sweat. The primary male pheromone or hormone that men unknowingly secrete that attracts a woman. Due to evolution, men only secrete this pheromone when they sweat. This is an unpleasant way to meet a woman. What is ironic is, whenever we showed we clean off our own natural pheromone. When we put on deodorant, we actually clog and mask the pores Androstenone secrets from our sweat glands. Humans are of course animals, and produce the same class of aromas. Although, often smells that occur in human seat are not rank body odor, which is generally accepted to be the result of bacterial degradation of our sweat secretions. Furthermore they do not have to be consciously perceived to affect the recipient as they have been shown to affect our behavior when used at subconscious levels. Due to social and hygiene standards adopted by the human race, some considerable interference with nature

has resulted. Pheromones are casualties in the bathroom, they fall victim to deodorants, antiperspirants, antiseptics, etc, and in fact man has used science to deprive himself of this primary attraction to the opposite, pheromones. Man having rid himself of his natural sexual messengers, he then dons after-shaves, colognes and other fragrant adornments in order to exude a fragrance, which he believes, will effectively attract females. The modern female certainly enjoys a pleasant aroma and it would be ludicrous to suggest that a sexually mature male should revert back to nature and cease the use of toiletries In order to redress the situation; we have reproduced a complex form of the most important human pheromones, Androstenone. It has been incorporated into compatible modern masculine fragrances, thus enabling the user to apply at the biological attractants which ensue a positive female response to his presence. These modern fragrances are called synthetic human hormones. They come in forms of pills, sprays, and topical ointments and they can be found in stores and are expected when used to enhance sexual attraction in humans. For decades perfumes have sought to produce and attractant effect by offering compounds made from animal musk’s derived from the Civet cat and Deer. The aroma of Androstenone seems to be the very essence of aggression or dominance in man. A criminal pathologist found in a survey of a prison population, that it was the people in the violent wing and the prison warden were naturally high secretors of it. The value of Androstenone is reflected in its open market price. It is a very expensive item. Scientist has shown in clinical experiments that male human pheromones trigger a subconscious biological sexual response in women. Pheromones are order less and consciously undetectable to the human nose, but because women have a naturally better defined

sense of smell they subconsciously pick up male human pheromones right away and become instantly sexually attracted to the wearer or the bearer of these pheromones. Male human pheromones open the door of attraction and sexuality with any woman. Women will not know that you have them on, but subconsciously these human male pheromones will communicate you are sexually attractive and stimulate sexual desire in them. Sometimes males and females meet and have this unbelievable chemistry, it doesn’t happen very often, but these are pheromones at work. There is a pheromone chemical message of sex sent out to woman that makes them crave and desire you and want to get to know you. A man’s eye contact with a woman will double and women will generally gather around your vicinity and not even known why. Scientific research and studies done on Androstenone are very extensive and have been going on

for over 20 years. Researchers at the University of Kentucky discovered women exposed to pictures of men that was sprayed with the mail human pheromone Androstenone found these pictures of those men more sexually attractive than pictures of men that were not sprayed with pheromones. These scientists concluded that pheromones might explain why people often decided as soon as they meet someone that they like or dislike the person. Researchers have shown in clinical experiments male human pheromones trigger a subconscious sexual response in women. In one study, this pheromone was sprayed on a chair in a dentist’s waiting room. The other chairs were not sprayed. It was found women were more likely to sit in the chair that was sprayed with the pheromone then men. Sales people have found pheromones to have advantages in their dealing with customers. Older people seem to enjoy its effects and notice subtle differences in other people’s behavior towards them.

It quite simply influences where men and women sit--women are attracted to chairs sprayed with it and mend tend to avoid them. Furniture companies have been known to use it in their showrooms to attract attention to a difficult to sell couches and chairs. Men apply it to themselves in business to gain additional respect, thereby appearing more domineering or intimidating. Patented for improving debt collection by spraying the final demands-not only do more people pay up, they also pay quicker. A man may think that he is attracting more women because he is feeling more confident wearing this pheromone. This is not the case. Men attract more women because this pheromone cologne is backed with a high concentration pheromone that has been proven over years to attract women and it does. The power of pheromones has been featured in every single major publication, newspaper, national

magazine, adult magazine, and television magazine, such as 20/20, Dateline, New York Times, Discovery, Hustler and medical journals. Pheromones have made such a media splash that two major talk shows dedicated their entire program to this very subject.

