Free Essay

Are Human Rights Infringed in Treatments for Mental Health?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By duemy
Words 1961
Pages 8
Many situations experienced by people living with mental health problems involve human rights. However, there is little information available about human rights and how they relate to mental health. Too often, a person may not realise that they are able to do something about their situation, or even that there is something wrong with the way they are being treated. It is therefore vital that people living with mental health problems are able to access information about their human rights and challenge bad treatment. {BIHR, 2006, P.4}.

What are Human Rights?

* They belong to everyone. * They are based on principles of fairness, equality, dignity, and respect. * They are about how public authorities – including the Government, hospitals and social services – must treat you.

* They prevent authorities from doing certain things to you, like treating you in a degrading way.

* They also sometimes force authorities to take certain actions, like taking steps to protect your life.

* They were first legally defined by international agreement after the horrors of the Second World War.

* Since the Second World War, there have been many different international human rights agreements.

* One of the most important human rights agreements is the European Convention on Human Rights.

The basic rights and freedoms, to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law. {American heritage, 2000}. The British Institute of Human Rights describe the relevance of human rights:

The Human Rights Act is vital to protecting the fundamental freedoms of everyone in society. The Act is particularly important for people with experience of mental distress, who are too often denied their human rights, such as the right not be discriminated against (article 14), the right to a private and family life (article 8), or, in extreme cases, the right to liberty (article 5), {Mind, 2013}.
People with mental health problems are usually denied these rights. They do not have a say in their treatment, it is believed that the professionals have to make decisions for them, in the name of ‘best interest’.
Human Rights and Mental Health
Mental health refers to our cognitive or emotional wellbeing - it is all about how we think, feel, and behave. Mental health, if somebody has it, can also mean an absence of a mental disorder. Approximately 25% of people in the UK have a mental health problem during their lives. {Medical, 2013}.
Mental disorder is defined as ‘any disorder or disability of mind'. This definition includes conditions such as schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, personality disorders, autistic-spectrum disorders, organic disorders such as dementia, behavioural changes due to brain injury, and mental disorders due to drug use. The definition includes learning disability only where it is associated with abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible behaviour. {Ibid}.
There are many issues surrounding people with mental health problems, which are still a major cause of concern.
The Use of restraint and treatment of the mentally ill
People with mental disorders are exposed to a wide range of human rights violations. This often occurs in psychiatric institutions through inadequate, degrading, and harmful care and treatment as well as unhygienic and inhuman living condition {WHO, 2006}. You have the absolute right not to be tortured or subjected to treatment or punishment, which is inhuman or degrading. In some instances, the use of restraint–physical or otherwise – may also amount to inhuman or degrading treatment. Examples include tying you to a chair to prevent you from moving, or continually giving you medication to keep you sedated because there is a lack of staff {BIHR, P.14}.

Case Example:
A man sectioned with a mental illness, who also had a heart condition, was given a particular drug as part of a medical trial. He objected and had to be held down to have the drug injected. A court said that this type of situation could give rise to a breach of the right not to be treated in an inhuman or degrading way. The court also said that a patient in these circumstances should have the opportunity to challenge the decision at a hearing where the specialists could be cross-examined.
This hearing may occur before or after the treatment takes place.
{Ibid, P.16}

Should people with mental problem not have the right to object to the treatment they get?
If you are detained under the Mental Health Act this means you are admitted to hospital against your will. Detention under the Mental Health Act is commonly known as ‘being sectioned’. {Ibid}. Which means those with mental disorders lack the capacity to make decisions, so every of such decisions are made on their behalf. So where are the rights of fairness, equality, dignity, and respect?
Stigmatisation and aftercare
Stigma and prejudice contribute to the fundamental abuse of human rights that sadly continue to be seen in some of the outdated large psychiatric institutions and social care homes that remain the mainstay of mental health systems in some Member States.
This abuse manifests itself in many ways; even where community based care dominates, as in much of Western Europe, individuals can be just as neglected and isolated within their communities as they were previously in institutions. Stigma can affect all aspects of life, limiting access to employment and housing, harming, social relationships, and reducing self-esteem. Fear of being labelled as having a mental health problem also reduces the likelihood of individuals with mental health disorders seeking treatment {David, n. d}.

