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Chem 1020

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Human and Animal Sex Pheromones

A pheromone is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting outside the body of the secreting individual to impact the behavior of the receiving individual. When secreted by an individual into the environment, it can cause a specific reaction in other individuals, usually of the same species. The term “pheromone” was introduced by Peter Karlson, a German biochemist and Martin Luscher, a Swiss entomologist in 1959 based on the Greek word pherein--to transport hormone--to stimulate. Pheromones are sometimes classified as ecto-horomones. These chemical messengers are transported outside of the body and result in a direct developmental effect on hormone levels or behavioral

change. The primary function of these chemical signals is to attract members of the opposite sex of the same species for the purpose of mating. This pheromone communication has been extensively studied in animals. But in recent years research has been applied to higher level organisms such as humans. Human pheromones put out signals that naturally affect human attraction. Most sex pheromones are produced by the females and a small percentage of sex attractants are produced by males. The newest research has shown that not only do these human pheromones exist, but they are gender specific: heterosexual men and woman and homosexual men respond differently to them. The desire to attract the opposite sex is a universal want. Human beings have the need to mate and reproduce, and that is why it is important to send out the message that could attract a possible mate. Female pheromones are regarded as one of the best tools for the female species to attract a possible mate.

According to scientist, females, regardless of their species can send out a message via the female hormones to let the males know that they are ready for reproduction. Pheromones are natural scents, which play an important role in sexual communications. Animals and humans release masses of biological chemicals in tears, saliva, and perspiration, better known as human sweat. The underarm hair is a trap and carrier for pheromones. The more pheromones there are, the more attractive you are to the opposite sex. The only catch is that you may stink a little, but it’s undeniable that you’re getting the attention of your potential mate at a hormone level. Many people complain about armpit hair because it is unsightly and causes body odor and it can be considered the smelliest part of the body when not maintained. The key is to get the underarm hair trimmed and maintained and bathe regularly, because you want to attract your mate with you pheromones, not overwhelm them and run them away. The pheromone detector in human which is different from other smell receptors is called the vomeronasal organ and it is located in the base of the septum of the nose and is strongly believed to play a large role in the reception of volatiles or smelling. Through this organ it has been observed that certain compounds can be perceived. This in turn results in a signal being sent to the brain, where it is received in the olfactory bulb, and a receptor site for odors. the vomeronasal organ is a chemoreceptor organ which is completely separated from the nasal cavity and is enclosed in a separate bony capsule which opens into the base of the nasal cavity. It is a tubular crescent shape and split into two pairs separated by the nasal septum. This organ is also sometimes known as the “sixth sense,” also called the Jacobson’s organ. Specialized nerve pathways now known as the “Nerve O” lead from the Vomeronasal organ and run directly to the limbic region of the brain. Laboratory tests show

that pheromones trigger powerful signals directly to the limbic region of the brain and are also known as the “seat of emotions.” This region of the brain is not directly connected to reason or cognitive thought patterns, rather it controls our emotions and sexual desire. The stimulating feeling that is experienced from pheromones can be quiet powerful. When sexual and romantic feelings overwhelm us, our brains release a chemical called phenethylamine, which in turn kicks on dopamine production and the next thing you know fireworks begin. Prior to 1986, the world’s leading vermeronasal scientist could not concur on the existence of human pheromones. After that period, scientist at the Chemical Senses Centre in Philadelphia and its counterpart in France discovered what they came to realize are human pheromones. These scientists isolated a pure pheromone compound called Androstenone, a steroid found in both male and female

urine and sweat. The primary male pheromone or hormone that men unknowingly secrete that attracts a woman. Due to evolution, men only secrete this pheromone when they sweat. This is an unpleasant way to meet a woman. What is ironic is, whenever we showed we clean off our own natural pheromone. When we put on deodorant, we actually clog and mask the pores Androstenone secrets from our sweat glands. Humans are of course animals, and produce the same class of aromas. Although, often smells that occur in human seat are not rank body odor, which is generally accepted to be the result of bacterial degradation of our sweat secretions. Furthermore they do not have to be consciously perceived to affect the recipient as they have been shown to affect our behavior when used at subconscious levels. Due to social and hygiene standards adopted by the human race, some considerable interference with nature

