Free Essay

Cell Structures and Pathogenicity

In: Science

Submitted By amileyann
Words 422
Pages 2
Cellular Structures and Pathogenicity
Brittany McMahon
ITT Technical College

Cellular structures have different impacts on the ability for bacteria to cause disease. Mainly the cells external structures have the biggest effect to adhere to the cells to cause disease. One structure being the pili, a rigid, thin fiber made of protein that expands from the cell surface. The main function are to adhere specific bacterial cells to specific surfaces. There are typically only one or two pili per cell (Hartsock, Angela 2016). Pili that is coated with adhesins can determine the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract and will only adhere to that specific surface to infect those cells (Hartsock, Angela 2016). This bacteria is known as Bordetella. The fimbria is another external structure that is similar to the pili. They are short, filamentous structures that are in large numbers that help in attachment to surfaces (Hartsock, Angela 2016). Like pili the fimbria target tissues they believe will be the best host. Flagella has a completely different function from the pili and fimbria. The main function for flagellum is motility. They are long, tail like appendages attached to bacterial cells that allow the movement (Schuhmacher, J., Rossmann, F., Dempwolff, F., Knauer, C., Altegoer, F., Steinchen, W., Bange, G. 2015). Flagella is made of protein called flagellin. The proteins form a long chain that look like a helical shape. From the cell membrane the flagellum is wide and attaches to proteins, this is known as the flagellar motor (Hartsock, Angela 2016). The motor anchors the flagellum. Flagella provide motility of bacteria during chemotaxis. Nutrients and toxins in the environment can be detected by bacteria. When nutrients are detected the flagella assist in the bacteria swimming toward it. Bacteria can sense toxins therefore the flagella will assist in the bacteria swimming away from it. The bacteria will go into different directions until it finds the most concentration of nutrients. They suggest the number and location on flagella are species specific and have patterns (Schuhmacher, J., Rossmann, F., Dempwolff, F., Knauer, C., Altegoer, F., Steinchen, W., Bange, G. 2015).
References
Schuhmacher, J. S., Rossmann, F., Dempwolff, F., Knauer, C., Altegoer, F., Steinchen, W., &
Bange, G. (2015). MinD-like ATPase FlhG effects location and number of bacterial flagella during C-ring assembly. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America, 112(10), 3092-3097. doi:10.1073/pnas.1419388112

Hartsock, Angela (2016) Bacterial Structures and Their Functions. Retrieved from
http://study.com/academy/lesson/bacterial-structures-and-their-functions.html…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Cell Structure

...Every living thing on Earth has cells. Cells are made up of small pieces called proteins and organelles. The larger pieces are tissues and systems. Cells hold biological equipment that keeps them alive. A cells job is to organize. Each cell has a different function. Organisms grow and survive better when cells are present. If people were only made up of one cell they could only grow to one size. You also would not have a nervous system or muscles. A person’s body is made up of trillions of cells. Animal-like cells differ from plant-like cells. An animal-like cell could be a tiny microorganism or a nerve cell. Plant cells differ because they have protective structures with walls. Each organism has its own unique cell. People have hundreds of cells that are used to do different things in our bodies. All cells are surrounded by a membrane. Animals, people and insects have a nervous system. Some of the systems are more complex than others. A person’s nervous system consists of two parts: The central and the peripheral. The central nervous system is your spinal cord and your brain. The peripheral system makes up your organs, body and muscles. The reason people can react or take action is directly related to our nervous system. How people and animals smell, see and taste are related to our nervous system. Some of the things our nervous system does we don’t even think about. All of the systems in our bodies take direction from our nervous system. If we are eating our body starts......

Words: 864 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Animal and Plant Cell Structures

...Assignment: SCIE207 Phase 2 Lab Report Title: Animal and Plant Cell Structures 1. Animal Cell: [pic] |Number |Cell Structure |Description and Function | |1 |Nuclear Pore  |Nuclear pores are large protein structures that cross| | | |the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane | | | |inclosing the eukaryotic cell nucleus. The function | | | |of a nuclear pore is to control the way of molecules | | | |between the nucleus and cytoplasm, allowing some | | | |material to go through the membrane. | |2 |Chromatin (DNA)  |Chromatin is the combined material of DNA and | | | |proteins. Chromatins are what make up the entire | | | |nucleus of a cell. The function of a chromatin is to | | ......