Section 117 of the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) places a joint legal duty on the NHS and social services to provide free aftercare services to people who have been detained under sections 3, 37, 45A, 47 or 48 of the Act. There is no definition of aftercare in the legislation, but services could include crisis-planning, accommodation, help with managing money and services to meet other needs, such as psychological needs. The section 117 duty lasts as long as someone needs aftercare services for their mental health condition. It can only end when both the health and social services authorities have assessed that someone is no longer in need of aftercare services {Rethink, n. d.}.

What are Ethics? And its application to Human Rights and Mental illness
Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It answers the question, "What do I do?" It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavours. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our values and pursue them. Do we pursue our own happiness, or do we sacrifice ourselves to a greater cause? Is that foundation of ethics based on the Bible, or on the very nature of man himself, or neither? {Jeff, et al. 2001}. How does this then apply to human rights and mental illness?
Situation ethics (contextualism) - The right thing to do depends on the situation.
In situation ethics, right and wrong depend upon the situation. There are no universal moral rules or rights - each case is unique and deserves a unique solution. Situation ethics rejects 'prefabricated decisions and prescriptive rules'. It teaches that ethical decisions should follow flexible guidelines rather than absolute rules, and be taken on a case-by-case basis {BBC, 2013}. In situation ethics, the right thing to do to a mentally ill patient is to approach the situation as it is. Either by using force or other means to achieve the end result.

Kantian ethics - duty rather than emotions or end goals.
Kant believed that there was a supreme principle of morality and he referred to it as ‘The Categorical Imperative’ {Kantian ethics, n. d}. This determines what our moral duties are. What then is our moral duty in assisting the mentally ill without infringing on their rights? Utilitarianism ethics- the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill believed that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it. So how do the mentally ill decide when decisions are made on their behalf for the greater good? In response to a student's question regarding choosing a psychiatric specialty, a charge nurse states, "Mentally ill clients need special care. If I were in that position, I would want a caring nurse also." From which ethical framework is the charge nurse operating? The charge nurse is operating from a Christian ethics framework. The imperative demand of Christian ethics is to treat others as moral equals by permitting them to act as we do when they occupy a position similar to ours. Kantianism states that decisions should be made based on moral law and that actions are bound by a sense of moral duty. Utilitarianism holds that decisions should be made focusing on the end result being happiness. Ethical egoism promotes the idea that what is right is good for the individual {Quizlet, 2013}. Word count: 1,534.

American Heritage, 2000. American Heritage dictionary of the English Language: Houghton Mifflin Company {Online}. Available at: <>
{Accessed: 01 April 2013}.

BBC, {2013}. Ethics guide. {Online}. Available at:
<> {Accessed: 30 March 2013}.

British Institute of Human Rights, {2006}.Your Human Rights: A guide for people living with mental health problems. PP.4, 14, 16 {Online}. Available at:
{Accessed: 30 March 2013}.

Daniel W., S., 1992. Attitudes towards the mentally ill: The effects of label and beliefs. {Online}. Available at:<> {Accessed: 30 March 2013}.

David, M., n. d. Countering the stigmatisation and discrimination of people with mental health Problems in Europe. {Research paper} {pdf}.Directorate-General for Health & Consumers. Available at: <> {Accessed: 05 April 2013}.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. {Online} London: Encyclopaedia Britannica {UK} Available at: <>
{Accessed: 30 March 2013}.

Jeff, L., Joseph R., Importance of Philosophy, 2001. Ethics. {Online}. Available at:
{Accessed: 05 April 2013}. Kantian ethics, n. d. {Online}. Available at: <> {Accessed: 30 March 2013}.

Medical News Today, 2013. What Is Mental Health? What Is Mental Disorder? [Online}. Available at: <>
{Accessed: 01 April 2013}.

Mind, 2013. The Human Rights Act. {Online}. Available at:
{Accessed: 01 April 2013}.

Quizlet, 2013. Ethical and Legal Issues in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing {online}. Available at:
{Accessed: 31 March 2013}.