c19h28o

Systematic (IUPAC) name phenylethan-2-amine

In animals, sex pheromones indicate the availability of the female for breeding. Male animals may also emit pheromones that convey information about their species and genotype. At the microscopic level, male copepods can follow a three-dimensional pheromone trail left by a swimming female, and male gametes of many animals use a pheromone to help find a female gamete, for fertilization. Many insect species release sex pheromones to attract a mate, and any lepidopterans (moths and butterflies) can detect a potential mate from as far away as 10 kilometers (6.25 mi). Traps containing pheromones are used by farmers to detect and monitor insect populations in orchards. Pheromones are also used in the detection of oestrus in sows. Boar pheromones are sprayed into the sty, and those shows that exhibit sexual arousal are known to be currently available for breeding. Sea urchins release pheromones into the surrounding

water, sending a chemical message that triggers other urchins in the colony to eject their sex cells simultaneously. Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behavior among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum. The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles, and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys, and apes. An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the foetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs, and V3Rs). All are G protein-coupled receptors but are only distantly

related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role.
When it comes to animals there are physical limits on the practical size of organisms employing pheromones, because at small sizes pheromone diffuses away from the source organism faster than it can be produced, and a sensible concentration accumulates too slowly to be useful. So bacteria are too small to use pheromones as sex attractants but do use them to determine the local population density of similar organisms and control behaviors that take more time to execute (quorum sensing). In similar manner, the simple animals rotifers are, it appears, also too small for females to lay down a useful trail, but in the slightly-larger copepods the female leaves a trail that the male can follow. When it comes to aggression the pheromones function in defense against predators, mate selection, and overcoming host resistance by mass

attack. A group of individuals at one location is referred to as an aggregation, whether consisting of one sex or both sexes. Male-produced sex attractants have been called aggregation pheromones, because they usually result in the arrival of both sexes at a calling site, and increase the density of conspecifics surrounding the pheromone source. Most sex pheromones are produced by the females and small percentage of sex attractants are produced by males. Aggregation pheromones have been found in members of the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Dictyoptera and Orthoptera. In recent decades, the importance of applying aggregation pheromones in the management of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), stored product weevils (Sitophilus zeamais), Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus oryzae, and pea and bean weevil (Sitona lineatus) has been demonstrated. Aggregation pheromones are among the most ecologically selective pest suppression methods. They are nontoxic and

effective at very low concentrations. Some species release a volatile substance when attacked by a predator that can trigger flight (in aphids) or aggression (in ants, bees, termites) in members of the same species. Pheromones also exist in plants: Certain plants emit alarm pheromones when grazed upon, resulting in tannin production in neighboring plants. These tannins make the plants less appetizing for the herbivore. Epideictic pheromones are different from territory pheromones, when it comes to insects. Fabre observed and noted how "females who lay their eggs in these fruits deposit these mysterious substances in the vicinity of their clutch to signal to other females of the same species they should clutch elsewhere." Releaser pheromones are pheromones that cause an alteration in the behavior of the recipient. For example, some organisms use powerful attractant molecules to attract mates from a distance of two miles or more. In general, this type of pheromone elicits a rapid response, but is quickly degraded. In contrast, a primer pheromone has a slower onset and a longer duration. For example, rabbit (mothers) release mammary pheromones that trigger immediate nursing behavior by their babies. Signal pheromones cause short-term changes, such as the neurotransmitter release that activates a response. For instance, GnRH molecule functions as a neurotransmitter in rats to elicit lordosis behavior. Primer pheromones trigger a change of developmental events (in which they differ from all the other pheromones, which trigger a change in behavior). Laid down in the environment, territorial pheromones mark the boundaries of an organism's territory. In cats and dogs, these hormones are present in the urine, which they deposit on landmarks serving to mark the perimeter of the claimed territory. In social seabirds, the preen gland is used to mark nests, nuptial gifts, and territory boundaries with behavior formerly described as 'displacement activity'.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Chem