has resulted. Pheromones are casualties in the bathroom, they fall victim to deodorants, antiperspirants, antiseptics, etc, and in fact man has used science to deprive himself of this primary attraction to the opposite, pheromones. Man having rid himself of his natural sexual messengers, he then dons after-shaves, colognes and other fragrant adornments in order to exude a fragrance, which he believes, will effectively attract females. The modern female certainly enjoys a pleasant aroma and it would be ludicrous to suggest that a sexually mature male should revert back to nature and cease the use of toiletries In order to redress the situation; we have reproduced a complex form of the most important human pheromones, Androstenone. It has been incorporated into compatible modern masculine fragrances, thus enabling the user to apply at the biological attractants which ensue a positive female response to his presence. These modern fragrances are called synthetic human hormones. They come in forms of pills, sprays, and topical ointments and they can be found in stores and are expected when used to enhance sexual attraction in humans. For decades perfumes have sought to produce and attractant effect by offering compounds made from animal musk’s derived from the Civet cat and Deer. The aroma of Androstenone seems to be the very essence of aggression or dominance in man. A criminal pathologist found in a survey of a prison population, that it was the people in the violent wing and the prison warden were naturally high secretors of it. The value of Androstenone is reflected in its open market price. It is a very expensive item. Scientist has shown in clinical experiments that male human pheromones trigger a subconscious biological sexual response in women. Pheromones are order less and consciously undetectable to the human nose, but because women have a naturally better defined

sense of smell they subconsciously pick up male human pheromones right away and become instantly sexually attracted to the wearer or the bearer of these pheromones. Male human pheromones open the door of attraction and sexuality with any woman. Women will not know that you have them on, but subconsciously these human male pheromones will communicate you are sexually attractive and stimulate sexual desire in them. Sometimes males and females meet and have this unbelievable chemistry, it doesn’t happen very often, but these are pheromones at work. There is a pheromone chemical message of sex sent out to woman that makes them crave and desire you and want to get to know you. A man’s eye contact with a woman will double and women will generally gather around your vicinity and not even known why. Scientific research and studies done on Androstenone are very extensive and have been going on

for over 20 years. Researchers at the University of Kentucky discovered women exposed to pictures of men that was sprayed with the mail human pheromone Androstenone found these pictures of those men more sexually attractive than pictures of men that were not sprayed with pheromones. These scientists concluded that pheromones might explain why people often decided as soon as they meet someone that they like or dislike the person. Researchers have shown in clinical experiments male human pheromones trigger a subconscious sexual response in women. In one study, this pheromone was sprayed on a chair in a dentist’s waiting room. The other chairs were not sprayed. It was found women were more likely to sit in the chair that was sprayed with the pheromone then men. Sales people have found pheromones to have advantages in their dealing with customers. Older people seem to enjoy its effects and notice subtle differences in other people’s behavior towards them.

It quite simply influences where men and women sit--women are attracted to chairs sprayed with it and mend tend to avoid them. Furniture companies have been known to use it in their showrooms to attract attention to a difficult to sell couches and chairs. Men apply it to themselves in business to gain additional respect, thereby appearing more domineering or intimidating. Patented for improving debt collection by spraying the final demands-not only do more people pay up, they also pay quicker. A man may think that he is attracting more women because he is feeling more confident wearing this pheromone. This is not the case. Men attract more women because this pheromone cologne is backed with a high concentration pheromone that has been proven over years to attract women and it does. The power of pheromones has been featured in every single major publication, newspaper, national

magazine, adult magazine, and television magazine, such as 20/20, Dateline, New York Times, Discovery, Hustler and medical journals. Pheromones have made such a media splash that two major talk shows dedicated their entire program to this very subject.


Systematic (IUPAC) name phenylethan-2-amine

In animals, sex pheromones indicate the availability of the female for breeding. Male animals may also emit pheromones that convey information about their species and genotype. At the microscopic level, male copepods can follow a three-dimensional pheromone trail left by a swimming female, and male gametes of many animals use a pheromone to help find a female gamete, for fertilization. Many insect species release sex pheromones to attract a mate, and any lepidopterans (moths and butterflies) can detect a potential mate from as far away as 10 kilometers (6.25 mi). Traps containing pheromones are used by farmers to detect and monitor insect populations in orchards. Pheromones are also used in the detection of oestrus in sows. Boar pheromones are sprayed into the sty, and those shows that exhibit sexual arousal are known to be currently available for breeding. Sea urchins release pheromones into the surrounding

water, sending a chemical message that triggers other urchins in the colony to eject their sex cells simultaneously. Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behavior among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum. The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles, and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys, and apes. An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the foetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs, and V3Rs). All are G protein-coupled receptors but are only distantly

related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role.
When it comes to animals there are physical limits on the practical size of organisms employing pheromones, because at small sizes pheromone diffuses away from the source organism faster than it can be produced, and a sensible concentration accumulates too slowly to be useful. So bacteria are too small to use pheromones as sex attractants but do use them to determine the local population density of similar organisms and control behaviors that take more time to execute (quorum sensing). In similar manner, the simple animals rotifers are, it appears, also too small for females to lay down a useful trail, but in the slightly-larger copepods the female leaves a trail that the male can follow. When it comes to aggression the pheromones function in defense against predators, mate selection, and overcoming host resistance by mass