Rethink Mental illness, n. d. Detention under the Mental Health Act. {Factsheet}. {Online}. Available at: <> {Accessed: 01 April 2013}.

Rethink Mental illness, n. d. Section 117 Aftercare. {Factsheet}. {Online}. Available at:
{Accessed: 05 April 2013}.

United Nation, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. {Online}. Available at: <> {Accessed: 30 March 2013}.

Who, 2006. Mental Health and Human Rights Project. {Online}. Available at:
< October 2006.pdf> {Accessed: 30 March 2013}.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Psychopharmacology and Mental Health Counseling

...Psychopharmacology and Mental Health Counseling Psychopharmacology and Mental Health Counseling It seems that the more human development changes, the more there is a demand to understand the role of pharmaceuticals in daily life with regard to mental health. In the article, The Mental Heath Practitioner and psychopharmacology, "a growing challenge for mental health counselors is to understand the potential benefits and limitations of many different types of drugs" (Dickinson & Kaut, 2009 p. 204-205). Incorporating a thorough treatment plan, which might include the use of prescription drugs (Anderson & King, 2004). Recommending or Prescribing Medication It is imperative for today’s mental health counselors to understand their boundaries and roles when it comes to pharmacology and the patient. Having a clear and concise understanding of the benefits as well as the risk is an asset to the client, the prescribing professional, and the client (Anderson & King, 2004). Legal Limitation Counseling professionals that only have reached the master’s level of education do not possess the adequate training or knowledge to suggest medications to clients. This is why it is imperative for a licensed professional administer. A counselor may collaborate with a prescribing professional since he or she has an understanding of circumstances behind the recommendation. Ethical Limitation Consulting with clients as well as various medical......

Words: 1025 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Human Rights

... Human Rights “The Essence of Constitutional Governance“ “Problems can be solved by the same level of thinking that created them.” Introduction * Human: (noun) A member of the Homo sapiens species; a man, woman or child; a person. * Rights: (noun) Things to which you are entitled or allowed; freedoms that are guaranteed. * Human Rights: (noun) The rights you have simply because you are human. * Human rights are commonly understood as "inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being.” Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national and international law. The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world. * Every person has dignity and value. One of the ways that we recognize this fundamental worth is by acknowledging and respecting a person’s human rights. * Human rights are concerned with equality and fairness. They recognize our freedom to make choices about our life and develop our potential as human beings. They are......

Words: 2754 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Treatment for Mental Illness

...Treatment for Mental Illness Stacey Adam English 111- BBH Professor Fernandez Ivy Tech Community College November 12, 2009 Treatment for Mental Illness The word “mental” means mind, and a mental illness is a medical condition that disturbs a person’s thinking, feeling, mood, interactions with others, and daily functioning (Bobgan, 2000). Until recently with all the studies and research on treatment, understanding, and acceptance of mental illnesses, mystery and fear have always surrounded it. A lot of people believe that mental illnesses are rare and “could only happen to someone else.” There are over two hundred classified forms of mental illnesses and many ways to treat them. Schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, bipolar disorder, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic or anxiety disorder, and personality disorder are some of the most common mental illnesses. The signs and symptoms for mental illness vary in every person depending on the possible disorder and because every person’s perception of “normal” is different. Changes in behavior, mood and personality, sadness, crying, anger, anxiety, thoughts of suicide, and withdrawal from family and friends are just a few of the signs and symptoms related to mental illness. It is very difficult to find the exact cause of a mental illness, but research shows that these conditions can be caused from a combination of genetics, biological, psychological, and environmental......

Words: 1170 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mental Health

...Health Promotion Whilst on placement on an adult mental health acute ward, I had the chance to participate in health promoting activities. One health promoting activity I took part in was ensuring a safe and effective discharge of a 33 year old patient who had a diagnosis of disorganised schizophrenia, in order to prevent readmission. Mr. Raja (pseudonym) is divorced and lives alone, lacks in family support and is unemployed. He was admitted onto the ward after he had a relapse because he was not taking his medication. Service users who stop their prescribed medication regime are at a greater risk of experiencing a relapse of their mental illness (Carter et al 2003).In this assignment I will be discussing the health promotion aimed at encouraging concordance to medication regime. I shall discus the definition of health and health promotion and also the model of health promotion that best describes the care that was given to the service user. Mr Raja had other noticeable health issues such as overweight and smoking; however this will not be addressed in this essay. The World Health Organisation (WHO) describes health as a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO 2009). The constitution goes on to explain that the highest achievable standard of health is one of the basic rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, and political belief, economic or social condition (WHO......