...PART A 1. Nuclear fission produces energy when energy is released from the breaking or splitting apart a large nucleus in smaller ones (breaks apart the nucleus). The total mass of the reactants is slightly more than the total mass of the products. 2. Nuclear reactors produce electricity from by using the heat from radioactive materials (fission reaction) to convert water into steam into a container that has fuel and the water. The water is then pumped through another container which has water to avoid the radioactive water coming in contact with the turbine. The heat from the primary water is used by the secondary water and water is then again, converted into steam. The secondary water is used to run the turbine generator to produce the electricity. The different components of a nuclear power plant are containment structure which houses the control rods, fuel rods, primary coolant, steam generator, pump and reactor vessel. When the steam flows out to the containment structure is passes through turbines, the condenser, condensate, secondary coolant and pump. From the condenser, warm water is pushed through to the cooling tower, then back to the body of water (water source). From the body of water, cooling water is passed through to the pump to carry it to the containment structure. From the turbine, steam is passed through generator, to release electricity for use. 3. The similarities between nuclear power plants and nuclear bombs are that they are......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chem

...Participation Participate in class discussion 3 of 7 days with at least 2 substantive posts on each of the three days. 2 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. DQ1:Wed DQ2:Sat 2 Nongraded Activities and Preparation Complete the Equation Editor tutorial and Virtual ChemLab Tutorial located on your student website. Individual Text Exercises, Part I Resources: Equation Editor tutorial Prepare written answers to the following assignments from Introductory Chemistry: • Exercise 20 in Ch. 1 • Exercise 120 in Ch. 2 • Exercise 112 in Ch. 3 • Exercise 120 in Ch. 4 • Exercise 100 in Ch. 5 • Exercise 126 in Ch. 6 • Exercise 116 in Ch. 7 • Exercise 100 in Ch. 8 Submit the assignment, as directed by your facilitator. Friday 5 Individual Virtual ChemLab Assignment 2-4 Access and view the Virtual ChemLab Tutorial, located on the student website. Complete 2-4: Precipitation Reactions from Virtual ChemLab: General Chemistry Laboratories, located on the student website. Note. To complete the assignment, the Virtual ChemLab software must be installed on your computer and must be used in conjunction with Virtual ChemLab: General Chemistry Laboratories. Installation requirements and instructions may be found in the workbook and on the accompanying CD. Once the software is installed, an electronic workbook may be found corresponding with your workbook, which contains preset lab assignments that match the workbook assignments. Use these......

Words: 1174 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Analytical Chem

...Patroescu, C.; Chalmers, R. A. Education and Teaching in Analytical Chemistry. Ellis Horwood: Chichester, 1982. Hieftje, G. M. “The Two Sides of Analytical Chemistry,” Anal. Chem. 1985, 57, 256A–267A. Kissinger, P. T. “Analytical Chemistry—What is It? Who Needs It? Why Teach It?” Trends Anal. Chem. 1992, 11, 54–57. Experiments The following exercises and experiments help connect the material in this chapter to the analytical laboratory. Calibration—Volumetric glassware (burets, pipets, and volumetric flasks) can be calibrated in the manner described in Example 5.1. Most instruments have a calibration sample that can be prepared to verify the instrument’s accuracy and precision. For example, as described in this chapter, a solution of 60.06 ppm K2Cr2O7 in 0.0050 M H2SO4 should give an absorbance of 0.640 ± 0.010 at a wavelength of 350.0 nm when using 0.0050 M H2SO4 as a reagent blank. These exercises also provide practice with using volumetric glassware, weighing samples, and preparing solutions. Suggested readings give the student access to more comprehensive discussion of the topics introduced within the chapter. References The references cited in the chapter are provided so the student can access them for further information. Laitinen, H. A. “Analytical Chemistry in a Changing World,” Anal. Chem. 1980, 52, 605A–609A. Laitinen, H. A. “History of Analytical Chemistry in the U.S.A.,” Talanta 1989, 36, 1–9. Laitinen, H. A.; Ewing, G. (eds). A History of......

