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Assumptions and Fallacies

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Associate Level Material

Assumptions and Fallacies

Write a 150- to 200-word response to each of the following sets of questions:

• What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?

An assumption is taking something for granted. Assumptions are expecting things to be a certain way based on how similar situations have been in the past, or because we want them to be a certain way (Ruggiero, 2012, pg.185). Making assumptions can get in the way of critical thinking. Critical thinking is a way of looking at things from every perspective, and evaluating the results of these perceptions logically. Assuming something can interfere looking at something from a logical standpoint. If we make an assumption about something we are less likely to evaluate all the different dimensions of the thing being looked at. In order to lessen the chances of making this mistake we must try not to assume things. Take away what we may think we know about the situation, and to evaluate it for what it is. Not every situation is the same and it is important to treat it that way.

• What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?

A fallacy is a mistaken belief. Fallacies are used in written, oral and visual arguments typically to throw off the other person’s train of thought, to bring you over to see their point of view (Paul & Elder, 2008). Fallacies can be used to distract people from seeing things the speaker doesn’t want them to see, and to enlighten them to what they do want to see concerning their hidden agenda. We can use our critical thinking skills to avoid falling into these fallacies. By looking at things from a critical stand point we are not simply accepting…...

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