Words: 2726 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Health as a Human Right

...Health as a Human Right Kathryn Dorley University of New England Health as a Human right to me is defined as a right and not a privilege. There are many Americans who struggle daily with healthcare. Nearly 46 million Americans are uninsured (Jenkins, 2008). Millions more are unable to meet their medical expenses despite having insurance (Jenkins, 2008). Research conducted in 2007 shows that in a survey 89 % of Americans agreed that healthcare should be considered a human right (Jenkins, 2008). Through college experience, work experience, and research, I have gained a better understanding overtime of Health as a Human Right. Growing up my understanding of health, was just going to the doctors and getting a checkup to see if I was “healthy”. My first experience I can remember knowing health was so much more than a simple cold was when my Grandmother was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s; I was 11. I never fully understood the disease until high school when I did my senior project on what it was and how it affected the body. At this point I assumed Health was just diseases that affected the body and could be cured with medicine or treatment. This was because I formed my parent’s opinion. Health in high school was more geared towards physical rather than mental. Freshman year in college I started to formulate my own opinions and understanding on the concept of health and how it is all encompassing. I began to learn that health was so much more than a cold......

Words: 1443 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Human Rights

...Human rights Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Article 2: Right to Life 1. Everyone's right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which this penalty is provided for by law.  As well as prohibiting the state from taking your life, Article 2 also requires the state to protect your right to life by having in place proper and adequate criminal sanctions to punish those who take your life intentionally. Failure by the state to properly investigate a suspected murder, or to prosecute the suspected murderer, may amount to a breach of the right to life of the victim.  In certain limited cases, Article 2 may impose a duty on the state to take positive steps to protect your life where it is being threatened. So where there is an environmental hazard that poses a very high risk to the life of the people living nearby, the state may have a duty to provide information about that hazard to enable the people to take steps to protect themselves and their families. In the case of Osman v UK, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found......

Words: 1967 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Risks of Mental Health Drugs

...Risks of Mental Health Drugs for Our Youth Rapa Barsel Prof. Stephen Webber ENG 215048VA016-1142-001 February 15, 2014   Although there is a considerable amount of children with mental health disorders, more research and stricter regulations are necessary to investigate the diagnoses and the overuse of prescribing mental health drugs to our children. In our current age of advanced technology, medicine is also advancing. Although, these advances can detect many illnesses earlier on, they may not be an accurate diagnosis for minors. Thousands of children are prescribed antipsychotic drugs without proper medical assessments. I have a two and half year old son and I would not be willing to put him on any mental health drug unless I was absolutely certain it was necessary. These mental health drugs can cause suicidal thinking and behavior. It can also lead to an altered personality, or lack thereof. These drugs can be harmful to brain and physical development in younger children. According to the U.S. Surgeon General (2000), as many as 1 in 10 American children and adolescents a year have “significant functional impairment” as a result of a mental health disorder. The trends in administering psychotropic medication to young children are on a rise in the U.S. Since psychotropic medications are substances that affect brain chemicals related to mood and behavior (NIMH, 2009). These trends have caused a great deal of debate. All parties without an economic agenda agree...

Words: 2127 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Mental Health Treatment

...Treatment of Mental Health: Institutionalism versus Community Care Sandra L Pauwels Saint Leo University Treatment of Mental Health: Institutionalism versus Community Care For many centuries people with mental illness have been shunned and avoided as if they had the plague. Many view the mentally ill as frightening and horrifying individuals. Our treatment of them has often reflected current or prevailing public sentiment of them. In 400 B.C., Hippocrates viewed people with mental illness as having a physiology of “dis-ease”, or, rather, an illness (Randy MacLowry, 1999-2002). Hippocrates’ position was definitely not the popular opinion. The opinion held by the general population was that mental illness was a punishment for displeasing the Gods. From the beginning in the Middle Ages, locking our mentally ill individuals away from society was common. Because we feared the mentally ill, they were considered to be outcasts of society. Some were even executed as witches in the early days of our country. (Micah Steele, 2009). It was believed that the mentally ill were possessed by demons or witches. The mentally ill were shunned, banished, or locked away because they were feared. Because people believed that mental illness could be “caught” from those who were afflicted. In the 1980’s focus shifted from long term facilities that locked up the mentally ill to community mental health centers. It was hoped that treating individuals within the community would help people......