Words: 88362 - Pages: 354

Free Essay

Organic Chem

...CHEM 232 1. Organic Chemistry II Problem Set 12 Identify each of the following compounds as reducing or nonreducing sugars: H HO HO H HO CH2 O H OH H CH2OH OH B Nonreducing sugar (acetal) CHO H H E OH OH CH2OH CHO OH OH OH CH2OH H H G OH HO CH2OH O H H H OCH2CH3 H HO H OH OH CH2OH O H H H OH CH2 O C OH H CH2OH H OH H H O H HO A Reducing sugar (hemiketal) Nonreducing sugar (acetal and ketal) CH2OH C O OH OH CH2OH CH2OH HO OH H O H CH2OH H H H H F OH D Reducing sugar (hemiketal) Reducing sugar (aldose) Reducing sugar (aldose) Reducing sugar (ketose) 2. Which of the structures shown above are: a. Pyranose monosaccharides A and B b. Furanose monosaccharides D c. Tetroses E d. Aldopentoses F e. Ketopentoses G f. Disaccharides C 3. Give the Haworth formula for α-D-Glucopyranose. H HO H OH CH2OH O H H OH H OH 4. Complete the following reactions: a. CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2OH b. O HOCH2 C CH2OH HIO4 CH3CH2CHO + CH2=O OH O O AgNO3-NaOH NH3 HOCH2 CH C Ag0 OH HOCH2 C c. H H CHO OH OH CH2OH HIO4 3 HCO2H OH CHOH HOCH2 CH C d. O H CHO H H OH OH CH2OH HCN CN H H H OH OH OH CH2OH HO CN H OH OH CH2OH + CH2=O + H H e. H HO H CHO OH H OH CH2OH NaBH4 H2O H HO H CH2OH OH H OH CH2OH h. H HO f. HO H H CHO H OH OH CH2OH CHO 1. Br2/H2O 2. H2O2 Fe2(SO4)3 H H OH OH CH2OH g. CHO H OH H H OH OH CH2OH 3 PhNHNH2 CH NNHPh C H H NNHPh OH CH2OH O H H H OH OH H OH CH3OH H+ ...

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Biology 1020 Diffusion and Osmosis Lab Report

...Kristina Eskola BL 1020 L01 Diffusion and Osmosis Lab Report (Dialysis) Introduction: Dialysis Tubing is a membrane made of regenerated cellulose fibers formed into a flat tube. If two solutions containing dissolved substances of different molecular weights are separated by this membrane, some substances may readily pass through the pores of the membrane, but others may be excluded. We will be investigating the selective permeability of the tubing to reduce sugar, glucose, starch, and iodine potassium iodide. We will test this by placing a solution of glucose and starch into a dialysis tubing bag and then place this bag into a solution of iodine potassium iodide (I2KI). Prediction: The I2KI solution will turn blue when adding Benedict’s reagent. Hypothesis: The solution of water and I2KI will be the most permeable because they will mix and react with Benedict’s reagent and the heat so the cell membrane only allows certain molecules to enter and leave the cell Materials and Methods: In the experiment we will be using two tests. In the first test, we will be using I2KI to test for the presence of starch. When I2KI is added to an unknown solution, the solution will turn purple or black if starch is present. If there is no starch in the solution, it will remain pale yellow. In the second test we will be using Benedict’s test for reducing sugar. When Benedict’s reagent is added to an unknown solution and the solution is heated, it will turn green, orange or orange-red...

Words: 873 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Chem

...Georgia Institute of Technology CHEM 3700 Research Paper The German Energiewende “Die deutsche Energiewende“ Professor: Dr. Thomas Orlando Student: Shyam Rangarajan Abstract With the diminishing reserves of fossil fuels compounded by their negative effects on the environment, clean and renewable sources of energy to meet next generation energy demands undoubtedly need to be found. However an even more critical aspect governing global energy challenges is the way governments around the world take responsible actions and implement energy policies that are conducive to a sustainable future. A recent development in this regard is the German Energiewende, or Energy Transformation, one of the most ambitious projects of its type. The project aims to completely transition the German energy sector to one powered by renewables by the year 2050. Along with the benefits to energy security and controlled carbon emissions that such a policy would bring, the German government‟s efforts have also sparked a wide-scale increase in investment into emerging technologies. This has led to a vast increase in employment in the energy sector, and has also given rise to the concept of „prosumers‟, or individuals who produce and sell their own electricity through privately owned solar installations. Although the long term benefits of this project are enormous and the potential limitless, there are several short term repercussions that are slowing it down. Chief among these is the spiraling...