Words: 1323 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cells

...Cell Structure and Function AbstractThis report is about cell structure and function. The cell is the basic unit of life. All living things are madeof cells. By doing this lab, I hoped to learn how a cell looked and how it functioned. I also wanted toknow the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells Introduction The concept of this lab is producing a replica of an animal cell, and a plant cell. Producing the models of the cells helps to provide a better understanding of each cell and its contents also, to explore thedifferences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Cell theory states that all cells reproduce new cells,while passing their genetic information. In addition, cells make up all living things, metabolize energyand that the chemical make-up of cells is similar. The objectives for this lab are to gather the materials,which include gelatin packs, plastic bags, water, Tupperware, bowls, and some small various householditems. The other objectives are preparing the gelatin as directed, gathering the household items that willserve as cell organelles, pouring the gelatin in the bag and placing the items in the plastic bags. Thenplace the cell replicas in the refrigerator for 24 hours. Results After twenty-four hours, I removed the cell replicas from the refrigerator and observed them. They didnot look exactly like I planed but they were understandable. Discussion Replicating the cell structures provides better understand the structure......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pathogenicity and Cellular Structure

...Pathogenicity and Cellular Structure Rebecca Abell Unit 2 Assignment 1 Pathogenicity and Cellular Structure When a human gets sick have you ever thought about how that occurs on a cellular level? Our body is made up with many different types of microorganisms and one of them is called bacteria. There are good bacteria and bad bacteria. When the bad bacterium multiplies with in the human body it causes what is known as bacterial infections. Although a bacterium is a microorganism it also has several cellular structures. The structures with in bacteria that cause us to become ill are Fimbriae, Plasmid, and the Capsule. Only the bacteria that contain these three structures can cause disease in a human body. When a bacterium includes the trouble causing structures the disease process starts spreading through the body. The reason that a disease process can not start without the three structures is because the bacteria has no protect for its self from the engulfing neutrophils or cells that destroy disease with in the human body. First the bacteria’s Fimbriae creates a thin structure in which allows the bacteria to attach to a host and not get swept away in the blood stream. Then the Capsule forms a slime layer so that the neutrophils are unable to engulf them thus destroying them. The Plasmid contains DNA and produces exotoxin which makes it resistant from other bacteria. These three structures are what help protect the bacteria and help it cause disease. Bacteria need...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cell

...Animal Cell | Cell functions | Smooth endoplasmic reticulum | associated with the production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones | Rough endoplasmic reticulum | involved in some protein production, protein folding, quality control and despatch. | Nuclear envelope | surrounds the nucleus with a double membrane with multiple pores. | Chromatin | Mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division. | Nucleolus | A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell. It is usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes. | Ribosomes | Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. | Golgi apparatus | a cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). | Mitochondrion | which is to generate large quantities of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). | Plasma membrane | forms a stable barrier between two aqueous compartments | Microfilament | involved in cytoplasmic movement and changes in cell shape. | Intermediate filament | to reinforce cells and to organize cells into tissues | Microtubule | involved in nuceic and cell division, organization of intracellular structure, and intracellular......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cells

...Structures in All Eukaryotic Cells We're going to start with eukaryotic cells even though they tend to be more complex than prokaryotic. But, there is a method to our madness: you are a eukaryote and have eukaryotic cells, so we thought you might relate better. And, eukaryotic comes before prokaryotic alphabetically. Come up with whatever reasons you want for it, but eukaryotes are up first. Tough cookies. Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function A cell is defined as eukaryotic if it has a membrane-bound nucleus. Any organism composed of eukaryotic cells is also considered a eukaryotic organism. Case in point: You. Biologists do not know of any single organism on Earth that is composed of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, many different types of prokaryotic cells, usually bacteria, can live inside larger eukaryotic organisms. Creepy, but true. We humans, for example, have trillions of bacteria living in our colons, not to mention in our mouths and stomachs and small intestines and…you get the picture. Despite the fact that we have gobs of prokaryotic cells living inside and on us, humans are still categorically eukaryotic organisms. Deal with it. This means that all human cells, including those found in the brain, the heart, the muscles, and so on, are also eukaryotic. Here is what one of these little guys looks like: OK, we are slightly impressed. That is a lot of stuff jam-packed into something we can't see too well with the naked eye. All......

Words: 1363 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cellular Structures and Pathogenicity

...Cellular Structures and Pathogenicity All the various surface components of a bacterial cell are important in the ecology because they mediate the contact of the bacterium possesses result from immediate contact with its environment. Its must use its surface components to assess the environment and respond in a way that supports its own existence and survival in that environment. The surface properties of a membrane and cell envelope, including capsules, glycocalyx, slayers, peptidoglycan and lps, and the other surface structures, such as flagella and pili or fimbriae. Bacterial surface components may have a primary biological function that has nothing to do with path ogenicity. However, there are endless examples wherein a bacterial surface component plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Bacterial structures may act as permeability barriers that allow selective passage of nutrients and exclusion of harmful substances; adhesions used to attach or adhere to specific surfaces or tissues; enzymes to mediate specific reactions on the cell surface important in the survival of the organism; protective structures against phagocytic engulfment or killing; antigenic disguises to bypass activation oh host immune defenses; endotoxins, generally cell wall components, that cause an inflammatory response in the host; “sensing proteins” that can respond to temperature, osmolality, salinity, light, oxygen, genome of the cell that will cause expression of......