attack. A group of individuals at one location is referred to as an aggregation, whether consisting of one sex or both sexes. Male-produced sex attractants have been called aggregation pheromones, because they usually result in the arrival of both sexes at a calling site, and increase the density of conspecifics surrounding the pheromone source. Most sex pheromones are produced by the females and small percentage of sex attractants are produced by males. Aggregation pheromones have been found in members of the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Dictyoptera and Orthoptera. In recent decades, the importance of applying aggregation pheromones in the management of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), stored product weevils (Sitophilus zeamais), Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus oryzae, and pea and bean weevil (Sitona lineatus) has been demonstrated. Aggregation pheromones are among the most ecologically selective pest suppression methods. They are nontoxic and

effective at very low concentrations. Some species release a volatile substance when attacked by a predator that can trigger flight (in aphids) or aggression (in ants, bees, termites) in members of the same species. Pheromones also exist in plants: Certain plants emit alarm pheromones when grazed upon, resulting in tannin production in neighboring plants. These tannins make the plants less appetizing for the herbivore. Epideictic pheromones are different from territory pheromones, when it comes to insects. Fabre observed and noted how "females who lay their eggs in these fruits deposit these mysterious substances in the vicinity of their clutch to signal to other females of the same species they should clutch elsewhere." Releaser pheromones are pheromones that cause an alteration in the behavior of the recipient. For example, some organisms use powerful attractant molecules to attract mates from a distance of two miles or more. In general, this type of pheromone elicits a rapid response, but is quickly degraded. In contrast, a primer pheromone has a slower onset and a longer duration. For example, rabbit (mothers) release mammary pheromones that trigger immediate nursing behavior by their babies. Signal pheromones cause short-term changes, such as the neurotransmitter release that activates a response. For instance, GnRH molecule functions as a neurotransmitter in rats to elicit lordosis behavior. Primer pheromones trigger a change of developmental events (in which they differ from all the other pheromones, which trigger a change in behavior). Laid down in the environment, territorial pheromones mark the boundaries of an organism's territory. In cats and dogs, these hormones are present in the urine, which they deposit on landmarks serving to mark the perimeter of the claimed territory. In social seabirds, the preen gland is used to mark nests, nuptial gifts, and territory boundaries with behavior formerly described as 'displacement activity'.…...

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...CHEM 111G – General Chemistry I Lab 1 Separation of the components of a mixture Aim of the experiment: To develop a stepwise procedure to separate the four components of a mixture of sand, salt, iodine and iron filings and determine the % of each by mass Brief procedure: The stepwise procedure was developed based on unique properties of each component: Salt: soluble in water Sand: insoluble in water Iodine: sublimes to vapor Iron: attracted to magnet We weighed out ~2g of the mixture in a 250mL beaker and chose to separate the iron first using a magnet. Since the iron sticks strongly to the magnet, the beaker + mixture was then reweighed to determine the mass of iron removed by difference. The iodine was then removed in the next step by placing the beaker on a hot plate covered by an ice cold evaporating dish and heating at maximum heat until no more purple iodine vapor were seen coming off. The deposited iodine crystals were recovered from the underside of the dish. Because some iodine is lost the beaker + mixture was then reweighed to determine the mass of iodine removed by difference. The remaining mixture of sand and salt was treated with deionized water to extract the salt (soluble). The sand was removed by filtration through a filter funnel via the water vacuum pump and the filtrate transferred to another weighed beaker. The salt was then recovered by evaporating the filtrate to dryness. The beaker was cooled and the salt mass determined by mass......

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...Chemical Reaction of Baking Soda and Lemon Juice CHM/110 August 2, 2012 Chemical Reaction of Baking Soda and Lemon Juice Baking powder and lemon juice are relatively versatile substances used in society’s daily lives. For example, the two have commonly used as natural cleaning solutions and cooking ingredients as well. The two products alone deemed as beneficial in households because they are inexpensive and are natural substances with healthier outcomes. Mixing lemon juice and baking powder makes a chemical reaction that results in what is virtually an outstanding cleaning paste, which uses to clean an entire house. Several useful purposes for the two substances endured and their results are impeccable. Useful Purposes: Lemon Juice and Baking soda Lemon juice is a multipurpose natural substance used in areas such as the following:  Cleaning Solutions  Flavor  Nutrition  Hair Dye “As a cleaning solution, lemon juice can rid hard water deposits and soap scum”, according to (, 2012). An inexpensive solution, no doubt, which is often already a product of one’s household. Cutting a lemon in half and sprinkling baking soda on all except the peeling, gets dishes moderately clean without the use of other un-natural cleaning solutions, such as dishwashing liquids that has to be purchase more often due to the quantitative usages. Society has been adding lemon product for flavor for centuries. Products of......

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