Words: 3572 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Titration Experiment 4, Chem 201

...CHEM. 201, EXPERIMENT 4 TITRATION CURVES PROCEDURE: See the pre-lab report on page 15 of my laboratory notebook for an outline of the general procedure. The unknown acid number was 6553, and the concentration of NaOH used in the experiment was .09912 M. Also, three drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added to the initial titration and the titration curve. EXPERIMENTAL DATA: Initial Titration: * Volume of NaOH added at the endpoint was 29.8 mL Titration Curve: * Volume of NaOH added at the endpoint was 29.0 mL CALCULATED RESULTS: Acid concentration from first titration was .118M Ka from initial pH was 1.08x10^-5 Acid concentration from titration curve was .115M Titration | Volume of NaOH (mL) | pH | (base)/(acid) | pKa | Ka | 1/4 | 7.25 | 4.1 | 1/3 | 4.577 | 2.65x10^-5 | 1/2 | 14.5 | 4.6 | 1 | 4.6 | 2.55x10^-5 | 3/4 | 21.8 | 5.19 | 3 | 4.713 | 1.94x10^-5 | Average: | | | | 4.663 | 2.18x10^-15 | DISCUSSION: The purpose of the experiment was to titrate a weak acid of unknown concentration with a strong base, NaOH, and then utilizing an initial titration and titration curve to determine that acid concentration and Ka. After performing the initial titration of the acid concentration, we calculated it to be 0.118 M, with a Ka of 1.08x10^-5. On the other hand, when we performed the titration curve, it calculated an acid concentration of 0.115 M and a Ka of 2.18x10^-5. The results I obtained seemed......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chem

...some Limewater, which caused it to bubble and turn cloudy * Next, I let the gas from the sodium and hydrogen peroxide go into some Bromthymol Blue. It turned yellow. * When I mixed the Alka Seltz/water solution excess gas into the limewater it... [continues] Read full essay Cite This Essay APA (2013, 06). Experiment 4: properties of gases. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 06, 2013, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Experiment-4-Properties-Of-Gases-1802164.html MLA MLA 7 CHICAGO Welcome StudyMode.com is the web's leading learning tool. We inspire millions of students every day with over 1,600,000 model essays and papers, AP notes and book notes. Related Essays Properties of gases - chem labpaq ...Properties of Gases General Chemistry 1 Lab 5 Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is... 3 Pages March 2013 Chemistry lab 3 properties of gases ...Dex Cimino 3/24/2013 CHE101, Tamburro Lab 3 – Properties of Gases Data Table: Experiment... 2 Pages March 2013 Properties of gases ...Gas | Flame Reaction | Glowing Splint | Limewater Reaction | Bromothymol Blue Reaction |... 3 Pages July 2013 Properties of gases ...Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to test and observe the physical and chemical... 7 Pages July 2013 Properties of gases lab ...Student Mrs. Teacher Class Date Katie Limbach Mrs. Falk Chemistry 09-13-13 Title:... 4......

Words: 609 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chem

...varias ecuaciones cúbicas de estado. ‘Mas ellas son casos especiales de la ecuación cúbica de estado genérica: RT WV - 17) p= V - b (V-b)(V +¿w+e) (3.42) En ella b, 8, 6, E y 7 son parámetros que en general dependen ¿le la temperatura y, para mezclas, de la composición. Aunque la ecuación (3.42) parece muy flexible, tiene limitaciones inherentes debido a que es cúbica.” La ecuación de RedliddKwong se abtiene de la ecuación (3.42) con 8 = a/T”‘, 77 = S = b y E = 0. Otras formas diferentes de la ecuación (3.42) se obtienen si se hacen sustituciones diferentes; el uso más común de todas ellas tiene que ver con el equilibrio vaporkquiclo (capítulo 13). 5M. M.Abbott,AICL!ZJ.,vol. 19,~~. 596-601, 1973;Arlv. in Chem. Series182,K.C. ChaoyR.1~. Robinson Jc, eds., pp. 47-70, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D:C., 1979. 96 CAPhL!JLO 3. *piedades volumétricas de los fluidos puros Las ecuaciones que tienen una exactitud global mayor son necesariamente más complejas, como lo ilustra la ecuación de Benedict/Webb/Rubin: ------- ___. ~.~ _ p- R T : B,RT-A,-C,lT2+óRT-CL V V2 V3 _-._-.-C_ _ C +aa+- V6 V3T2 (3.43) donde Ao, Bo, Co, a, b, c, cy y y son todas constantes para un fluido dado. Esta ecuación y sus modificaciones, a pesar de la complejidad que tienen, se emplean en las industrias del petróleo y del gas natural para hidrocarburos ligeros y algunos otros gases encontrados comúnmente. F$emplo 3.7 La presión de vapor del cloruro de metilo a 60°C es de......