Words: 1383 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Mental Health Health

...Assignment Each student will present a written case study of a selected patient with schizophrenia and provide a critical evaluation of the assessment, treatment and management of the patient utilizing relevant research evidence. The work should include the following areas: 1. A critical analysis of the assessment and diagnostic process 2. A critical analysis of the management/ rehabilitation-medical, nursing and other management 3. Appropriate referencing Methodology A random method was used to select the patient for this study. The patient was chosen from a cohort of patients on a psychiatric ward. The aim was to critique the assessment, treatment and management of a patient medically diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Various sources of information were utilized in the collection of information for this project. A research of this caliber demands that sources of information are peer reviewed current and of scholarly sources. Therefore it was with this in mind that the information was collected using internet medical portals, journal article and appropriate text books with a wide variety of information on the topic of choice. The patient’s docket was also used because it is a primary source of information about the management of the condition. Introduction Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by impaired communication with loss of contact with reality and deterioration from previous level of functioning at work,......

Words: 3236 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Mental Health

...Mental health is known as the psychological well being and satisfactory adjustment to society and to the ordinary demands of life. Mental health is linked to disorders that are generally characterized by dysregulation (impairment of a physiological regulatory mechanism) of mood, thought, and/or behavior (CDC Mental Illness). When people hear that a person has a mental illness they tend to treat them as if they have a disease. People with mental illnesses are treated like outcast of society. This stigma, whish is defined as a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person; needs to be addressed in the American society. If people are afraid to speak out about the possibility of having mental illnesses than they will never be treated for them. Mental illnesses can lead tragedies like suicides or homicides, which could have been prevented with the right treatments and medications. According to the National Institute of Mental Health back in 2012 there was an estimated 43.7 million adults with a mental illness the equivalent of 18.6 percent United States adults. In the same year there were an estimated 9.6 million adults with a serious mental illness the equivalent to 4.1 percent of United States adults (National Institute of Mental Health). This is a large percent of American citizens with a mental illness. Imagine how many citizens there is that we do not know about because they do not have the resources for help or they are embarrassed to......

Words: 1130 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Human Rights

...Human Rights Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever ours nationality, ethnic origin, religion, sex, place of residence, and any other status. Humans are all equally entitled to the human rights without discrimination. These rights are interrelated, indivisible and interdependent. All humans have the rights of freedom to live in the society without abandon and restriction to all resources necessary for a human life. It would be a violation of any human rights when a legal entitled right is deliberately or intentionally taken from a human. Humans should be treated equally to get benefit and have access to their own legal rights which are entitled for. Human rights violence are occurring all over the world; killing, wild torturing, illegal jailing, depriving from education and taking the right of freedom to select a life partner by his/her are few common human rights violations examples. To have a better picture of these human rights violations one must looks on the history that how people are affected and how they could be prevented of such human rights violation, if government and other human rights agencies have taken steps against these violation on the time manner. Only in year 2007, statistic shows that 6,500 people were died due to the arm conflicts in Afghanistan, most of them were civilians not involved in fighting, hundred of them were died in suicide attacks by insurgents. Barbaric killings of more than1260 individuals by police in......