Words: 544 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ribosome Pathogenicity

...According to Black, a prokaryotic cell is defined as lacking a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed structures. An example of a prokaryotic cell is a bacterium. “Most bacteria on this planet, both in the environment and living in and on humans, are member of the domain Bacteria.” There are many different structures within the bacteria cells, but the focus in this case will be on the ribosome. (Black, 2008) A bacillus, which is a rodlike bacterium, contains many different cell structures. It has a flagellum, which consists of fibrils and flagellin, a cell wall, that maintains the characteristic shape of the cell and prevents the bursting of the cell, and pili, that acts in an attachment or conjugation nature. The focus of this paper, the organelle ribosome, is made up of protein and RNA, and are spherical in shape. In most cases, especially with the bacteria, are clustered in polyribosome chains. To determine the size of a ribosome, one must measure how fast or slow they move toward the bottom of a tube in a centrifuge while it is being spun. This is know as the sedimentation rate of a ribosome. These sedimentation rates are measured in Svedberg units (S) and bacterial ribosomes measure at a rate of 70S, and their subunits somewhere between 30S and 50S. (Black, 2008) It is important to know that ribosomes present in prokaryotes are slightly different than those found in eukaryote. One difference is their size. This is important when treating the bacteria with......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cell

...www.asbiology101.wordpress.com An introduction to the microscope and magnification MAGNIFICATION AND RESOLUTION Because cells are too small to be seen with the naked eye, the light microscope was developed to produce enlarged and more detailed images of cells. The magnification of an image is how much bigger it appears under the microscope than it is in real life, and is worked out using the following formula: magnification = image size ÷ actual size unit metre decimetre centimetre millimetre micrometre nanometre picometre symbol m dm cm mm μm nm pm metres 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 01 However, magnification on its own does not increase the level of detail seen, it just increases the size. The term resolution refers to the ability to see two distinct points separately. For example, if the resolution of a light microscope is 200nm (0.2μm), this means it can see any two different points as separate objects if they are 200nm apart or more; but if they are any closer than this amount, they appear as one object. THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE Light microscopes use a number of lenses to produce an image that can be viewed directly at the eyepiece. Light passes from a bulb under the stage, through a condenser lens and then through the specimen. This beam of light is passed through an objective lens and then the eyepiece lens. The light microscope usually has a number of objective lenses which can be rotated into......

Words: 8313 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Cell Structure Report - Mitochondria

...MARCETTE Biology Survey 09/15/2014 Cell Structure report – Mitochondria All living organisms on Earth are divided into cells. The main concept of cell theory is that cells are the basic structural unit for all organisms. Cells are small compartments that hold the biological equipment necessary to keep an organism alive and successful. So, I would think that cell structures would be all the parts that makes a cell work and maintain the living organism alive. Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates usable energy for the cell. Mitochondria are a membrane bound cellular structure and is found in most of the eukaryotic cells. The way that the mitochondria works is the matrix is filled with water and enzymes. Those proteins take food molecules and combine them with oxygen. The mitochondria are the only place in the cell where oxygen can be combined with the food molecules. After the oxygen is added, the material can be digested. They are working organelles that maintain the cell with full energy. The most important function of the mitochondria is to produce energy. The simpler molecules of nutrition are sent to the mitochondria to be processed and to produce charged molecules. These charged molecules combine with oxygen and produce ATP molecules. This process is known as oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria help the cells to maintain proper......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Plant and Animal Cell Structure Lab

...and Plant Cell Structures Instructions: Your lab report will consist of the completed tables. Label each structure of the plant and animal cell with its description and function in the provided tables. When your lab report is complete, submit this document to your instructor in your assignment box. 1. Animal cell: Observe the diagram that shows the components of an animal cell. Using the textbook and virtual library resources, fill in the following table: Animal Cell Number Cell Structure Description and Function 1 Chromatin (DNA) The primary functions are to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit the cell, to enforce DNA macromolecule to allow mitosis, to prevent DNA damage, and to control gene expression and DNA replications 2 Nucleolus The largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly. 3 Nucleus The nucleus is basically the command center of the cell, it controls eating, movement, and reproduction. 4 Nuclear Pore Are large protein complexes that serve as the pathways for exchange of the materials between the nucleus and cytoplasm 5 Nuclear Envelope A highly regulated membrane barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. 6 Centrioles Self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and appear to help in organizing cell division. 7 Cilia and Flagella Hair like organelles that branch out from the surface of the cell and are......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Unit 2 Assignment 1 Cellular Structures and Pathogenicity