Words: 37868 - Pages: 152

Free Essay

Chem-Cal

...CASO CEM-CAL CORPORATION Familiarizarse con el caso En Chem-cal Corporation se enfrenta a diez proyectos de inversión que consisten en diferentes inversiones iniciales. Lo cual los directivos tienen distintas formas de evaluación Que lleva a un problema de como poner valores en las diferentes inversiones. La otra gran interrogante es si es necesario elevar el capital para cubrir los proyectos Programados para el próximo año. La compañía tiene 8,2 millones de dólares disponibles Para inversiones de capital este año y los proyectos descritos ascienden a 18.650.000 Millones. Identificar los síntomas Existe una gran duda en el sentido de que tasa usar o escoger lo que implica si es asertivo usar una tasa de descuento apropiada para utilizar el método VPN o utilizar la tasa interna minima con el método TIR. Esta duda lleva a que no se esta logrando lo deseado. Identificar objetivos Uno de los objetivos principales es la valoración de estos proyectos. Chem- Cal Corporation debe volver a calcular el VPN de cada proyecto. Lograr una tasa de capital es decir la mejor opción es el Wacc y ver las fuentes para conseguir los recursos. Análisis de opciones para conseguir más capital - Elevar Ratios de deuda (30% cerca de la media del sector) - Vender bonos de 5 millones de dólares (un poco mas de 10.5%) - Fondo de amortizaciónDiagnostico Encontrar una fuente de financiamiento que no sea superior o igual al 11% y esa tasa seria un 10% para ajustar al wacc ya que...

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ap Chem Stoichiometry

...AP Chemistry Summer Assignment Mr. Ronnenkamp Welcome to SPHS AP Chemistry!! You already have a background in chemistry from your General Chemistry class, but AP Chem is very different. Rather than memorizing how to do particular types of problems, you must really understand the chemistry and be able to apply it to different kinds of problems. AP Chemistry is a challenging course. To succeed, you must keep up with the assignments and be willing to spend time working through the material. Like all AP classes, AP Chem comes with a summer assignment. It is due the second day of class - August 25th - and will count as ½ of a test grade. ALL YOUR ANSWERS FOR THE SUMMER ASSIGNMENT SHOULD BE PUT ON ANOTHER SHEET OF PAPER!!!! We will then have a CLASS TEST on the SUMMER ASSIGNMENT ON 9/1/2015 (depending on schedule)!!! This class test will count as the second ½ of your first test grade. I check my e-mail frequently, so feel free to contact me if you are having problems doing the summer assignment. I can offer help via email. My e-mail address is: ronnenkampd@pcsb.org Please take the summer assignment seriously. Completing the summer assignment will allow you to enter AP Chemistry in August ready to succeed!!!! Each section of the summer assignment is referenced with web tutorials to help you if you have forgotten some of your General Chemistry, but feel free to use any good website. I will also be giving you access to an online......

Words: 1242 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Chem

...Rajdeep Singh Chem 2A Fregrene The Evolution of the Battery and Electric Vehicle After reading various articles on battery chemistry and how it applies to electric vehicles’ I have come to a conclusion. Although electric vehicles may seem like a great idea for many people, because they can eliminate a great amount of emission pollutants in the atmosphere, they arrive with many unresolved issues. Issues which may be expensive as well as incovineient to solve. The first article I read was “Chemstry’s Electric Oppurtunity” by Alex Scott. In his article, he spoke of the automobile firm Tesla and their new Model S vehicle. The Tesla Model S is a vehicle capable of driving up to 300 miles before needing to recharge, compared to the majority of other electric cars who can only reach 100 miles. The CEO of Tesla Motors, Elon R. Musk claims that “anything a gasoline based vehicle can do, the Model S can do” (Scott, pg 1). Which may prove to be true since the car goes from ‘0-60 in only 4.2’ (Scott, pg 1). Many people wonder how the Model S is capable of outperforming other electric vehicles. It is due to the car’s large 670kg battery. This battery provides an energy density of 240 Wh/Kg. ‘This is much denser than the nickel based batteries of other firms such as Toyota, Nissan, and GM’ (Scott, pg 2). It’s great that Tesla is able to raise the bar in the electric vehicle field and provide a more efficient vehicle for consumers to enjoy, however there is a large inhibitor. Batteries...