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mental Health Policy

... Social Policy: Texas Mental Health Elizabeth Awad University of Texas at Arlington Social Policy: Texas Mental Health Historical Background A recent change in the Texas law was passed for the Code of Criminal Procedure under the 84th Legislature, Under Texas Law Article 46B.102. CIVIL COMMITMENT HEARING: MENTAL ILLNESS is covered when (a) the court determines that the defendant may be a victim of mental illness, then the court shall hold a hearing to determine whether the defendant should be court-ordered by the state of Texas to mental health services under Subtitle C, Title 7, Health and Safety Code. And (b) Proceedings from the committed defendant determine that they should be court ordered mental health services that are governed by Subtitle C, Title 7, Health and Safety Code. “Mental Health does not respect zip codes, mental health affects everybody and formed the Texas State of Mind to ensure that Texans can have access to mental health help when they need it” states Tom Luce, Chief Executive Officer of the Meadows Mental Health Policy Institute who decided to advocate for court ordered and non-court ordered state funded mental health treatment for all Texans (Texas State of Mind., 2015, March 24). Texas Mental Health has been a longstanding concern for Texans and Americans altogether. In 2014, The Meadows Mental Health Policy Institute initiated to help serve Texans. Back in July and August of 2012, The Meadows conducted a quantitative research project to its......

Words: 1324 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Health - a Basic Human Right be considered a basic human right? Over the past century, the term "health" has been redefined over and over to come to a more exact and appropriate meaning so that consensus can be reached. The World Health Organization came up with its first definition of health, as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."(p. 26) However, many people criticized and questioned the words "complete", "mental", "social", "disease", "infirmity" and their meanings. Daniel Callahan eventually proposed a short yet solid statement on the definition of health, as "a state of physical well-being."(p.66). Why has so much effort been made to determine a proper definition of health? Because it is important to us. Health is an essential aspect of our lives and its significance cannot be minimized. Therefore, it is natural for humans to pursue good health. But consequentially, does that give humans the right to healthcare? According to the WHO Constitution, "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being…" In order to attain that standard however, healthcare services are required. Services such as treatment, diagnosis, and prevention provided by medical practitioners play a vital role in people's well-being. One might say that it is their responsibility but on what grounds? In this paper, I argue that healthcare is not a basic human right because for one,......

Words: 1530 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Skills and Characteristics of a Mental Health Human Services Worker

...growing better than the flowers on the right side of the flowerbed. There is a dog that constantly pees on the left side of the flowerbed. The left side of the flowerbed receives more sunlight than the right side. Problem: The plants on the right side of the flowerbed are not growing as well as the flowers on the left side of the flowerbed Hypothesis One: Because the left side of the flowerbed receives more sun light, the flowers grow better on that side. Hypothesis Two: The flowers on the left side grow better than the right side because of the sunlight and dog pee combination. Experiment: Collect samples of the soil from both sides of the flowerbed. Test the soil for nutrients. Note the amount of time the flowers on each side of the flowerbed receives sunlight. Water the flowerbed as usual. Note how often the dog pees on the flowerbed. Place some of the flowers that are on the right side of the flowerbed in another container using the same soil they are growing in and put on the left side of the flowerbed so that they receive the same amount of sunlight as the plants that are growing well. Observation of Experiment: The results from the soil sample testing for nutrients revealed that there are elevated levels of nitrogen in the soil on the left side of the flower bed. The amount of time the left side receives sunlight vs. the sunlight the right side of the flower bed is 3......

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mental Health

...Work 30 (2008) 311–316 IOS Press 311 Disclosure of mental health Kathy Hatchard∗ Hatchard Rehabilitation, Penticton, British Columbia, Canada Abstract. As today’s workplaces strive toward a climate of inclusiveness for persons with disabilities, much work remains for employers in developing a process to achieve this ideal. While survivors of mental illness are encouraged to disclose related concerns to their employer, such sharing of personal information remains daunting. Similarly, employers attempting to assist the process are often awed by the extent of collaborations involved in integrating employees with mental health issues back to work as well as concern about compliance with human rights legislation. Needed accommodations in terms of approach to the work itself are often simple; however substantiating the need for adjustments is more complex. This case study introduces a model to support the development of shared goals and shared understandings for return to work (RTW) among workers with mental health concerns, employers, co-workers and therapists. The model of occupational competence is used as a basis to guide dialogue, identify challenges and generate solutions that take into consideration a worker’s preferences, sensitivities, culture and capacities in relationship to the occupational demands in a given workplace environment. A case study is used to demonstrate the potential utility of the model in assisting stakeholders to strengthen collaborations and...

Words: 4133 - Pages: 17