...Cellular Structures and Pathogenicity Jennifer L. Wethington ITT Technical Institute Unit 2 Assignment 1   “Bacterial illness is a result of complex interactions between bacteria and the host. During evolution, humans developed many ways to protect themselves against bacterial pathogens. On the other hand, bacteria have developed strategies to evade, subvert or circumvent these defenses” (Sousa, 2003) “One of the most important characteristics of bacterial pathogenicity is the various strategies developed by prokaryotic organisms to use host molecules for their own benefit” (Sousa, 2003). “To accomplish this, bacteria have evolved elaborate control mechanisms to turn genes on and off, varying the transcriptional activator or protein repressors of systems that act at the structural level of the genetic material” (Sousa, 2003). “Without a doubt the most common and best studied of all prokaryotic motility structures is the bacterial flagellum. Composed of over 20 protein species with approximately another 30 proteins required for regulation and assembly, it is one of the most complex of all prokaryotic organelles” (Bardy, Ng, & Jarrell, 2003). “The bacterial flagellum is a rotary structure driven from a motor at the base, with the filament acting as a propeller. The flagellum consists of three major substructures: the filament, the hook and the basal body” (Bardy, Ng, & Jarrell, 2003). “One of the unusual variations on bacterial flagellation is the presence in...

Words: 981 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cells

...Cells Assessment- Second Sitting 2015-6 Watch the short video at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQ (see footnote ), then answer the following question 1. Type your answers into the boxes 1) a) What substance are the “yellow, little knobby things” called “Keys” on the virus made of? ------------------------------------------------- These are made of proteins 1.2 b) The narrator says the “keys” fit into locks”. Do eukaryotes and prokaryotes have similar “locks” and where are they found? ------------------------------------------------- 1.2 c) Specifically what type of substance are these “locks” in eukaryotes made of? ------------------------------------------------- Cell membrane. 1.2 d) “If the lock fits, the cell welcomes the virus in.” Name the transport process by which the cell takes the virus in. ------------------------------------------------- Endocytosis. 2.1 e) Name the structure in the host cell that is described as the “welcoming committee, that pulls the virus deeper into the cell” ------------------------------------------------- The cytoplasm. 1.1 f) Name the......

Words: 606 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cell

...The structure and functions of Cell The purpose of this report is to explain the structure and functions of Cell. Cell is the basic unit of life and it contains other membrane-bound organelles structures that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Organelles have a wide range of roles and functions that include everything from producing hormones and enzymes to providing energy for Cells. Organelles Location Structure Functions Nucleus Centre - Nucleus is spherical in shape - Nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope - Nucleus is separated from cytoplasm by double membrane - It functions as an intermediary when DNA replication is taking place during cell cycle. - It contains hereditary materials DNA and RNA - It directs activities of the cell such as growth, metabolism and reproduction. - It create different type of RNA from DNA in the process called Transcription - It is control centre of the cell Nucleolus Inside the Nucleus (Centre) - It is spherical in shape - It is made of Protein and RNA - It helps in synthesis of Ribosome - It helps in assembly of signal recognition particles in the cell - It helps in sensing stress in the cell Golgi body They are found in Cytoplasm of the cell - It is sac-like - It comprises stacks of membrane structure - It is involve in movement of Lipid molecules around the cell - It helps in process and package of macromolecules e.g. Protein - It modifies protein after Endoplasmic Reticulum......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cells

...Stem cells: What they are and what they do Researchers believe stem cells offer great promise for new medical treatments. Learn about stem cell types, current and possible uses, ethical issues and the state of research. By Mayo Clinic staff You've heard about stem cells in the news, and perhaps you've wondered if they might help you or a loved one with a serious disease. You may wonder what stem cells are, how they're being used to treat disease and injury, and why they're the subject of such vigorous debate. Here are some answers to frequently asked questions about stem cells. Why is there such an interest in stem cells? Researchers hope stem cell studies can help to: * Increase understanding of how diseases occur. By watching stem cells mature into cells that eventually become bones, heart muscle, nerve cells, and other organs and tissue, researchers and doctors may better understand how a variety of diseases and conditions develop. * Generate healthy cells to replace diseased cells (regenerative medicine). Researchers hope they can train stem cells into becoming specific cells so that those specialized cells can be used to regenerate and repair diseased or damaged tissues in people. People who might benefit from stem cell therapies include those with spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and multiple sclerosis. Stem cells could also be grown to become......

Words: 19974 - Pages: 80