Words: 850 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Chem

...CHEM 111G – General Chemistry I Lab 1 Separation of the components of a mixture Aim of the experiment: To develop a stepwise procedure to separate the four components of a mixture of sand, salt, iodine and iron filings and determine the % of each by mass Brief procedure: The stepwise procedure was developed based on unique properties of each component: Salt: soluble in water Sand: insoluble in water Iodine: sublimes to vapor Iron: attracted to magnet We weighed out ~2g of the mixture in a 250mL beaker and chose to separate the iron first using a magnet. Since the iron sticks strongly to the magnet, the beaker + mixture was then reweighed to determine the mass of iron removed by difference. The iodine was then removed in the next step by placing the beaker on a hot plate covered by an ice cold evaporating dish and heating at maximum heat until no more purple iodine vapor were seen coming off. The deposited iodine crystals were recovered from the underside of the dish. Because some iodine is lost the beaker + mixture was then reweighed to determine the mass of iodine removed by difference. The remaining mixture of sand and salt was treated with deionized water to extract the salt (soluble). The sand was removed by filtration through a filter funnel via the water vacuum pump and the filtrate transferred to another weighed beaker. The salt was then recovered by evaporating the filtrate to dryness. The beaker was cooled and the salt mass determined by mass......

Words: 373 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Chem Ia

...CHEM IA 11 Aim To determine the enthalpy change of reaction between zinc powder and aqueous copper(II) ions Uncertainties of Apparatus Electronic balance | ±0.001g | 50cm3 measuring cylinder | ± 0.5cm3 | Thermometer | ± 0.1oC | Digital stopwatch | ± 0.2s | Mass/g of zinc in weighing bottle measured by electronic balance for Method 1 Mass of Zn (±0.002) / g | 0.9123 | Mass of weighing bottle (± 0.001) / g | 3.5840 | Mass of Zn + weighing bottle ( ±0.001) /g | 4.4963 | Highest temperature recorded after adding Zn to copper (II) sulfate solution for Method 1 Initial temperature (±0.1) / ⁰C | 22.0 | Highest temperature (±0.1) / ⁰C | 31.5 | Temperature change (±0.2) / ⁰C | 8.50 | Mass/g of zinc in weighing bottle measured by electronic balance for Method 2 Mass of Zn (±0.002) / g | 0.9123 | Mass of weighing bottle (± 0.001) / g | 3.5840 | Mass of Zn + weighing bottle ( ±0.001) /g | 4.4963 | Temperature recorded before and after adding Zn is added to copper (II) sulfate for Method 2 Time (±0.2) / s | Temperature (±0.1) / ⁰C | 0.0 | 22.0 | 15.0 | 22.0 | 30.0 | 22.0 | 45.0 | 22.0 | 60.0 | 22.0 | 75.0 | 21.5 | 90.0 | 21.5 | 105.0 | 21.3 | 120.0 | 21.2 | 135.0 | 21.2 | 150.0 | 21.0 | 165.0 | 21.0 | 180.0 | 21.0 | 195.0 | 21.0 | 210.0 | 23.0 | 225.0 | 23.8 | 240.0 | 24.5 | 255.0 | 25.2 | 270.0 | 26.4 | 285.0 | 28.2 | 300.0 | 29.1 | 315.0 | 29.8 | 330.0 | 31.1 | 345.0 | 31.5 | (Highest......

Words: 731 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chem

...Chemical Reaction of Baking Soda and Lemon Juice CHM/110 August 2, 2012 Chemical Reaction of Baking Soda and Lemon Juice Baking powder and lemon juice are relatively versatile substances used in society’s daily lives. For example, the two have commonly used as natural cleaning solutions and cooking ingredients as well. The two products alone deemed as beneficial in households because they are inexpensive and are natural substances with healthier outcomes. Mixing lemon juice and baking powder makes a chemical reaction that results in what is virtually an outstanding cleaning paste, which uses to clean an entire house. Several useful purposes for the two substances endured and their results are impeccable. Useful Purposes: Lemon Juice and Baking soda Lemon juice is a multipurpose natural substance used in areas such as the following:  Cleaning Solutions  Flavor  Nutrition  Hair Dye “As a cleaning solution, lemon juice can rid hard water deposits and soap scum”, according to housekeeping.about.com (housekeeping.about.com, 2012). An inexpensive solution, no doubt, which is often already a product of one’s household. Cutting a lemon in half and sprinkling baking soda on all except the peeling, gets dishes moderately clean without the use of other un-natural cleaning solutions, such as dishwashing liquids that has to be purchase more often due to the quantitative usages. Society has been adding lemon product for flavor for centuries. Products of......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5